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LAURIE L. HAZARD, Ed. D. Bryant University

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1 LAURIE L. HAZARD, Ed. D. Bryant University

2 Ice Breakers What is your most visited website? What is the last item you purchased online? What is your favorite band/musical artist? What is your favorite TV network? What is your favorite magazine? Tru Youth Research

3 Situating Ourselves With Our Students A Vision of Students Today "A Vision of Students Today" from Professor Michael Wesch asked students how they learn, what they need to learn, their goals, hopes, dreams, what their lives will be like, and what kinds of changes they will experience in their Beloit College Mindset List Use your first class to “situate yourself with your students.” Create an ice breaker or steal one from a website or colleague ( p. 2) Avoid buying into myths: My colleagues will lose respect. They’ll think I’m spending valuable class time on fun and games.

4 College Student Development Seven Vectors Seven Tasks for First-Years Developing Competence Managing Emotions Developing Autonomy Establishing Identity Freeing Interpersonal Relationships Developing Purpose Developing Integrity Chickering, A. (1972). Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Making Friends Getting Good Grades Establishing Future Goals Managing Time Being on One’s Own Without Family and Friends Establishing an Identity Maintaining Physical Self * Brower, A. (1990). Student perceptions of life-task demands as a mediator in the freshman year experience. Journal of the Freshman Year Experience, 2(2), 7-30. 1-8/92

5 Generation Me Jean M. Twenge, Ph.D. Generation Me: Jean Twenge, Ph.D. Generation Me Those now from elementary school to thirty-some-things The majority of CCRI students were born between 1978-1993 The results of twelve studies on generational differences based on data from 1.3 million Americans Focus on those born in 70’s, 80’s, 90’s

6 Generational Differences Children Born Prior to 1970 Children Born Post 1970 Good Christians Hard Workers Obedient Shift from obedience, good manners, loyalty and religion to the “Do Your Own Thing” parenting Happy Independent Open Minded Fall of social rules/rise of the individual

7 Recent Research Howe, N. and Strauss, W., Millennials Go To College, 2 nd edition, Life Course Associates, (2007) A Portrait of Generation Next (2006) Pew Research Center Twenge, J.M. (2006)., Generation Me: Why Today's Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled--and More Miserable Than Ever Before

8 The Rise of Narcissism Negative trait defined as excessive self-importance One of the few personality traits that psychologists agree is almost completely negative Overly focused on self; lack empathy; feel entitled to privileges; feel superior to others; more likely to feel hostile, anxious, compromise health, and fight with family and friends In the 50’s, 12% of teens agreed with statement, “I am an important person.” In the late 80’s, 80% did (almost seven times as many!) Curricula designed to raise self-esteem likely raised narcissism Ex) Self-Science: The Subject Is Me (instead of biology) Fosters entitlement: in workplace, young people expect too much too soon: high salaries and promotions; in school, where’s my A?

9 Rise of Narcissism From: Further Evidence of An Increase In Narcissism Among College Students, Twenge, Konrath, Foster, et al.

10 General Research Self-regulatory behavior is at the heart of being successful in college. The same study habits that contributed to success in high school are unrelated to college performance. High school grades and SAT scores together usually account for 25% of the variance in grade point average. Time management components are significant predictors of cumulative grade point average and account for more variance than SAT scores. Personality traits affect individuals’ pursuit of achievement and whether they’ll utilize success strategies that have been taught to them

11 Personality Variables Related to Academic Achievement Conceptions of Intelligence Locus of Control Incremental vs. Entity View (Dweck and Leggett, 1988) Growth vs. Fixed Mindset (Dweck, 2006) Generalized expectancy Internal vs. External Internal: Self, Hard work, Effort External: Luck, fate, chance, powerful others

12 Another Personality Trait Change: LOC Twenge, Zhang, and Im (2004). It’s Beyond My Control: A Cross Temporal Meta Analysis of Increasing Externality in LOC, 1960-2004 From 1960 to 2002, college students increasingly believed that their lives were controlled by outside forces as opposed to their own efforts The average college student in 2002 had a more external loc than 80% of college students in the 60’s As individualism has increased, so too has externality Lefcourt (1991) describes externality as a “failure to act in one’s own behalf in trying to remedy unpleasant situations, in the face of potential stress, or in trying to bring about rewarding outcomes Internal locus of control has been found to be the strongest predictor of achievement with minority students than any other variable (Coleman et al., 1966) Externality encourages a victim mentality that attributes negative experiences to outside sources, which, in turn, undermines personal responsibility.

13 Student Transitions Traditional aged students are transitioning from adolescents to young adulthood From high school to college From one institution of higher education to another (transfers) From unemployment to back to school From one field to another (job retraining) From one semester to the next From graduation to work

14 Psychology of Adjustment Definition of Psychology New students must adjust their mental processes (mindset) and behaviors (strategies) to be successful in college in four areas: Academic Social Emotional Intellectual

15 Academic Adjustment Student Reflection: Study Space Activity: I quickly learned that the rigorous academic program would require more time and effort than my other school. Not to mention a complete overhaul of my studying techniques. The first thing that hit me was that I was no longer able to get the most potential of studying when I try to study in my room. I would need to go to the Library or any quiet study lounge. Choose a study space on campus that meets the criteria outlined in this chapter. Use this new space for at least an hour to do some course work. Were you more efficient in this new study environment? Why/why not? What have you learned about selecting a study space?

16 Intellectual Adjustment Before coming to college, diversity was a rarely talked about subject in any school I had ever attended. To be honest I was ashamed of this. It was as if diversity was an ugly subject that no one wanted to talk about. It was a refreshing surprise when the first day I walked onto campus here that there was a banner in the Student Union that said something to do with diversity. Until I attended college I was not aware of all that diversity truly meant and what further helped was the class exercise we did on diversity and discrimination. When I had to sit down and examine if I had been discriminated against in my life, and I realized that I had, it made me understand diversity even more and it made the issue hit home even more.

17 Social Adjustment Some of my successes this semester were that I was able to make great friends and fit into a group where I feel absolutely comfortable. Having that support system in place, whether it is to have fun or to bounce thoughts off of is a key component to make it through whatever choices one makes in life.

18 Emotional Adjustment The beginning of the school year was stressful. I had to perform well in all of my roles, and there were a lot of people expecting a lot from me. First, I have my family who is expecting me to graduate with honors. They have high expectations because I am the oldest of five siblings and my parents want me to be the best example for my siblings to follow. Then, there are two people who have generously offered to pay for some of my education. They have high expectations of me because they want to see me succeed in the future. I have a boss who relies on me for a lot of his daily tasks. And then, I have my husband who is usually waiting for me to go home and have dinner ready for him.

19 Feeling Like A Fraud Imposter Syndrome “I still believe,” confessed Mike Myers, “that at any time the No-Talent Police will come and arrest me.” Myers is not alone. The question is, why do so many clearly smart, capable, successful people feel like intellectual frauds who are merely impersonating a competent person? Dr. Peggy McIntosh, Wellesley College Director of the Wellesley Centers for Women

20 Self-Concept The thoughts, feeling, attitudes and behaviors that encompass who we are. Roger’s called this the “phenomenal field.” Changes over the lifespan Openness to Experience/Remove Obstacles Toward growth I am FILL IN THE BLANK Academic self-concept

21 The Phenomenal Field Changes Throughout A Semester Student Information Sheet: Beginning of the semester pp. 3-6 Intentional Interventions: Week Three, Post Mid- Terms pp. 7-9 Success Counseling: Office Hours p. 10

22 A Student’s Phenomenal Field As I’m sure you are slightly curious, what made me come to this revelation was while I was trying to apply myself, I realized I just can’t study properly on my own; I’m just not cut out for this. I have always known that, so it isn’t a big shock. Honestly, I don’t think I am, and never thought I was, going to make it through all four years of college anyway, it’s not for me. I need to just shut up and do this class, no matter how pointless I may think it is; what’s it matter anyhow, even if I learn one thing all year it wouldn’t be a total waste of time. Learning is learning, whether I know I’m doing it or not.

23 A Student’s Phenomenal Field Prof. Hazard showed little sympathy last year in my parents divorce, my depression and sickness (swine flu that lead to pneumonia). Even though I had an exam grade average of a B- she took away the entire 20% participation without letting me know that I was at risk of losing such a large chunk of my grade. When I would let her know why I was missing she would only send feel better emails, not please come see me, etc. I thought I was being excused.

24 What to focus on? Reading Strategies and Self-Regulatory Behaviors

25 The Environment Reading In The Age of Technology

26 The Internet Is An Interruption System Hypertext and different media comes at us simultaneously Research shows we read faster and less thoroughly as soon as we go on-line Email applications check for new messages every five to ten minutes Office workers check mail 30 to 4o times per hour Each glance breaks concentration and burdens working memory: the cognitive penalty severe Switching costs: every time we shift our attention, the brain must reorient itself, which further taxes our mental resources

27 Technology Dry Out Activity, p. p. 11-13 Farewell Facebook

28 Reading Is Reading: Either You Can Do It or Not The ability to transfer written symbols into sounds, decoding, is a skill that can be taught and mastered Rigfap churbit askane More to reading than making sounds Reading comprehension, the ability to extract meaning from text is not transferable

29 Tacit Knowledge Exam

30 Domain Specific Knowledge Baquacil Winch Tenure Sphygmomanometer Debenture Histrionic Malapropism

31 Resources 50 Ways to Leave Your Lectern (2003) Constance C. Staley Foundations for Learning: Claiming Your Education (3rd Edition) (2012) Laurie L. HazardLaurie L. Hazard and Jean-Paul NadeauJean-Paul Nadeau What the Best College Teachers Do (2004) Ken Bain

32 Vocabulary Building Strategies Index Card System (pp. 14-15) Word Journals Anything else?

33 Intertextuality Instructional Approach Instructors offer multiple texts and materials of wide genres to give students the opportunity to: Increase background knowledge Make connections across and among texts Develop multiple perspectives, interpretations, and broader pictures of topic, and develop critical thinking skills (Lenski, 1998) Pedagogical Tool (p. 16)

34 Research on Self-Regulation Laurie L. Hazard Procrastination is a self-regulatory failure that is not entirely understood (Steel, 2007). Some assert that procrastination is not a problem of time management (Marano, 2007), yet twenty percent of people identify themselves as chronic procrastinators (Marano, 2007) Self-regulatory behavior is at the heart of being successful in college (White & Kitchen, 1991). The same study habits that contributed to success in high school are unrelated to college performance (Matt, Perchersky, and Cervantes, 1991) Time management practices and the ability to combat procrastination are more predictive of first-year college achievement than SAT scores and high school grades combined (Hazard, 1997).

35 Typical Tools for Time Management Instruction  Prioritize  Make To-Do Lists  Engage in Goal Setting  Create Daily, Weekly, Semester Planners

36 Roadblocks to Effective Time Management Pedagogy and Practices Laurie L. Hazard The concept of time management is a misnomer Time on task is rarely addressed Motivation and self-efficacy are not typically assessed Procrastination behaviors and attitudes are not identified Psychodynamics of procrastination are not discussed Engagement is not measured Accountability is not created

37 Combating Procrastination and Goal Setting Worksheets (pp. 17-21)

38 Questions?

39 Thank you Laurie L. Hazard or Thank you for your participation!

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