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Grammar 非谓语动词 非谓语动词功能比较 to do 的复合结构 -ing form 的复合结构 非谓语动词的否定式 -ing form 与 pp 的区别 `

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Presentation on theme: "Grammar 非谓语动词 非谓语动词功能比较 to do 的复合结构 -ing form 的复合结构 非谓语动词的否定式 -ing form 与 pp 的区别 `"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Grammar 非谓语动词 非谓语动词功能比较 to do 的复合结构 -ing form 的复合结构 非谓语动词的否定式 -ing form 与 pp 的区别 `

3 1. 谓语动词与非谓语动词: 在句子中担任谓语的动词,叫做谓语动词; 在句子中担任主语、宾语、表语、定语和状语等的动 词,叫做非谓语动词。 We should serve the people heart and soul. I am reading a novel. She found English hard to learn. Seeing is believing. The results obtained are quite satisfactory. Please stop speaking. (谓语) (状语) (主语和表语) (定语) (宾语)

4 2. 非谓语动词的分类 不定式 (infinitive) 分词( participle ) 动名词( gerund ) 3. 非谓语动词的特点 1) 不能单独做谓语,但可和助动词或情态动词 组成谓语。 You ought to have been here yesterday. 2) 具有动词的特征,可以有自己的宾语或状语。 The Party called on us to serve the people. 3) 连系动词的非谓语动词形式后还可以带表语。 The students ran out of the classroom, laughing merrily. To be frank, your plan is not practicable.

5 主语主语 表语表语 宾语宾语 定语定语 补语补语 状语状语 to do -ing form pp 非谓语动词功能比较

6 Playing with fire is dangerous. Look out ! To play with fire is dangerous. 主语 1. to do 表示具体的动作, -ing form 表示泛指的动作。 2. 不定式短语作主语时,往往放在谓语 之后,用 it 作形式主语。 It is right to give up smoking. It made me very happy to hear her talk about it.

7 ① It + be +名词+ to do It's our duty to take good care of the old. ② It takes sb+some time+to do How long did it take you to finish the work? ③ It + be +形容词+ for sb + to do It is difficult for us to finish writing the composition in a quarter of an hour. ④ It + be +形容词+ of sb + to do It is stupid of you to write down everything the teacher says. ⑤ It seems(appears) +形容词+ to do It seemed impossible to save money.

8 ( for 引出动作发出者) It is + adj + for sb to do sth It is easy for me to finish this work before ten. It is a great honor for us to be present at your birthday party.

9 kind, good, nice, wise, unwise, clever, foolish, cruel, careless, stupid, naughty, polite, impolite, silly, wrong, brave, honest, noble , right, rude 等 It is very kind of you to give me some help. It's impolite of you to speak to the teacher like that. 注意:常用在 of 句型中的 adj 有: = You are very kind to give me some help. = You are impolite to speak to the teacher like that. 主语 ( of 引出 adj 修饰的对象) It is + adj + of sb to do sth

10 3.“there is no +doing” 句型动名词后常带宾语,相当 于 "It's impossible to…" 结构。 There’s no saying what he’ll be doing next. There’s no telling what he’s going to do. 4. It's +no good(no use,fun,a pleasure,a waste of time)+doing… It‘s no good reading in dim( 昏暗的) light. It's no use sitting here waiting. 不定式作主语经常表示具体动作,常与特定的动作执 行者联系在一起;而动名词作主语经常表示抽象动作, 经常不与特定的动作执行者联系在一起。 It's no good eating too much fat. It's no good for you to eat so much fat.

11 The officers narrowly escaped ___________ in the hot battle.(kill) Don’t you remember_____________ the man before? (see) “Have you decided when ___________?” “Yes, tomorrow morning.”(leave) She pretended _______________ me when I passed by.(not see) 宾语 to leave being killed not to see seeing

12 考点一 : demand, want, expect, promise, determine, refuse, offer, fail, manage, learn, agree, seem, hope, decide, prepare, pretend, wish, start, afford 等 + to do 宾语 注意:不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补 足语,往往把不定式宾语放在宾语补足语之后, 而用 it 作 形式宾语。 I find / feel it interesting to work with him . find / think / feel / make / consider it +adj / n + to do sth. My teacher made it a rule only to speak English in class.

13 考点二 : admit , appreciate , avoid , consider, delay, deny, enjoy , escape, excuse , face , fancy ( 设想 ), feel like , finish , forgive , give up, imagine , include , keep , mention , mind , miss , pardon, practise , put off , resist, risk , suggest , can’t help , can’t stand ( 无法忍受 ) 等 + doing 宾语

14 考点三: forget , remember , regret , go on , like , mean , stop , try 等动词可带动名词或不定式 作宾语,但意义上有区别。 I remember doing the exercise. I must remember to do it. I mean to come early today. Missing the train means waiting for another hour . 我记得做过练习. 我必须记得去做这事. 我打算今早些来. 误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时. 宾语 regret to say / tell / inform …

15 考点四: allow , advise , forbid , permit + doing allow , advise , forbid , permit + sb to do be allowed / advised / forbidden / permitted + to do We don’t allow __________here. We don' t allow students___________. Students are not allow ____________. smoking to smoke 宾语 to smoke

16 考点五:在短语 devote… to , look forward to , stick to, be used to , object to , get down to, be ( kept) busy , be worth, have difficulty / trouble / problem (in) , have a good / wonderful / hard time (in) + doing 如: I look forward to _________from you soon. hearing 宾语

17 考点六 : 动词 need, require, want 作 “ 需要 ” 解, + doing to be done The window requires _____________. _____________. cleaning to be cleaned

18 1.The story was _________,we were all _________.(move) 2.There is a ________ expression on his face. Maybe the problem is too difficult for him.(puzzle) 3.With his son too____________, the father was sad.(dispoint) 定语和表语 disappointing puzzled moving, moved

19 作表语时或定语时, -ing form 与 pp 的区别 - ing form 表示 “ 令人 ”, pp 表示 “ 感到 ” , interesting 使人感到高兴 --interested 感到高兴的 exciting 令人激动的 --excited 感到激动的 delighting 令人高兴的 --delighted 感到高兴的 disappointing 令人失望的 --disappointed 感到失望的 encouraging 令人鼓舞的 --encouraged 感到鼓舞的 pleasing 令人愉快的 --pleased 感到愉快的 puzzling 令人费解的 --puzzled 感到费解的 satisfying 令人满意的 ---satisfied 感到满意的 surprising 令人惊异的 --surprised 感到惊异的 worrying 令人担心的 --worried 感到担心的

20 eg. He attends the meeting being held in the room now. He attended the meeting held yesterday. He will attend the meeting to be held tomorrow. 2. 表示被修饰词的内容时, 用 to do. eg. She has a strong wish to go to college. the way / chance / ability / right / willingness to do 1. 从时态上看, -ing form 表示正在进行的动作, pp 表示已经完成的动作, to do 表示将来的动作。 定语

21 注意:不定式动词在介词 but , except , besides 后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动 词 do 的各种形式,那么,这些介词后的不定 式不带 to ,否则要带 to 。 She could do nothing but cry . What do you like to do besides swim? I have no choice but to go . 定语

22 动名词作定语 动名词作定语 singing competition swimming pool dining car opening speech drinking cup living room typing paper waiting room writing desk washing machine frying-pan sleeping-pill walking stick teaching method 注: 注:动名词作定语表示被修饰名词的 用途 定语

23 I found him __________the money. (steal) I found the money ____________. When he came to himself, he found himself _______________by an old lady. ( look after) I often hear Mary _________this English song. -ing form 与宾语为主动关系,强调动作正在进行; pp 与宾语为被动关系,强调动作已经完成; (to) do 只单纯表示一个事实,强调动作的全过程。 补足语 stealing stolen being looked after sing

24 注意 2 : 在 feel , hear , listen to , look at , notice , observe , see , watch , have , 1et , make 等词后的补足语中,不定式 不带 to 。但是这些句中如果变成被动结构时,就 必须带 to 。 注意 1 : ask, advise, allow, permit, get, beg, cause, command, order, force, oblige, encourage, instruct, remind, warn, want, wish, expect, prefer, would like, call on, depend on, ask for, wait for, help + sb to do I often hear him sing the song . He is often heard to sing the song· 补足语

25 -ing form 与 pp 作状语 现在分词 ( 短语 ) 与过去分词 ( 短语 ) 作状语, 表示时 间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况 等。 When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us. United, we stand; divided, we fall. (=When / If we are united …) Seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful. Climbing to the top of the tower, we saw a ma gnificent view. (1) 表示时间

26 (2) 表示原因 Being sick, I stayed at home. She caught cold sitting on the grass. (3) 表示条件 Adopting this method, we will raise the average yield (产量) by 40 percent. Even if invited, I won’t go. (4) 表示让步 Admitting what she has said, I still think that she hasn’t tried her best.

27 (5) 表示结果 It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in that country. It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our holiday. (6) 表示方式或伴随情况 He ran up to her breathing heavily. Please fill in the form, giving your name, address Surrounded by a group of pupils, the old teacher walked into the room.

28 作状语时的区别: They worked hard to pay for the necklace. I went to see him only to find him out. I am glad to see you. to do 表示 1. 目的 ; 2. 结果 — 表示出人预料的情况或结 果。常用 only 强调。 3. 原因 — 表示造成情感变化的原因。 目的 结果 原因 状语 -ing / pp 表示时间、原因、条件、方式、 伴随情况等等,

29 In order to pass the exam , he worked very hard . We ran all the way so as not to be late . 2. 在作表语用的形容词后面作状语。 I am very glad to hear it. The question is difficult to answer . 3. too + adj/ adv + to do 作状语 He is too old to do that . 4. enough + adj/adv + to do 作状语 The room is big enough to hold us . 1. 目的状语 : in order to 或 so as to to do 作状语的其它几种情况 : 5. so / such … as to do 表结果 He was so angry as to be unable to speak. I am not such a fool as to believe you.

30 分词的时态和语态: 与主语动词同时,应用现在分词。 分词作时间状语,如果先于主动词的动作,且强 调先后, 要用 having done 。 The secretary worked late into the night, __________a long speech for the president. (prepare) _____________________ a reply, he decided to write again. (receive) ______________in the university for 3 years, he knows the way very well . _______________________by the teacher , Li Ming gave up smoking . Having studied preparing Not having received Having been criticized

31 分词作插入语 其结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。 generally speaking 一般说来 talking of (speaking of) 说道 strictly speaking 严格的说 judging from 从 … 判断 all things considered 从整体来看 taking all things into consideration 全面看来 given / considering 考虑到 supposing, provided, providing 假若 例如: Given his age, he did very well. Supposing she doesn’t come, what shall we do?

32 动词不定式作插入语 表明说话人的立场或态度, 在句中作独立成分。 to be honest / frank / fair / ; to tell you the truth; to begin / start with ; to cut / make a long story short; to get (back) to the point ; to make things / matters worse; to put it another way ; not to speak of … eg.To be honest, I have never heard of Winston Churchill. He knows English and French, not to speak of German.

33 非谓语动词的否定形式 not + to do / -ing form He decided not to do it. She wished never to see him again. Not seeing John,I asked where he was. Not having done it right, I tried again. His not coming made me a little angry.

34 ing form 的复合结构 1. 形容词性物主代词 / 名词所有格 +ing form Tom’s coming his coming 2. 代词宾格 / 名词 +ing form Tom coming him coming ↗主语 → 表语 ↘宾语 → 宾语补足语 ______the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend ______the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend B. The president to attend C. The president attended B. The president to attend C. The president attended D. The president’s attending D. The president’s attending

35 1. Do you mind opening the door? 2. Going there saved us a good deal of trouble. 3. Being late again made the teacher angry. → Do you mind me/my opening … → Tom’s going there saved us a good … → His being late again made… 说出 -ing form 动作的执行者时,须用复合结构

36 独立主格结构 ( 所谓独立主格结构,分词的逻辑主 语不是句子主语,而是有自己的逻辑 主语时,叫独立主格结构。) A)1. Today ____( be ) Sunday, the library doesn’t open. 2. There _____( be ) no buses, we had to walk home.

37 3. The signal _____( give ), the bus started. 4. Weather ____ ( permit ), we’ll visit the Great Wall. 5. A teacher from England ____( teach ) us English, we’re sure to learn it well. 6. With him ____( give ) us a lead, our team is to win. 7. With the worker ____( lead ), the Young Pioneers went through the forest and started towards the mountain village.

38 8. Many people spoke aloud in front of our classroom, with nobody ____( stop ) them. 9. He was looking at the screen again, with the machine ____( turn ) on. 10. The girl felt uneasy with the whole class _____( stare ) at her. 11. With the machinery _____( do ) all the work, we finished the task last month. 12. She lay on the grass with her eyes _____( close ). 13. You might catch a cold with your feet _____( expose).

39 解答语法填空时,首先分析句子结构, 若句子已有谓语动词且不是并谓语时,所给 动词必定用非谓语动词;然后分析该非谓语 动词在句中作什么句子成分,初定作该成分 的应是哪一种或几种非谓语动词形式;最后 再根据非谓语动词各自的特点和用法,同时 看谓语动词有没有特别的要求,再结合与逻 辑主语的关系,确定该填哪种形式。

40 另外,在确定用 -ing 形式还是用 -ed 形式,用 to do 还是用 to be done 时,都是由该非谓语动词与逻辑 主语是主动关系还是被动关系来确定的。那么, 如何找出非谓语动词的逻辑主语?这与非谓语动 词在句中作何种成分有关,详见下表: 充当句 子成分 宾语表语状语定语宾补 逻辑 主语 句子的主语所修饰 的词 句子的 宾语

41 [ 例 1]…the proverb, “plucking up a crop 32 (help) it grow”, is based on the following story. (2008 年广东 ) 分析:因句中已有谓语 is based ,而 “plucking up a crop 32 (help) it grow” 是 the proverb 的同位语,是一个名词短语而非同位语从句, 因此, help 应是非谓语动词; “ 帮助禾苗长 ” 是 “ 将禾苗拨起来 ” 的目的,作目的状语,用动词 不定式,故填 to help 。

42 [ 例 2]While she was getting me ___34___ (settle) into a tiny but clean room…(2007 年广东 ) 分析:因句中已有谓语 was getting ,所以 settle 应是非谓语动词;又由 settle sb. into/in/on…( 使某人舒服地处于某处 ) 可知, me 与 settle 是被动关系,要用过去分词用宾补,故 填 settled 。

43 考点击破

44 一、单句填空:用括号中所给动词的适当形式填空。 1. _____________ (walk) is a good form of exercise for both young and old. ( 全国 ) 2. Eugene's never willing to alter any of his opinions. It’s no use __________(argue) with him. ( 上海 ) 3. Please remain _________(seat); the winner of the prize will be announced soon. ( 辽宁 ) 4. — Can I smoke here? — Sorry. We don’t allow ___________(smoke) here. ( 江苏 ) Walking arguing seated smoking

45 5. It is difficult to imagine his ________ (accept) the decision without any consideration. ( 陕西 ) 6. I can’t stand _________(work) with Jane in the same office. She just refuses ________(stop) talking while she works. ( 北京 ) 7. As a result of the serious flood, two-thirds of the buildings in the area need _____________ (repair). ( 陕西 ) 8. Susan wanted to be independent of her parents. She tried ________ (live) alone, but she didn’t like it and moved back home. ( 湖南 ) accepting to stop working to be repaired living

46 9. — Robert is indeed a wise man. — Oh, yes. How often I have regretted ____________(not take) his advice! ( 安徽 ) 10. If you think that treating a woman well means always ________ (get) her permission for things, think again. ( 湖南 ) 11. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks _______________________(open and close) could be heard outside the classroom. ( 全国 ) 12. —They are quiet, aren’t they? —Yes. They are accustomed to _______ (not talk) at meals. ( 江苏 ) not taking getting being opened and closed not talking

47 13. Isn't it time you got down to ________ (mark) the papers? ( 重庆 ) 14. Mr. Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to ________ (set) up some schools for poor children. ( 上海 ) 15. She looks forward every spring to ________ (walk) in the flower-lined garden. ( 上海 ) 16. Having been ill in bed for nearly a month, he had a hard time ________ (pass) the exam. ( 福建 ) marking setting walking passing

48 17. According to a recent U.S. survey, children spend up to 25 hours a week ________ (watch) TV. ( 上海 ) 18. I believe that’s the best way to prevent such a thing from ____________ (happen) again. ( 全国 ) 19. Did you have trouble in________ (find) the post office? ( 全国 ) 20. Sandy could do nothing but ________ (admit) to his teacher that he was wrong. ( 上海 ) watching happening finding admit

49 21. I smell something __________ (burn) in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute? ( 全国 ) 22. Don’t leave the water ________ (run) while you brush your teeth. ( 天津 ) 23. It was so cold that they kept the fire ___________ (burn) all night. ( 全国 ) 24. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see _________ (carry) out the next year. ( 全国 ) burning running burning carried

50 25. To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English ___________ (speak) as much as we can. ( 江苏 ) 26. He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them ____________(interest) in his lectures. ( 江苏 ) 27. Energy drinks are not allowed ________ (make) in Australia but are brought in from New Zealand. ( 上海 ) 28. My advisor encouraged me ________(take) a summer course to improve my writing skills. ( 北京 ) spoken interested to be made to take

51 29. My parents have always made me ________ (feel) good about myself, even when I was twelve. ( 江苏 ) 30. They knew her very well. They had seen her ________ (grow) up from childhood. ( 全国 ) 31. The mother felt herself ________ (grow) cold and her hands trembled as she read the letter from the battlefield. ( 上海 ) 32. Paul doesn’t have to be made ________ (learn). He always works hard. ( 全国 ) feel grow to learn

52 33. —Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work ________ (fill) my mind, I almost break down. ( 福建 ) 34. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work ____________ (finish), he gladly accepted it. ( 安徽 ) 35. With a lot of difficult problems ________ (settle), the newly-elected president is having a hard time. ( 上海 ) 36. The director had her assistant ______ (pick) up some hot dogs for the meeting. ( 全国 ) filling finished to settle pick

53 37. — Did Peter fix the computer himself? — He had it ________(fix), because he doesn’t know much about computers. ( 安徽 ) 38. Jenny hopes that Mr. Smith will suggest a good way to have her written English ________ (improve) in a short period. ( 福建 ) 39. Helen had to shout to make herself ________ (hear) above the sound of the music. ( 广西 ) 40. Peter received a letter just now ________ (say) his grandma would come to see him soon. ( 四川 ) fixed improved heard saying

54 41. As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not ________ (move), and asked myself what I was going to do. ( 湖南 ) 42. ___________(walk) in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of spring. ( 安 徽 ) 43. ______________ (wait) in the queue for half an hour, the old man suddenly realized he had left the cheque in the car. ( 福建 ) 44. __________ (blame) for the breakdown of the school computer network, Alice was in low spirits. ( 福建 ) moving Walking Having waited Blamed

55 45. He hurried to the booking office only _____________ (tell) that all the tickets had been sold out. ( 陕西 ) 46. European football is played in 80 countries, ____________ (make) it the most popular sport in the world. ( 全国 ) 47. You were silly not ________________(lock) your car. ( 湖南 ) 48. I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good _____________(breathe). ( 宁夏 ) to be told making to have locked to breathe

56 49. _____________ (complete) the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. ( 湖南 ) 50. When ________ (ask) why he went there, he said he was sent there to be trained for a space flight. ( 江西 ) 51. The flowers his friend gave him will die unless ____________(water) every day. ( 四川 ) 52. When _____________(compare) different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities. ( 浙江 ) To complete asked watered comparing

57 53. —The last one ___________(arrive) pays the meal. —Agree! ( 全国 ) 54. The trees _________(blow) in the storm have been moved off the road. ( 湖南 ) 55. Can those _________ (seat) at the back of the classroom hear me? ( 福建 ) 56. Reading is an experience quite different from watching TV; there are pictures ________ (form) in your mind instead of before your eyes. ( 广西 ) to arrive blown seated forming

58 57. —It’s a long time since I saw my sister. ( 全 国 ) —Why not ________( visit ) her this weekend? 58. _________ ( search ) the website of the Fire Department in your city, and you will learn a lot about firefighting. ( 湖南 ) 59. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons __________( finish ) for the day. ( 重庆 ) 60. ________ ( give ) the general state of health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation. ( 北京 ) visit Search finished Given

59 二、语篇填空 用所给动词的适当形式填空。 Freud was one of the first scientists [1]_______ ( make ) serious research of the mind. The mind is the collection of activities [2]________ ( base ) in the brain that involve how we act, think, feel and reason. to make based

60 He used long talks with patients and the study of dreams [3]___________ ( search ) for the causes of mental and emotional problems. He also tried hypnosis( 催眠 ). He wanted to see if [4]________ ( put ) patients into a sleep-like condition would help ease [5]________ ( trouble ) minds. In most cases he found the effects only temporary. to search putting troubled

61 Freud worked hard, although what he did might sound easy. His method involved [6]________ (sit) with his patients and [7]________ ( listen ) to them talk. He had them [8]________ ( talk ) about whatever they were thinking. All ideas, thoughts and anything that entered their mind had to [9]___________ ( express ). There could be no[10]________ ( hold ) back because of fear or guilt. sitting listening talk be expressed holding

62 Fill the passage with proper form Our English teacher,Miss Wang is friendly with us, ______ _from Hunan province.We are __________ (interest) in her class, because her class is lively and ____________.(interest) Like many other teachers,she devotes herself to ________(work) and spends most of the time ________(stay) with students. ________ _(consider) our poor English,she comes to our classroom almost every morning, __________ (watch) over the students _________ (read) English. She has a special way to deal with the students _________ (sleep) in class. She will ask these students _____________ (answer) the questions_____ (give) by herself. She is busy with her job all the day.________________(finish) all the work, she goes home to have a rest. But it is very late in the day. Miss Wang is such a responsible teacher that all of us like her very much. coming interested interesting workingstaying Considering watching reading sleeping to answergiven Having finished

63 Fill the passage with proper form Our English teacher,Miss Wang is friendly with us, ______ _from Hunan province.We are __________ (interest) in her class, because her class is lively and ____________.(interest) Like many other teachers,she devotes herself to ________(work) and spends most of the time ________(stay) with students. ________ _(consider) our poor English,she comes to our classroom almost every morning, __________ (watch) over the students _________ (read) English. She has a special way to deal with the students _________ (sleep) in class. She will ask these students _____________ (answer) the questions_____ (give) by herself. She is busy with her job all the day.________________(finish) all the work, she goes home to have a rest. But it is very late in the day. Miss Wang is such a responsible teacher that all of us like her very much. coming interested interesting workingstaying Considering watching reading sleeping to answergiven Having finished


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