Presentation on theme: "Improving Educational Impact “5 Frameworks” Theoretic frameworks for understanding cultural differences Programs for 4 levels Re-entry focus Web-based."— Presentation transcript:
Improving Educational Impact “5 Frameworks” Theoretic frameworks for understanding cultural differences Programs for 4 levels Re-entry focus Web-based activities Sending Family Involvement Train host country coaches Training for trainers Volunteer training Host Family training
Needs Identified by 2002 Study Participants, families, and volunteers generally minimize cultural differences. A significant number of participants are cynical about their own culture, even after their return. Real reflection is missing for many AFS participants.
Strengths Confirmed by Study AFS is effective in reducing negative stereotyping and defensive reactions toward other cultures. AFS is effective in helping participants reduce their anxiety around other cultures. AFS is effective in helping participants establish friendships across cultures.
Addressing the Needs An AFS Program should... Increase awareness and understanding of one’s own culture. Encourage reflection on experience. Offer multiple cultural perspectives. Deliberately teach people to recognize and appreciate cultural differences. Assist participants in applying what they have learned after their return home.... and continue helping participants overcome prejudices and stereotyping, reduce anxiety and make friends!
Strategy to Improve Educational Impact Use “5 Frameworks” program Train the “coaches” for the participants during the experience –Train volunteers/liaisons –Provide intercultural learning for host families Develop re-entry phase orientation and support –Create appealing web-based learning activities for returnees (alumni connections, blogs, learning activities) –Provide intercultural learning for sending families “5 Frameworks” Re-entry focus Train host country coaches
Tools Educational Impact Series Training of Trainers Program:(a.k.a. Case Studies –5 Frameworks Topics –Adjustment Cycle –DMIS Returnee web site Essay contests
The 5 Frameworks of Culture Program Curriculum for AFS Participants and Families Adapted from Milton J. Bennett
5 Frameworks of Culture Comfortable Uncomfortable Language Use and Perception Non-verbal Behavior Communication Style How we Think (Cognitive Style) Values and Assumptions
Introductory Program Introduce concept of 5 Frameworks Focus on –Introductory and Intermediate Language Use and Perception –Introductory Non-Verbal Behavior –Introductory (Non-threatening) differences in Values and Assumptions Additional Topics –What is Culture? –Generalizations vs. Stereotypes –Adjustment Cycle –Own culture awareness
Second Stage Program Review 5 Frameworks Focus on: –Advanced Language Use and Perception –Intermediate and Advanced Non-Verbal Behavior –Introductory and Intermediate Communication Style Additional Topics: –Roles in Society, in the Family (review non- threatening Values & Assumptions)
Third Stage Program Review 5 Frameworks Focus on: –Introductory and Intermediate How we Think (Cognitive Style) –Intermediate Values and Assumptions Additional Topics: –Your Cultural Identities –Conflict Styles (tie to communication styles)
Advanced Program Overview of 5 Cultural Frameworks Focus on: –Advanced Topics in How we Think (Cognitive Styles –Intermediate and Advanced Values and Assumptions Additional Topics: –Developmental Model (DMIS) Introduction
Language Use and Perception Introductory Intermediate Advanced Ritual Greetings: When I pass by someone, they say something. Even strangers say something. What do you see, what do you ignore? Brazilians … put a lot of emphasis on cleanliness within the home, but none whatsoever outside the home. Rituals Dining is different, which is not considered a “social event,” an occasion to get together with friends or family; food is often just a matter of sustenance or personal pleasure. They talk to more people and exchange more greetings with each other than in my home country. I found it amusing when songs on the radio are made unintelligible to block words that in Germany are commonplace.
Introductory Intermediate Advanced Non-verbal Behavior Kisses People are immediately affectionate with each other, for example, they exchange kisses, even teachers with parents of the students, even if they are addressed formally. Proper Behavior Here it is permissible to belch out loud, but if you have to sneeze, you must apologize. In my country it is just the opposite. Touch I think that my family is somewhat reluctant to express their feelings physically. Dress One goes into the house and school with shoes on. Meanings of Gestures Italians gesticulate a great deal. Italians use many gestures that I don’t know about, and use them while conversing, I think. I think their expressions during conversion are rich. Tone of Voice Americans in general talk a lot in loud voices.
Introductory Intermediate Advanced Communication Style Context How to have contact with friends and how to receive class lectures and teach Direct or Indirect? My host mother tried to explain things to me through insignificant comments which in her opinion were significant, and which I, with my completely different ways, could not understand. For example, she was upset because I was 10 minutes late coming home, but instead of telling me face-to-face, she gave little hints in the hope that I would understand. Implied Meaning She accused me of flirting with her husband and said it was because I came from Austria, where “people know how to flirt”... but I had by no means flirted with him. Starting a Conversation She says that she will never strike up a conversation with me. I am the one who is supposed to strike up a conversation with her.
Introductory Intermediate Advanced How we Think (Cognitive Style) Methods of Education I noticed that there is a lot of assistance for talented students here; in Germany, in contrast, the weaker ones are continuously supported. Planning and Decisions Italians strongly assert their opinions and they tend to take quick action if they want to do something; I think that is different from the Japanese. I think that it can be construed also that after planning well, actions are not taken. Organization of Thought “the [web] designer's information processing habits represent that individual's typical mode of perceiving, thinking, remembering, and problem solving. To build sites that are robust environments for content delivery, web designers must understand how cognitive style can directly impact web interface and content design and user interaction…” http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol11/iss ue1/faiola.html
Cognitive Style: Site navigation and culture Faiola, A., and Matei, S. A. (2005). Cultural cognitive style and web design: Beyond a behavioral inquiry into computer- mediated communication. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11 (1), article 18. http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol11/issue1/faiola.html
Introductory Intermediate Advanced Values and Assumptions Privacy When I was asked what my religion was, to be honest, I thought it was an infringement on my privacy. Freedom What I also noticed is that teenagers and youths, although most of them can drive already at 16, are given less free space/free time, because of all the schoolwork, than in Austria/Europe. Appearance In Italy, you don't leave the house with wet hair, yet in America no one cares. Having wet hair is a stupid thing to mention because it seems so unimportant, but I feel that drying your hair says a lot about how Italians think. It is very important that people have a good presentation...no one leaves a bed unmade, or a house messy when someone comes over. In Italy, other peoples' opinions are very important. Family In Germany, my impression is that family is more important than friends or a boyfriend.
The Re-Entry Focus Web-based activities Sending Family Involvement
“R 2 A 4 ” 1.REVIEW –(Present Life, Current Feelings, Concerns) 2.RECOLLECT THE PAST –(Mental Archeology, Past Experiences) 3.ANALYZE/COMPARE –(Linkages Between the Past and the Present) 4.ATTITUDE ADJUSTMENT –(Psychological/Emotional /Affective) 5.ANTICIPATE –(Future Projection/Goals) 6.APPLICATION –(Behavior + Cognitive Analysis) Developed by Bruce La Brack for SIIC
“My AFS Space” My Host Country Space My Home Country Space Chats, Forums, Blog sharing, IM Blogs, photos Who I was, Who I am now… (looking back at expectations, or at application essay) My future… Featured Blogs, Photo Essays, News, Opportunities Staffed!
Training of Coaches Training of Trainers Hosting Side (During the Experience) Host FamiliesLiaisons Sending Side (Re-entry) Nat Families Through Impact Series, Special Trainings, Teleconference Sessions
Challenges Coordination of efforts internationally Minimization focus of AFS generally Translations Need to review and revise –Orientation workshops –Support training for liaisons –Recruitment/marketing materials and web site Assessment of our results