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1 (Photo: CCTV-9, July 28, 2009) EFL Teacher Education 09: Strategic Interaction - ST

2 Strategies Success (Photo: China Daily, July 28, 2009)

3 Strategic interaction in the Senior EFL classroom: Teacher’s perspectives 高中英语课堂策略互动:教师视角 外语研修部 黄军生 August 20, 2009

4 Biodata Research 1. Interactive integration: English language learning strategies, styles and tasks at the senior secondary level in China (at the University of Hong Kong, August 2004 – October 2008) 2. Understanding successful university students’ English learning strategy use (at the University of Hong Kong, December 2007 onward) Research interests Second language acquisition (SLA), specifically, language learner knowledge, strategies and self-regulation Contact at: Tel.

5 Orientation …

6 Today ’ s topics: Rationale for strategic interaction Understanding language learning strategies Exploring the interactive integration: Learning strategies in the ECS Learning strategies integrated in textbooks Learner knowledge & strategy use Strategies as goal-driven actions Strategies as task-focused actions Strategies as situated actions Conclusion

7 Elements involved in today’s seminar: Theme: Strategic interaction Elements: Language learning strategy (LLS) theories The English Curriculum Standards (ECS) (MOE, 2001, 2003) Research data Textbook analyses My interpretations based on research, practice, and experience My suggestions for the Junior EFL instruction

8 A story of a strategic learner (A successful English learner) Initial stage: “Interest is my best teacher.” (The learner recalled) “Compared with Chinese, English is in reverse order.” (Father) Junior: A chant taught in his first English lesson: “One two three four five, once I caught a fish alive. Three four five six seven, but this fish slipped off my hand.” (Teacher) Findings: (1) Not always in reverse order; (2) Rhymes (e.g., five, alive); (3) Fun and interesting like Chinese.

9 Strategies used by the teacher and the student: Imitating: e.g., “It’s none of your business. This is a private conversation!” Repeating: (“… until the teacher smiled.”) Making Chinese work for English learning: “Chinese and English are the same at the deepest level” Chinese can be used “as a bridge” (Learner) Inducing grammar: e.g., Xiao Ming is driving a car. (“is driving” is the grammar) Guessing: “Guessing is like playing a jigsaw game.” (Learner) Taking the “first risk”: Challenging an expert interpreter from an oil company: “What’s this in English?” (Pointing to a mirror on the wall) “Oh, it is a mirror.”

10 Senior: Strategies used by the teacher and the student: ( Knowledge-based learning ) Taking notes: (T wrote all language points on the board; S made a “grammar book” by pooling together all the notes); Studying grammar: e.g., The T’s “12-verb rule” (5 “see” – 2 “hear” – 1 “feel” + “let, make, have, and help”); Summarizing: “Adding bits and pieces to build up my own English mansion.” Setting grammatical questions: “Grammar is dead, but language is alive.” (T) Understanding changes in English: “English changes at 2 levels: words and sentences.” (The learner) Understanding grammar: e.g., the principle of simplification; “ A feel for the language – the ability to internalize grammar into a habit ”; “The essential difference between Chinese and English is grammar, which reflects the differences in thinking and cultures.” (Learner) Imitating: “A good English learner is a smart imitator.” “I learned English in the way of studying science and technology.”

11 Tertiary: Strategies used by the learner & his peers (Self-access study; the way to G & T – CET4&6, GRE, TOEFL) Memorizing vocabulary in any possible ways: - Word formation: 500 roots/affixes/stems - Keyword strategies: e.g., conundrum “ 可难琢磨 ”; issue 问题难不倒 “ 一休 ”; - Using an English dictionary (to understand accurate meanings) - Memorizing the “Red Book” (“Red Book” + MP3) - Listening to MP3 English corner (to improve oral English greatly): “Failure in the dorm; success in the English corner.” Topic discussions English debates Creating an environment for English learning Using podcast to “sit in” university seminars in the U.S. “I’m honored to be given a nickname, Mr. Dictionary.”

12 The story tells us that … - the learner has his own story of strategy use for English learning. - he uses strategies at different stages (Junior, Senior, and Tertiary) - his learning strategies involve not only actions but also knowledge and beliefs about himself and his learning process. - his story of strategy use is a mental journey situated in particular learning cultures and communities and related to others. - he starts with interest, sustains progress through strategy use, and achieves the self-regulation, … … and his story will go on and on …

13 1. Rationale for strategic interaction An example for strategic interaction Stick with your friends through thick and thin (Key to success; SEFC, B3, U11, p.91) T: This is an interesting idiom, isn’t it? Who can explain it? (Asking questions) S1: May I say it in Chinese? (Asking for permission) T: OK. Go ahead, please. S1: 与朋友患难与共。 A ‘stick’ is a piece of wood. It’s straight, pushing continuously through to the bottom. So it means ‘continue to stay’. (Association: a process of metaphorical cognition)

14 T: A good explanation! What about ‘through thick and thin’? S1: Sorry, I know it’s an idiom, but I have no idea how it works in this sentence. (Asking for clarification) T: OK, … ‘thick and thin’ implies both good and bad times. When you stay with your friends through both good and bad times, how can you describe the friendship? (Paraphrase) (Association) S1: A true friend! T: Yes, we can say you are good/true/real/faithful friends, as a saying goes, ‘A friend in need is a friend indeed’ 患难朋友才是真 正朋友.” (Collocation) (Quotation) (Oral translation) (Based on Huang, 2008: 196)

15 A question for discussion: Do you have any other interpretations for the classroom interplay between the teacher and the student?

16 The strategic interaction makes teaching & learning more meaningful and enjoyable: facilitating classroom communication; enabling Ss to learn how to learn and use English; allowing Ss to become more self-directed; making Ss undertake more responsibilities for learning; adding to Ss’ knowledge and skills; expanding the role of teachers (e.g., co-constructor, cooperator, participant, facilitator, catalyst, counselor, evaluator, mediator …); Why? - Contributing to communicative competence

17 Communicative competence The ability to make language relevant to the context and, in turn, sustain the context through language use (Hymes, 1971, 1972).

18 Four components of communicative competence Possibility – the ability to produce grammatical sentences; Feasibility – the sentences can be decoded by the human brain; Appropriateness – the ability to use correct language forms in a specific sociocultural context; Performance – the fact that the utterance is completed (Hymes, 1971)

19 Another model: Grammatical competence What Chomsky (1957) calls “linguistic competence”; Sociolinguistic competence An understanding of the social context in communication; Discourse competence The ability to achieve cohesion in form and coherence in thought; Strategic competence The ability to use strategies to compensate for limited language knowledge. (Canale & Swain, 1980; Canale, 1983)

20 Strategic interaction Human interaction, in essence, is strategic interaction, which starts with the premise that “learning takes place only when the internal mind can be linked to the external world.” (Di Pietro, 1987: 10) Strategic interaction is a communicative and learner- centered approach to language teaching and learning that recognizes that students’ learning is under their own control (Wenden, 1993: 568)

21 2. Understanding learning strategies Good language learner (GLL) studies Successful learners’ strategic approaches to language tasks could provide teachers with guidance in transferring them to less successful learners (Rubin, 1975; Stern, 1975; Naiman et al., 1978).

22 7 major GLL strategies An active task approach; An awareness of learning styles and strategies; Willingness to use or practice the language; A concern for language form; A concern for meaning; Monitoring of the learning process; Management of emotions. (Based on Rubin, 1975; Stern, 1975; Naiman et al., 1978)

23 A key question A key question Does strategy use result in learning or does learning increase learners’ ability to employ more strategies? (Ellis, 1997) ?

24 Defining learning strategies Defining learning strategies Definition 1: as “specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self- directed, more effective, and more transferable to new situations.” (Oxford, 1990: 8) Definition 2: as “complex procedures that individuals apply to tasks; consequently, they may be represented as procedural knowledge which may be acquired through cognitive, associative, and autonomous stages of learning.” (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990: 52)

25 Definition 3: as “(1) language learning behaviors learners actually engage in to learn and regulate the learning of a second language; (2) what learners know about the strategies they use …; (3) what learners know about aspects of their language learning …” (Wenden, 1987: 6-7) Definition 4: as “actions and steps taken by students to enhance their learning and development.” (MOE, 2001: 23; 2003: 18)

26 Main characteristics of LLS Main characteristics of LLS Both actions and knowledge/beliefs; Steps taken by Ss to enhance learning; Both general and specific approaches; ( Strategies, tactics or techniques ) Both direct and indirect procedures; Goal- and problem-orientated ( Proficiency in L2; 10 words a day; word lists / dictionary use ) Task- and context-dependent;

27 Classifications Oxford (1990)O’Malley & Chamot (1990)ECS (MOE, 2001, 2003) Memory strategiesCognitive strategies Resource strategies Metacognitive strategies Controlling strategies Social strategiesSocial/affective strategies Affective strategies Compensation strategiesCommunication strategies

28 Memory strategies (for storing and retrieving information) e.g., using phonological rules; using word lists Cognitive strategies (for reasoning, analyzing, summarizing, & practicing) e.g., rehearsal; elaboration Compensation strategies (for overcoming limitations in knowledge) e.g., guessing; gestures; code-switching Metacognitive strategies (for organizing and evaluating learning) e.g., goal-setting; attention; monitoring while performing a task Affective strategies (for managing emotions and attitudes) e.g., relaxation; reward Social strategies (for learning with others) e.g., asking for correction; asking for slowness/repetition; self-talk Resource strategies (for obtaining resources needed in learning) e.g., using resource and reference books; using audio-video materials

29 A question for discussion: Should we overtly teach our students learning strategies in our classroom instruction? Why?

30 My interpretation: “Strategy instruction can be a useful way in terms of the strategic interaction between teachers and students.”

31 3. Exploring interactive integration Learning strategies in the ECS Overall ECS goal: “To develop students’ comprehensive competence of language use.” (MOE, 2001; 2003)

32 Five specific objectives: Language knowledge: Pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, functions, & topics; Language skills: Listening, speaking, reading, & writing; Learning strategies: Cognitive, controlling, communicative, & resource strategies; Cultural awareness: Cultural knowledge and cross-cultural communication; Affective attitudes: Interest and motivation, confidence and consistency, cooperation,and international outlook;

33 EFL teachers’ training needs (Huang, 2009) No.ECS ObjectivesMeanSD% Agree/Strongly agree (N = 111) N17aLanguage knowledge % N17bLanguage skills % N17cLearning strategies % N17dCultural awareness % N17eAffective attitudes %

34 A question for discussion: To what extent are these data presented above true of you?

35 My interpretation: “EFL teachers’ training needs are multidimensional, going beyond the traditional “double-bases” to involve the new innovations of learning strategies, cultural awareness and affective attitudes in the ECS.”

36 The strategy list in the ECS: Level-5 strategy list (29 items): Cognitive strategies (11 items); Controlling strategies (8 items); Communicative strategies (6 items); Resource strategies (4 items) (MOE, 2001: 24)

37 Level-8 strategy list (18 items): Cognitive strategies (6 items); Controlling strategies (6 items); Communicative strategies (5 items); Resource strategies (1 item) (MOE, 2001: 25)

38 Learning strategies integrated in textbooks Strategies in NSEFC series (PEP) Embedded in the textbook series Related to the learning goals in the unit Integrated with the text e.g. Developing cultural understanding (by means of going to a museum and looking at some real cultural relics) (Cultural relics, U1, SB2) Presented in terms of “learning tips” Inserted in the given task e.g. Taking notes (Task: Organizing an informal class debate) (Cultural relics, U1, SB2) Associated with learner difficulties e.g. Using body language (to overcome language limitations in communication) (Body language, U4, SB4)

39 My interpretation: “Learning strategies emerge from learning goals, learner needs and difficulties, task performance, and varying situations.”

40 Eight high-use strategies in the SILL (Huang, 2008: 95; N = 305) ItemBrief StatementMeanSDRank MEM05Use phonological rules COM29Use synonyms AFF42Notice tension COG10Say or write new words several times MET33Find out how to learn better COG19Look for similar words in my native language COM24Guess the unknown SOC45Ask for slowness or repetition

41 Thirteen low-use strategies in the SILL (Huang, 2008: 96; N = 305) ItemBrief StatementMeanSDRank MEM03Connect sounds and images to remember words MEM06Use word lists or flashcards MEM07Act out words physically MEM09Remember new words by location on the page COG14Start conversations in English COG16Read for pleasure COG17Write notes, messages, or letters in English COM25Use gestures COM26Make up new words MET35Look for conversation partners AFF43Write a learning diary AFF44Talk about feelings SOC47Practice with others

42 Distribution of three-level strategy users (Huang, 2008: 97; N = 305)

43 Learner knowledge & strategy use A case of the use of the “self-talk” strategy: FGP8: “Whenever I come back from school, I lock myself in my room starting self-study. Studying alone has both advantages and disadvantages. It means that you are yourself completely. Nobody knows the mistakes you make. Nobody discusses questions with you. You may feel dull and bored. However, studying alone, I enjoy a quiet place, where I can do whatever I like to (laughing), and try whatever I think. For instance, I can make up an English story in my mind, but I may not have enough courage to say it out in public. But when I stay alone, I can say it out baldly to my ‘audience’ of dolls, tables, and chairs. I like literature and tried to make up stories in English. I moved tables and chairs over as my audience, and I was the speaker, speaking to them. I’m the only child in my family, having nobody and nothing to play with. In so doing, I just treat it as a recreation as well.” (Huang, 2008: 127)

44 Rosa’s knowledge and strategy use Knowledge & beliefsStrategy use As we can see, English native speakers pay less attention to grammar in their daily lives... However, our teachers and students show a great deal of concern for it (grammar). Why? Because it is chiefly tested in exams. Now we still want to strive for prospects of success through exams. (Huang, 2008: 149) “Exercise-stuffed methods” “A good memory is not as reliable as a broken pen.”Note-taking strategy Finding errors, I try to classify them, making clear why I get them wrong: either in thinking or in types … it’s also possible to be wrong in the usage of a phrase or in grammar. I mark, copy, and finally make them an error- notebook. I’ll use it in the future revision. (Huang, 2008: 150) Error-notebook making “Gain the new knowledge by reviewing the old” (Confucius, The Analects) Reviewing

45 Strategies as goal-driven actions What goal? - The grade-getting goal: Terms marked in the discourse: “grades”, “marks”, “scores”; “exams”, “tests”, “quizzes”, “dictations (as a quiz)”, “mock tests” … “I’m learning English for the sake of exams.” (Huang, 2008: 128)

46 Test-taking strategies Question-focused reading Question-focused listening Taking practice tests beforehand Rule out irrelevant choices Guessing the unknown Imitating the model compositions (Huang, 2008: 129)

47 Impact of grade-getting goal on strategies Strategy changes: e.g., Less risk-taking Unwilling to ask for help from the teacher Unwilling to ask questions for clarification Why? The teacher is too grade-centered (FGP2) --- (Goal) I got lower marks (FGP1) --- (Goal) The lower scores, the weaker self-confidence (FGP7) --- (Affective) Worry about making errors (FGP7) --- (Affective & ability) Classmates’ laugh at me (FGP3) --- (Social) I’d like to save face for myself (FGP47) --- (Social) No enough words to express ideas (FGP6) --- (Ability) (Huang, 2008: )

48 Strategies as task-focused actions The same strategy for different tasks Strategy: Guess meanings from the context Tasks: Reading comprehension Listening comprehension Cloze (Huang, 2008: 132)

49 Different strategies for the same task Task goal setting & strategy use for reading comprehension: StudentTask goal settingStrategy use FGP8To understand the meanings of words, sentences, paragraphs, and the text Bottom-up reading approaches: Figure out sounds – words – phrases – sentences – paragraphs – passage; FGP25To know about Western culturesUnderstand different text forms (genres), such as stories, scientific articles, news reports, advertisements, biographies, etc., as reflections of Western cultures (the strategy transferred from Chinese learning); FGP38To improve reading abilityScan for the information needed; Skim for general ideas; Intensive reading; FGP46To know what the passage tells us aboutPreview the headings; Mark key points and key words; Guess meanings from the context; Use dictionaries after reading; (Huang, 2008: 131)

50 Strategies for non-communicative exercises Example: Strategies for grammar exercises: Memory: Memorize grammar rules Resource:Use grammar/reference books Cognitive: Learn grammar through teachers’ instruction Learn grammar through peer discussions Understand grammar by reading model sentences Consolidate knowledge by doing exercises Learn grammar by reading and accumulation Note-taking Analyze and use grammar knowledge Metacognitive: Find out weaknesses and missing points in learning (Huang, 2008: 133)

51 Strategies for communicative tasks Example: Strategies for role play: Functional practice strategies: Act out words Practice oral English Find as many ways as possible to use English Social:Ask for help from the teacher Ask for error correction (Huang, 2008: 133)

52 Strategies as situated actions Strategic interaction between teachers and students The teacher’s instructional impact Lena’s strategy use T’s teaching method of sentence makingUsing new words in a sentence T strictly required students to take notes in classNote-taking T recommended CCTV9 for listening practiceWatching English TV programs T’s instruction of language pointsTrying to find patterns in English Feeling anxious and nervous in T’s classesRelaxing when fearful T asked me questions almost every lessonNoticing tension Asking T and peers for help with unknownAsking for help from others Collecting some questions to ask T for helpAsking for clarification or verification Attending T’s elective courses on English cultureLearning about L2 culture Trying to be more active in T’s lessonsUsing reference books

53 Lena never concealed her fondness for the teacher, saying, “Love the teacher, and believe in the way she teaches.” (Huang, 2008: 262)

54 Another student’s comments on her teacher’s methods FGP2: “Our teacher always teaches us in the same way: teaching new words and expressions, explaining the text, and then listening to the text recording, always the same, rarely asking us to perform actively in class. In my impression, everything could be smoothed out in class in the same way – memorizing! Dwelling so much on grammar is but useless. We don’t have that much time for it. We’ve got piles and piles of assignments to do in maths, physics, and chemistry every day. Plus English vocabulary, we really can’t spare time for reading grammar. From my point of view, just no need for teachers to talk that much about grammar. More examples are welcome, and it’s easier for us to understand examples.” (Huang, 2008: 133)

55 Strategic interaction among students FGP39: “My partner’s impact on me was so great that the learning methods used by us were always almost similar. In particular, both of us seemed to take notes in class in similar ways.” (Huang, 2008: 134)

56 In class, Lena tried to take every possible opportunity to listen to other students. Below, she explained the rationale: “They speak English only in class. Listening to others, I follow them and speak to myself. This is equally the same as listening to myself once again, so as to check where is my weakness.” (Huang, 2008: 261)

57 Reading aloud in a dormitory learning community : FGP2: “Speaking of reading aloud, to be honest, I like that pleasant feeling of reading texts aloud very much. Every time we felt utterly exhausted from working on maths, physics and chemistry, we always put all our hopes for refreshing ourselves on our chorus recitation next morning though we all slept very late tired at midnight. Next morning, all of our 8 roommates had a lot fun to recite English or Chinese texts together, fighting to see who was able to read loudest and most fluently, […] until hoarse voices …” (Huang, 2008: 135)

58 Strategic interaction between family and students FGP6: “I’m always feeling I haven’t learned enough vocabulary to express myself whenever I stand up to speak English. I’m just afraid of making mistakes.” FGP3: “Oh, that’s not my case. I’ve never been afraid of making errors. This might be attributed to my family education practice. My mum always said to me that ‘your classmates might laugh at your English mistakes you’ve potentially made when you stand up to speak English. However, if you were reluctant to stand up, you would have already completely been defeated by yourself’ …” (Huang, 2008: 135)

59 Conclusion (1) Learning strategies are integrated into the ECS as a curriculum goal, and strategy use contributes to the development of students’ comprehensive competence of language use. (Strategic interaction with the curriculum) (2) Learning strategies are explicitly or implicitly embedded in different textbook series, and strategy use makes classroom teaching and learning more meaningful and enjoyable. (Strategic interaction with textbooks)

60 (3) Strategy use is based on the learner’s knowledge and beliefs, and in turn enhances the development of knowledge and skills. (Strategic interaction within the learner) (4) Strategy use is motivated by learning goals, aiming to achieve learning goals in the process of English teaching and learning. (Strategic interaction with learning goals)

61 (5) Learning strategies are the learner’s specific approaches to L2 tasks in particular situations, and the nature of tasks has crucial impact on strategy choice and use. (Strategic interaction with learning tasks) (6) Strategic interaction occurs between teachers and students, students and their peers, and students and their family members in ever-changing contexts. (Strategic interaction with others)

62 A quotation “Studying hard is not the same thing as studying smart.” (Weinstein & Hume, 1998: 67-68).

63 Thank you!!!

64 References Canale, M. (1983). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In J. Richards & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Language and Communication. (pp. 2-27). London: Longman. Canale, M. & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1 (1), Di Pietro, R. J. (1987). Strategic Interaction: Learning Languages through Scenarios. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ellis, R. (1997). Second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Greenlaw, J., & Wang, D. (Eds.). ( ). Project English. Changsha: Hunan Education Press. Huang, J. S. (2008). Interactive integration: English language learning strategies, styles, and tasks in a school in Fujian. Unpublished PhD thesis, Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong. Hymes, D. (1971). On communicative competence. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence. In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics (pp ). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. Naiman, N., Frohlich, M., Stern, H. H. & Todesco, A. (1978). The Good Language Learner (Research in Education Series 7). Toronto, Ontario: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) Press. Nunan, D. (2005). Go for it! Beijing: The People’s Education Press. O’Malley, J. M. & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

65 Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publishers. Rubin, J. (1975). What the "good language learner" can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9 (1), Stern, H.H. (1975). What can we learn from the good language learner? Canadian Modern Language Review, 31 (4), Weinstein, C. E., & Hume, L. M. (1998). Study Strategies for Lifelong Learning. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association. Wenden, A. L. (1987). Conceptual background and utility. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 3–13). New York: Prentice Hall. 教育部( MOE ),( 2001 ),《英语课程标准(实验稿)》,北京:北京师范大学出版社。 教育部( MOE ),( 2003 ),《普通高中英语课程标准(实验)》,北京:人民教育出版社。

66 For further reading 中小学英语教师发展丛书 (SEAMEO RELC PORTFOLIO SERIES): Chandrasegaran, A. (2002). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 7: Intervening to help in the writing process. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 《写作过程中的教师介入》 Cotterall, S., & Reinders, H. (2004). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 12: Learner strategies: A guide for teachers. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 《学习者策略教师指南》 Farrell, T. S. C. (2002). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 6: Planning lessons for a reading class. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 《阅读课的设计》 Field, M. L. (2003). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 10: Text features and reading comprehension. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 《文本特征与阅读理解》 Goh, C. C. M. (2002). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 4: Teaching listening in the language classroom. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 《语言课堂中的听力教学》 Hadley, G. (2003). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 8: Action research in action. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 《教师行动研究案例》 Lewis, M. (2002). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 1: Giving feedback in language classes. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 《语言教学中的反馈》 McKay, S. L. (2002). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 3: The reflective teacher: A guide to classroom research. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 《反思型教师》

67 Richards, J. C. (2005). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 13: Communicative language teaching today. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 《交际语言教学的新发展》 Tomlinson, B., & Masuhara, H. (2004). SEAMEO RELC portfolio series 11: Developing language course materials. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. 《语言教材的开发、利用与评价》

68 Questions & answers ?

69 A proposed topic for next seminar Vocabulary myths and vocabulary learning strategies ?

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