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2 Intercontinental Travels Inc.

3 …Please wait… Loading Automatic Settings

4 Travel To Cyprus! Be In A World Of Your Own Intercontinental Travels Inc. Lets Go! Contents Page

5 Slide One – Introduction (Logo For Company etc.) Slide Two – Loading Screen Slide Three – Start of Presentation. Slide Four – Contents Page Slide Five – History Part One Slide Six – History Part Two Slide Seven – History Part Three Slide Eight – History Part Four Slide Nine – History Part Five Slide Ten – History Part Six Slide Eleven – Geography Of Cyprus Slide Twelve – Galleries Slide Thirteen – Gallery – Properties In Cyprus Slide Fourteen – Gallery – Geography Of Cyprus Slide Fifteen – Gallery – Sea life Of Cyprus Slide Sixteen – Introduction To Quiz Slide Seventeen-Twenty Eight – Quiz Slide Twenty Nine - End

6 Intercontinental Travels Inc. - BackBack Next- Galleries The earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter- gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with its human owner at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilization and pushing back the earliest known feline-human association significantly. The remarkably well-preserved Neolithic village of Choirokoitia (also known as Khirokitia) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site dating to approximately 6800 BC. The island was part of the Hittite empire during the late Bronze Age until the arrival of two waves of Greek settlement. The first wave consisted of Mycenaean Greek traders who started visiting Cyprus around 1400 BC. A major wave of Greek settlement is believed to have taken place following the Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece in the period 1100–1050 BC, with the island's predominantly Greek character dating from this period. Cyprus occupies an important role in Greek mythology being the birthplace of Aphrodite and Adonis, and home to King Cinyras, Teucer and Pygmalion. Beginning in the 8th century BC Phoenician colonies were founded on the south coast of Cyprus, near present day Larnaca and Salamis. Cyprus was ruled by Assyria for a century starting in 708 BC, before a brief spell under Egyptian rule and eventually Persian rule in 545 BC. The Cypriots, led by Onesilos, king of Salamis, joined their fellow Greeks in the Ionian cities during the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt in 499 BC against the Achaemenid Empire. The revolt was suppressed without bloodshed, although Cyprus managed to maintain a high degree of autonomy and remained oriented towards the Greek world. The island was brought under permanent Greek rule by Alexander the Great and the Ptolemies of Egypt following his death. Full Hellenization took place during the Ptolemaic period, which ended when Cyprus was annexed by the Roman Republic in 58 BC. History Of Cyprus (I)

7 Intercontinental Travels Inc. - BackBack Next- Galleries History Of Cyprus (II) When the Roman Empire was divided into Eastern and Western parts in 395, Cyprus became part of the East Roman, or Byzantine Empire, and would remain part of it until the crusades some 800 years later. Under Byzantine rule, the Greek orientation that had been prominent since antiquity developed the strong Hellenistic-Christian character that continues to be a hallmark of the Greek Cypriot community. Beginning in 649, Cyprus suffered from devastating raids launched from the Levant, which continued for the next 300 years. Many were quick piratical raids, but others were large-scale attacks in which many Cypriots were slaughtered and great wealth carried off or destroyed. No Byzantine churches survive from this period, thousands of people were killed, and many cities – such as Salamis - were destroyed and never rebuilt. Byzantine rule was restored in 965, when Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas scored decisive victories on land and sea. In 1191, during the Third Crusade, Richard I of England captured the island from Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus. He used it as a major supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens. A year later Richard sold the island to the Knights Templar, who, following a bloody revolt, in turn sold it to Guy of Lusignan. His brother and successor Amalric was recognized as King of Cyprus by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. Following the death in 1473 of James II, the last Lusignan king, the Republic of Venice assumed control of the island, while his Venetian widow, Queen Caterina Cornaro, reigned as figurehead. Venice formally annexed Cyprus in 1489, following the abdication of Caterina. The Venetians fortified Nicosia by building the famous Venetian Walls, and used it as an important commercial hub. Throughout Venetian rule, the Ottoman Empire frequently raided Cyprus. In 1539 the Ottomans destroyed Limassol and so fearing the worst, the Venetians also fortified Famagusta and Kyrenia. During the almost four centuries of Latin rule, there existed two societies on Cyprus. The first consisted of Frankish nobles and their retinue, as well as Italian merchants and their families. The second, the majority of the population, consisted of Greek Cypriots, serfs and laborers. Although a determined effort was made to supplant native traditions and culture, the effort failed.

8 Intercontinental Travels Inc. - BackBack Next- Galleries History Of Cyprus (III) In 1570, a full scale Ottoman assault with 60,000 troops brought the island under Ottoman control, despite stiff resistance by the inhabitants of Nicosia and Famagusta. 20,000 Nicosians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted. The previous Latin elite was destroyed and the first significant demographic change since antiquity took place when Ottoman Janissaries were settled on the island. The Ottomans abolished the feudal system previously in place and applied the millet system to Cyprus, under which non-Muslim peoples were governed by their own religious authorities. In a reversal from the days of Latin rule, the head of the Church of Cyprus was invested as leader of the Greek Cypriot population and acted as mediator between Christian Greek Cypriots and the Ottoman authorities. Ottoman rule of Cyprus was at times indifferent, at times oppressive, depending on the temperaments of the sultans and local officials, and during this period the island fell into economic decline. Reaction to Ottoman misrule led to uprisings by both Greek and Turkish Cypriots, although none were successful. By 1872, the population of the island had risen to 144,000 comprising 44,000 Muslims and 100,000 Christians. Centuries of neglect by the Turks, the unrelenting poverty of most of the people, and the ever-present tax collectors fuelled Greek nationalism, and by 19th century the idea of enosis, or union, with newly independent Greece was firmly rooted among Greek Cypriots.

9 Intercontinental Travels Inc. - BackBack Next- Galleries History Of Cyprus (IV) In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), administration, but not sovereignty, of the island was ceded to the British Empire in 1878 in exchange for guarantees that Britain would use the island as a base to protect the Ottoman Empire against possible Russian aggression. The island would serve Britain as a key military base in its colonial routes. By 1906, when the Famagusta harbor was completed, Cyprus was a strategic naval outpost overlooking the Suez Canal, the crucial main route to India which was then Britain's most important colony. Following the outbreak of The First World War and the entry of the Ottoman Empire on the side of the Central powers, Great Britain formally annexed the island in 1914. In 1915, Britain offered Cyprus to Constantine I of Greece on condition that Greece join the war on the side of the British, which he declined. In 1923, under the Treaty of Lausanne, the nascent Turkish republic relinquished any claim to Cyprus and in 1925 it was declared a British Crown Colony. Many Greek Cypriots fought in the British Army during both World Wars, in the hope that Cyprus would eventually be united with Greece. During the Second World War many enlisted in the Cyprus Regiment. In January 1959, the Church of Cyprus organized a referendum, which was boycotted by the Turkish Cypriot community, where over 90% voted in favor of "enosis", meaning union with Greece. Restricted autonomy under a constitution was proposed by the British administration but eventually rejected. In 1955 the EOKA organization was founded, seeking independence and union with Greece through armed struggle. At the same time the TMT, calling for Taksim, or partition, was established by the Turkish Cypriots as a counterweight. Turmoil on the island was met with force by the British.

10 Intercontinental Travels Inc. - BackBack Next- Galleries History Of Cyprus (V) On 16 August 1960, Cyprus attained independence after the Zürich and London Agreement between the United Kingdom, Greece and Turkey. The UK retained the two Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia while government posts and public offices were allocated by ethnic quotas giving the minority Turks a permanent veto, 30% in parliament and administration, and granting the three mother-states guarantor rights. In 1963 inter-communal violence broke out, partially sponsored by both "motherlands" with Turkish Cypriots being forced into enclaves and Cypriot President Archbishop Makarios III calling for unilateral constitutional changes as a means to ease tensions over the whole island. The United Nations was involved and the United Nations forces in Cyprus (UNFICYP) deployed at flash points. In 1964, Turkey attempted to intervene in Cyprus in response to the ongoing Cypriot intercommunal violence, but was stopped by a strongly worded telegram from the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson on 5 June 1964; who warned that the United States would not stand beside Turkey in case of a consequential Soviet invasion of Turkish territory. [

11 Intercontinental Travels Inc. - BackBack Next- Galleries Following a coup d'état engineered by the Greek Junta, Turkey launched a full-scale military invasion of the island in 1974. The Turkish air force began bombing Greek positions on Cyprus, hundreds of paratroops were dropped in the area between Nicosia and Kyrenia, where well- armed Turkish Cypriot enclaves had been long-established, while off the Kyrenia coast 30 Turkish troop ships protected by destroyers landed 6,000 men as well as tanks, trucks, and armored vehicles. Three days later, when a ceasefire had been agreed, Turkey had landed 30,000 troops on the island and captured Kyrenia, the corridor linking Kyrenia to Nicosia, and the Turkish-Cypriot quarter of Nicosia. The junta in Athens, and then the Sampson regime in Cyprus fell from power. In Nicosia Glafkos Clerides assumed the presidency and constitutional order was restored; ostensibly removing the pretext the Turks gave for the invasion. The Turks used a period of negotiations to reinforce their Kyrenia bridgehead and prepare for the second phase of the invasion, which began on 14 August and resulted in the seizure of Morphou, Karpasia, Ammochostos and the Mesaoria. The Greek forces were unable to resist the Turkish advance. International pressure led to a ceasefire at which point 37% of the island had been taken over by the Turks and 180,000 Greek Cypriots were evicted from their homes in the north. At the same time, around 50,000 Turkish Cypriots moved to the areas under the control of the Turkish Forces and settled in the properties of the displaced Greek Cypriots. In mid-1975, the United States Congress amongst a variety of sanctions against Turkey, imposed an arms embargo on Turkey for using American-supplied equipment during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974. In 1983 Turkish Cypriots proclaimed the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus which is recognised only by Turkey. As of today, there are 1,534 Greek Cypriots and 502 Turkish Cypriots missing as a result of the fighting. The events of the summer of 1974 dominate the politics on the island, as well as Greco-Turkish relations. Around 150,000 settlers from Turkey are believed to be living in the north in violation of the Geneva Convention and various UN resolutions. Following the invasion and the capture of its northern territory by Turkish troops, the Republic of Cyprus announced that all of its ports of entry in the north are closed, as they are effectively not under its control. The last major effort to settle the Cyprus dispute was the Annan Plan. It gained the support of the Turkish Cypriots but was rejected by the Greek Cypriots, who perceived the Annan Plan to be both unbalanced and excessively pro-Turkish. On May 1, 2004 Cyprus joined the European Union together with nine other countries. It constituted the largest single expansion in the history of the Union. In July 2006, the island served as a safe haven for people fleeing Lebanon because of the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah. In March 2008, a wall that for decades had stood at the boundary between the Greek Cypriot controlled side and the UN buffer zone was demolished. The wall had cut across Ledra Street in the heart of Nicosia and was seen as a strong symbol of the island's 32-year division. On 3 April 2008, Ledra Street was reopened in the presence of Greek and Turkish Cypriot officials History Of Cyprus (VI)

12 Intercontinental Travels Inc. - BackBack Next- Galleries It lies on the Mediterranean Sea at the borderland of three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean, after the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia (both in terms of area and population). Also the world's 81st largest by area and world's 49st largest by population. It measures 240 kilometers (149 mi) long from end to end and 100 kilometers (62 mi) wide at its widest point, with Turkey 75 kilometers (47 mi) to the north. It lies between latitudes 34° and 36° N, and longitudes 32° and 35° E. Other neighboring territories include Syria and Lebanon to the east (105 kilometers (65 mi) and 108 kilometers (67 mi), respectively), Israel 200 kilometers (124 mi) to the southeast, Egypt 380 kilometers (236 mi) to the south, and Greece to the northwest: 280 kilometers (174 mi) to the small Dodecanesian island of Kastellórizo (Meyísti), 400 kilometers (249 mi) to Rhodes, and 800 kilometers (497 mi) to the Greek mainland. The physical relief of the island is dominated by two mountain ranges, the Troodos Mountains and the smaller Kyrenia Range, and the central plain they encompass, the Mesaoria. The Troodos Mountains cover most of the southern and western portions of the island and account for roughly half its area. The highest point on Cyprus is Mount Olympus at 1,952 m (6,404 ft), located in the centre of the Troodos range. The narrow Kyrenia Range, extending along the northern coastline, occupies substantially less area, and elevations are lower, reaching a maximum of 1,024 m (3,360 ft). Geopolitically, the island is subdivided into four main segments. The Republic of Cyprus, the internationally recognized government, occupies the southern two-thirds of the island (59.74%). The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus occupies the northern third (34.85%) of the island and is recognized only by Turkey, as it consists of the Turkish- occupied areas. The United Nations-controlled Green Line is a buffer zone that separates the two and covers 2.67% of the island. Lastly, two bases under British sovereignty are located on the island: Akrotiri and Dhekelia, covering the remaining 2.74%. Geography Of Cyprus

13 SeaSea lifelife Geography Properties Galleries Click Image To View Gallery Return

14 Back To Gallery

15 -


17 - Back Quiz- Galleries Now its time to see if you have absorbed all the essential knowledge you will need if and when you decide to visit Cyprus. Remember you can try this Quiz as many times as you like! ^^ So don’t be too nervous. So.. Lets get this straight, you’ve got as many tries as you like to get the answers correct and besides, they are all located within this presentation anyway, some easy, some… eh… not so easy… but still doable of course. Each Question you get has at least 3 selections and only one possible answer… The aim is the get the right one! Which shouldn’t be a problem if you have read your way through this presentation… which I hope you have. If You’re ready to take the Quiz, Click the button entitled Quiz… If you want to go do some more revising because you DIDN’T READ the first time… (Which to be honest I couldn’t blame you…) Or perhaps you think going over it again couldn’t hurt. Select the “Back” button, this will take you to the contents page where you can navigate to anywhere in this presentation. Good luck!

18 In what year did Cyprus gain official independence from the British Empire? A – 1860 B – 1959 C – 1960 D – Never, Cyprus Is still apart of The British Empire.

19 That’s not The right answer Uh...Sorry About That... Try Again? Quit

20 You Got It Right! Now That’s More Like It!! Quit Next Question?

21 What language is the most commonly spoken in Cyprus (Post 1900’s) A – Greek B – Turkish C – English D – Cyprusian

22 That’s not The right answer Uh...Sorry About That... Try Again? Quit

23 You Got It Right! Now That’s More Like It!! Quit Next Question?

24 Question ONE Near what important Strategic and trade “Canal” is Cyprus Situated A – Liverpool-Leeds B – Themes C – Suez D – what you talking ‘bout fool!?

25 That’s not The right answer Uh...Sorry About That... Try Again? Quit

26 You Got It Right! Now That’s More Like It!! Quit Next Question?

27 Question ONE Do you honestly think That you are going to even get close to full marks on this Quiz? Do you? DO YOU!? A – Y… Yes… B – Hell Yeah! C – Hell Y…. No.. No I, I don’t…. D – Maiiiibeeeee ^^

28 Mmmm, Make me laugh you do. Yoda say’s no. Try Again? Quit

29 That’s Right… You Wont Continue

30 THE END!  or is up to you… So it appears you have reached the end of our presentation, We hope you found it as entertaining as we did making it and useful too. Please join us again when you are considering your next holiday, we hope to see or hear from you soon ! Exit

31 Ha… Ha… Ha… O.o That… Wasn’t right.. At all… Try Again? Quit

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