Presentation on theme: "Grade 6 Lesson #2 TAKS TM READING. Cause and Effect 2 Fill in the chart with information from the passage. Television The invention of the television."— Presentation transcript:
Grade 6 Lesson #2 TAKS TM READING
Cause and Effect 2 Fill in the chart with information from the passage. Television The invention of the television changed the world in many important ways. Television has given people the opportunity to see and hear people, places, and events from around the world. Over 98 percent of all U.S. homes have a television. Television is now an important from of communication, allowing people instant access to current events.
Cause and Effect 3 Television does not have just one inventor. In the 1800s, an Italian inventor named Marconi discovered how to send signals through the air as electromagnetic waves. His invention was the radio. This set the stage for the invention of television. In the early 1900s, a young American named Philo Farnsworth began experimenting. He had an idea to send pictures as well as sound through the air. This idea resulted in the invention of the electronic television camera.
Cause and Effect 4 About the same time, an American scientist named Vladimir Zworykin invented the iconoscope and the kinescope. The iconoscope was a television camera. The kinescope was a picture tube to receive and show the pictures. In 1929, Zworykin made the first television system. But how does a television work? The picture you see is the result of three steps. First, light and sound waves are changed into electronic signals. The light and sound waves come from the scene that is being televised. Next, these electronic signals are passed through the air to be revived by individual television sets. Last, the television set unscrambles the signals. In this way, a picture is “moved” from the original scene to your television set.
Cause and Effect 5 These three steps happen because light and sound waves can be made into electronic signals. Light waves are picked up and changed into electronic signals by a camera. Sound waves are picked up and changed into electronic signals by a microphone. The camera signals are called video, and the microphone signals are called audio. To produce electric signals in color, certain color signals are added to the video. Three primary colors of light – red, blue, and green – are used to produce pictures in color. With the advent of digital technology, televisions have wider screens and pictures that are even clearer.
Cause and Effect 6 CauseEffect 1)Television pictures appear in color. A camera picks up light waves.2) Vladimir Zworykin invents the iconoscope and the kinescope. 3) 4)The electronic television camera is invented. 5)People can see and hear people, places, and events from around the world. Over 98 percent of all U.S. homes have a television.6) 7)Electronic signals are received by television sets. Marconi invents the radio.8) 9)A picture is “moved” from the original scene to a television set. Digital technology is becoming readily available.10)
Comprehension Go, Man, Go! They stretched in midfield, preparing for the morning’s events. Theo, dressed in the red and white of his school, worked alongside the rest of the seventeen athletes who had come to the meet from Weston Middle School. Theo was hardworking, and he had trained well. Since the snow thawed in early March, he had kept his disciplined regiments of warm-up, long run, sprints, and cooldown. As the weeks passed, he settled into a daily four-mile run. The first few times were painful. His side ached, his calves tightened, his right knee flared, and his forehead burned. On those nights, he would flop down on his bed and sleep soundly without even undressing. 7
Comprehension Now, on this warm and bright May morning, it was time to prove his worth, and Theo was very nervous. Twenty-two schools were participating in the invitational meet. The field was spangled with athletes whose school-colored clothes offered a visual display of diversity. Weston’s girls had already scored points in the long jump and javelin. The boys had done well, too. Theo’s high jump had won his school a second place. They also had a second and fourth in the pole vault. Not bad, considering that track and field was a brand new sport to Weston Middle School. 8
Comprehension Theo’s main event was the 400-meter dash. It was what he dreamed of running ever since he saw his Uncle Dave’s victorious sprint seven years ago. Yet, these meets made Theo so nervous, he often wished he were sacked out in front of the television instead. As he pranced about, shaking away the jitters, Theo saw a lone figure at the long-jump pit. He was a thin, dark boy roughly Theo’s height and build. He wore the only gray T-shirt in the wild mass of school colors. Even though he looked out of place, the boy seemed calm and sure of himself. Theo crossed over to the pit. He introduced himself to the runner, a friendly, determined student named Carl Alvarez. Carl was the only entrant from his school. He had taken two city buses to get there, and he was there just for the 400-meter race. Like Theo, this was his first year in track and field. Carl didn’t seem fazed by his solitary status, though. He told Theo he wanted to help form a team at his school. Returning to his own gathered team, Theo admitted that Carl’s attitude was impressive. 9
Comprehension When the 400 was announced and Theo lined up, the Weston team set up a chant. Theo glanced at Carl, who didn’t have anyone to cheer for him, but Carl seemed focused and ready for his race. As the pistol fired, Theo shot out. The full field of runners – eight boys in eight lanes – swarmed down the stretch. The Weston team yelled, “Go, man, go!” Every Weston student screamed as Theo’s lead became evident coming out of the first curve. 10
Comprehension Theo’s heart pounded as he crossed over to the inside lane. He was leading! Footsteps thudded behind him as he entered the wide, dangerous final turn. Someone was pulling alongside him. It was Carl! They glanced at each other briefly. Then they focused. Theo looked ahead and smiled grimly. Okay, let’s race, he thought. Around the curve he ran, Carl at his side matching him step for step, yet never falling back. The two boys sped into the final stretch. Theo raced as never before, neck to neck with his challenger. 11
Comprehension Fill in the character web using the story. 12 Personal Traits Theo Carl personality Feelings before race Feelings before race
Comprehension Fill in the character web using the story. 13 Track and Field Uniform color Uniform color Team members Team members Main event Main event other events other events Theo Carl
Comprehension Find these details in the story: 1. How many schools were at the meet? 2. What created so much color on the field? 3. How long had Theo been training? 4. In what month does this story take place? 5. Describe the weather on the day of the meet. 6. How many runners start the 400-meter dash? 14
Author’s point of view Sleepwalking “Dad? Do you have a minute to help me with my speech?” I asked after supper. “Sure,” said Dad. “I’d love to help.” Dad settles on the couch. I stand tall, grasp my note cards, and smile. “Be honest. I need a good grade,” I say. He nods and I begin. “Ever fight falling asleep for seven hours straight?” “Ever want to control over your life?” I pause for effect. “If you answered yes, then you have something in common with me and all students.” 15
Author’s point of view “Nice opening,” Dad says, and I smile. “Students all over the United States are plagued with sleep deprivation. If schools really wanted students to learn better, they would begin school at 11:00 A.M. and end school at 2 P.M. ” That’s a bit exaggerated,” Dad says. I nod, stand up straight, glance quickly at my note cards and begin again. “Research shows the preteen brain needs 10 to 12 hours of sleep. Research suggests that children learn best after 10 A.M. Studies also indicate that attention spans are only 20 minutes long.” 16
Author’s point of view “Is that true?” Dad asks. “Sounds like you’re twisting facts.” “Sort of,” I say. I shuffle my cards and continue. “The trouble is that school starts at 7:30 A.M., which means most students are really sleepwalking. Nobody wakes up until lunchtime. Plus, if the attention span is only 20 minutes, it makes sense to change classes to 20 minutes each. Students would be more alert and would learn more. Therefore, I recommend a later start time and 20- minute classes.” I smile. 17
Author’s point of view “Well, what do you think?” “I recommend you rethink the point of the speech.” “But what about my delivery?” I ask impatiently. “Good voice and delivery, but your speech is not logical.” “I’m getting graded on speech skills and facts, not logic, Dad.” “Winona, rethink the speech.” Dad uses his better-do-what-I-say voice. I shuffle my note cards. I think, Maybe he’s right. I could add the facts about brain waves and learning to read or a list of the eight intelligences. I smile. “Okay, I’ll add more facts.” 18
Author’s point of view Answer the following questions about the story. 7. When a story is told in first person, a narrator tells a personal story from his or her point of view. Who is the narrator of this story? 19
Author’s point of view 8. What does Dad say makes Winona’s speech good? a) It has good facts. b) It has a good opening. c) It has a good idea. d) She has a good delivery. 20
Author’s point of view 9. What does Dad suggest Winona do to improve her speech? 21
Author’s point of view 10. First-person point of view allows the reader to see the thoughts of the narrator. Will Winona fix her speech and make it better? Explain your answer by reviewing Winona’s thoughts. 22
Fact and Opinion Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci was the greatest artist of all time. He is remembered not only as a painter, but also as a sculptor, a musician, an inventor, an astronomer, a scientist, and an engineer. Leonardo was born in 1452 in Vinci, Italy. As a young boy, he showed a talent for mathematics and painting. His father took him to Florence, Italy, to study painting and engineering. Leonardo became well known in Florence as a young painter. Soon he was painting better than his teachers. In 1472, at the age of twenty, Leonardo was asked to join the painter’s guild in Florence. The painter’s guild was the best place for Leonardo. He could finally be recognized among other great artists. 23
Fact and Opinion When Leonardo was thirty years old, he decided to move to Milan, Italy. He began working for the Duke of Milan. The Duke wanted to make Milan a beautiful and famous city, like Florence. While in Milan, Leonardo painted the most famous painting in history – The Last Supper. People came from many countries to see the painting. Today, the painting is still found on the wall of the little church in Italy. In 1499, Leonardo returned to Florence. There he painted his other famous painting, the Mona Lisa. The Mona Lisa was a painting of a twenty-four-year-old wife of a wealthy merchant. Her name was Lisa del Gioconda. Her mysterious smile is the most fascinating part of the painting. 24
Fact and Opinion Leonardo is remembered for other contributions. He sketched designs for flying machines and parachutes long before anyone believed people could fly. Leonardo also drew detailed sketches of the human body and how it worked. He wrote thousands of pages of notes on mathematics and science. Leonardo da Vinci is the most important artist of all time not only because of his paintings, but also because of his scientific and mathematical inventions. Many of his sketches and notes have been used over the years to help scientists and inventors make new discoveries. 25
Fact and Opinion Are the following statements facts or opinions? Write F if the statement is a fact and O if the statement is an opinion. 11. ___ Leonardo da Vinci is the most important artist of all time. 12. ___ Leonardo painted The Last Supper in a small church in Milan. 13. ___ As a child, Leonardo was talented at mathematics and painting. 14. ___ Many of Leonardo’s sketches were used to help scientists and inventors make new discoveries. 26
Fact and Opinion 15. ___ Leonardo was not happy until he joined the painter’s guild in Florence. 16. ___ The Last Supper is the world’s most famous painting. 17. ___ The Mona Lisa’s mysterious smile is the most interesting part of that painting. 18. ___ To understand The Last Supper, you have to travel to the small church in Italy where it hangs. 19. ___ Leonardo returned to Florence in ___ Florence was the best place for Leonardo to study as a young boy. 27
Literary Response The Race is On! Lee and Kim are both running for class president. This is a big job. The president has to help organize special events for the class, such as environmental projects, holiday parties, visit-the-elderly outings, and field trips. Lee has been campaigning for several weeks. He really wants to be elected president. He prepared a speech telling the class all of the great ideas he hopes to accomplish if he wins. For example, Lee wants to have a car wash and picnic to earn money for the homeless. He also wants to recycle aluminum cans to earn money fro a field trip to the new Exploration Science Center. Lee has been working hard for this position. 28
Literary Response Kim hasn’t done much, if any, campaigning. She figures she has lots of friends who will vote for her. Instead of a speech, she gave a big pool party at her house. Kim believes the class should work to earn money, but she believes that any money they raise should be used for their class. Why give money to someone else when there are lots of great places to visit on field trips in their city? The day of the big election arrives. The votes are in. The winner is … 29
Literary Response 21. What kind of person is Lee? How do you know? 22. What kind of person is Kim? How do you know? 30
Literary Response 23. Who do you think will win the election? Why? 24. Who carried out the most effective campaign? Why? 31
Literary Response 25. If Lee is the winner, what is the theme of this story? 26. If Kim is the winner, what is the theme of this story? 32
Literary Response 27. Imagine. You are entering the race for class president. How would you conduct your campaign? What issues would you promote as the most important? How would you get your message out to voters? Be as descriptive as possible. 33
34 Comparing and Contrasting Antarctica Antarctica is the continent surrounding the South Pole. It contains 90 percent of the world’s ice. Antarctica is the coldest and most desolate region on Earth. It covers 5,400,000 square miles. Much of the land is buried under snow and ice one mile thick. The winter temperatures reach -100°F in the interior of the continent. On the coast, the temperatures fall below -40°F. The interior of the Antarctica is frozen, lifeless region. The only animal life in Antarctica is found on the coastline or in the sea. Penguins, seals, whales, and other fish and birds live in or close to the coastal waters. These animals live on food from the sea.
35 Comparing and Contrasting Antarctica The ancient Greeks called the North Pole the “Arctic”. They believed that land at South Pole must also exist. They called the supposed land “Antarctica,” meaning the opposite of Arctic. In 1928, Commander Richard E. Byrd of the U.S. Navy led a famous expedition to the South Pole. He and his men set up a base called Little America. Until his death in 1957, Byrd took five expeditions to Antarctica. He helped establish scientific research bases and led the largest Antarctica expedition in history with over 4,000 men and 13 ships.
36 Comparing and Contrasting The Sahara Stretching almost 3,000 miles across North Africa, the Sahara Desert is an incredible natural wonder of sand, rock, and gravel. The Sahara covers over 3,500,000 square miles, which makes it by far the largest desert on Earth. It extends west to east from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea. The name Sahara comes from an Arabic word, Sahra, which means desert. Because of the unusually low rainfall, the sun-scorched land and blistering winds make the Sahara the hottest region in the world during the summer. A sandy surface may reach a temperature of 170°F. The cloudless skies allow the daytime air temperature to reach 100°F. At night, the temperature often drops 40 to 50 degrees.
37 Comparing and Contrasting The Sahara The Sahara’s only vegetation is found near wells, springs, or streams. These fertile areas are called oases. Throughout the desert are many dry streambeds, called wadis. During a rare rain, they temporarily fill up with water. The Sahara supports some animal life, too-camels, lizards, and the addax, a desert antelope. Some people of the Sahara live in tents, which allows them to move more easily in search of grassy areas. These people, called nomads, tend flocks of sheep, camels, or goats. Other people raise crops on land that has been irrigated.
38 Comparing and Contrasting Directions: Answer the following questions comparing Antarctica and Sahara. 28. What challenges are presented by both regions because of their climate? ___________________________________________
39 Comparing and Contrasting 29. How many humans and/or animals adapted to life in both regions ? ___________________________________________
40 Comparing and Contrasting 30. If you had to choose to go on an expedition to either Antarctica or the Sahara, which place would you choose? Why? ___________________________________________
41 Analyzing Text Hi-Yo, Silver! What did people do for entertainment before television? Today, the average child spends more time watching television than reading. Television is so much a part of daily life that many people cannot imagine what life was like before it. Before television, there was radio. Radio was invented around 1916 from the telegraph. At first, it was used to get information quickly from one part of the country to another. By 1926, radios were common in homes. People listened to music, news, and shows in the same way we watch TV today. Television was not invented until 1940s, and it did not gain popularity in homes until Families gathered around their radios to listen to shows broadcast all over the world. One of the most popular radio shows was The Lone Ranger. This show was about the Texas ranger and a faithful Native American, named Tonto, who tirelessly worked to stop evil.
42 Analyzing Text Hi-Yo, Silver! The Lone Ranger rode a white horse named Silver and wore a black mask. The Lone Ranger hid his identity, because a gang that ambushed and killed five other Texas Rangers had left him for dead. He vowed to find these desperadoes. His white hat, white horse, black mask, and his famous call, “Hi-Yo, Silver. Away!” became symbols of the American Wild West hero. Other famous radio heroes were the shadow and the Green Hornet. Eventually, radio shows became famous television shows as well. Comedians and vaudeville stars made the transition from the stage to radio to television. Comedians such as Jack Benny, Red Skelton, and George Burns had radio shows that became television favorites.
43 Analyzing Text Directions: Read the passage and answer the following questions. 31. What title best gives the main idea of this passage? A. The Lone Ranger Rides Again B. Before Television Came Radio C. Radio Stars Hit It Big on TV D. The History of Radio
44 Analyzing Text 32. What is not true of the passage? A. It gives a brief history of radio. B. It tells about the transition from Radio to television. C. It focuses on The Lone Ranger show. D. It shows how radio was far more popular than television
45 Analyzing Text 33. Which statement is true? A. Tonto rode a white horse name Silver. B. Radio was invented in C. Several radio shows later became popular TV shows. D. Radio stars could not make it as television stars.
46 Analyzing Text 34. Why did the Lone Ranger wear a mask? A. He wanted to hide his true identity. B. It was part of Texas Ranger Uniform. C. To shield his eyes from the sun. D. He wanted to be like his friend Tonto.