Presentation on theme: "Modals October 23, 2006 Presenters: Han, Keumhee Lee, Haiwon Lee, Jooyoung Lee, Mikyoung SOOKMYUNG WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY Graduate School of TESOL."— Presentation transcript:
Modals October 23, 2006 Presenters: Han, Keumhee Lee, Haiwon Lee, Jooyoung Lee, Mikyoung SOOKMYUNG WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY Graduate School of TESOL
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 2 1. Basic forms 2. Basic meanings 1) Epistemic modality 2) Root modality 3. Meanings in context 1) The potential of can 2) The possibility of may 3) The necessity of must ---------------------------------- Activity Ⅰ ----------------------------------- 4) The likelihood of will 5) The requirements of should 4. Negation and modals ----------------------------------- Activity Ⅱ -----------------------------------
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 3 Basic forms Simple modals Periphrastic modals Present tensePast tense cancouldbe able to maymightbe allowed to must--------have (got) to shallshouldbe supposed to willwouldbe going to
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 4 Basic meanings Modals convey some indication of the speaker’s perspective or attitude with respect to the situation or state of affairs being described. 1. Epistemic modality to indicate ‘what is known’ deductions or conclusions made by the speaker based on the speaker’s knowledge of facts Ex) He must be tired. He may be tired.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 5 2. Root modality to indicate ‘what is socially determined’ based on the speaker’s awareness of what is socially determined related to obligation and permission: based on social power of some kind Ex) You must go out. You may go out.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 6 * Necessary and possible major distinctions made in both epistemic and root modality: the pattern is based on what is necessary and what is possible Epistemic modality He must smoke a lot. (strong conclusion / necessary) He may smoke a lot. (weak conclusion / possible) Root modality You must speak loudly. (obligation / necessary) You may speak loudly. (permission / possible)
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 7 Meanings in context The core meaning of each modal is interpreted in different context or circumstances. It is important to encourage students to notice the context in which modal forms are used. 1. The potential of can three meanings for the modal verb can: ability, permission, and possibility ☞ These three uses are about ‘potential’. ☞ The differences result from the way in which that ‘potential’ is perceived in different context.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 8 Meanings Context/ Circumstances Examples Ability Animate agent-subject as source Physical action, mental activity My son can play soccer. The dog can jump high. I can imagine. Permission Social relationships (authority) as source Social transaction ☞ Root modality His mom says he can have ice cream. The teacher says you can leave. Possibility Absence of animate agent Situationally specified ☞ Epistemic modality Grammar can be fun! The problems can be solved.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 9 Could The relationship between can and could is one of relative remoteness from the point of utterance. The potential for an animate agent to perform an action is marked as more remote from the point of utterance-more remote in time or more remote in likelihood (less likely) Ex) I could run much faster when I was younger. With the right tools, I could fix it myself. Remote potential in social terms creates greater politeness and less likelihood of social permission. Ex) Could I leave early today if we aren’t too busy? Well, you could, but there’s a lot of work to be done.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 10 Be able to A substitute for can, but can is used at least ten times more often than be able to. There is one important difference in meaning in the past tense. When could is used, it is the potential that is implied. When were able to is used, it means that the actual event took place. Ex) We could repair the old car. We were able to repair the old car.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 11 2. The possibility of may three meanings: permission, (weak) possibility, and concession ☞ These three uses are about ‘possibility’. ☞ The differences result from the way in which that ‘possibility’ is perceived in different context.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 12 MeaningsContext/CircumstancesExamples Permission Social authority Asking/giving permission ☞ Root modality ☞ Formal usage-becoming much less common, can is more frequent May I come in? You may go to the bathroom. Possibility (Weak) Source is speaker’s knowledge Equals may not ☞ Epistemic modality The train may be late. He may drop by the office. Concession The speaker wishes to acknowledge the possibility of some event Followed by a but clause Can be paraphrased by although clause He may be old, but he’s still healthy. You may like it, but it doesn’t matter.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 13 Might The difference between may and might is based on relative remoteness from the point of utterance. Means a sense of ‘uncertainty’ about the likelihood of an event taking place. Ex) He’s really busy now, but he might join us later. Means a hypothetical or ‘unreal’ event. Ex) Lions might fly. Results in the concessive uses being marked as less likely. Ex) That might happen (Although~), but we’re not going to worry about it.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 14 Be allowed to Can be used instead of may.-permission Ex) We are allowed to (=may) light the fire. When be allowed to is used in the past tense, its meaning is different from might. With might, the meaning is remote possibility, but with were allowed to, the meaning is remote fact. Ex) They might have a break after lunch. They were allowed to have a break after lunch.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 15 3. The necessity of must two meanings: obligation and conclusion ☞ These two uses are about ‘necessity’. ☞ The differences result from the way in which that ‘necessity’ is perceived in different context.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 16 MeaningsContext/CircumstancesExamples Obligation Present and future actions with animate subjects Aspect is rare Negation is common ☞ Root modality *In contemporary English, must could indicate a desire to meet some social obligation which is interpreted as vague arrangements rather than fixed events. I must study harder. You mustn’t go out now. You must come to see us later. Conclusion Past and present states/some actions Animate/non-animate subjects Perfect and progressive aspect Negation is rare ☞ Epistemic modality Did you work all night? You must be tired. There must have been an accident. The computer is on, so someone must be using it.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 17 Have (got) to a. Have to There is no past tense form of must. Expressions of past necessity are presented via the form have to for obligations. Ex) When I was in school, we had to wear school uniform. In the present tense, it seems to provide an alternative to must. Ex) We have to (=must) go to this meeting. * In the negative, mustn’t conveys an obligation not to do something, but don’t have to means that there is not an obligation to do something. Ex) You mustn’t drink beer. / You don’t have to drink beer.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 18 b. have got to This is used to convey ‘necessity’, typically found in informal speech, and used with the root meaning of obligation. EX) They’ve got to try harder next time. There are some common expressions where the epistemic sense of a conclusion is involved. Ex) You’ve got to be kidding.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 19 Activity: Part 1 1. Deduction 2. Landlord 3. Language Corpora
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 20 Deductions Aim: to use of modals to express logical necessity or possibility Level: Intermediate high Age: high school 1 st graders Time: 50 minutes Materials: snapshots of people in your family, photographs
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 21 Procedure: Stage1 Show your photograph and ask students to try to deduce whatever they can about its subject.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 22 e.g. He must be your father because he looks like you. They may be your nephews. Stage 2 1.Show your photographs and ask them to deduce where they are. 2.Divide the class into groups of three or four. The students conjecture using picture clues in groups. 3.Each group presents their decisions and gives the reasons. 4.Tell them the truth.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 23 Where are they? ↑Neuschwanstein Castle, Germany ←Bangkok, Thailand City Hall Building in Heppenhein, Germany →
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 25 Abbey Field, England ← Double-deck bus, England ↑ The Tower Bridge, England
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 26 Stage 3 1.Take out their pictures and post them round the class, with a sheet of paper under each one. 2.Invite them to go round writing up their deductions, using the same structures they have used orally. 3.Read out the suggestions under each photograph and ask its owner to give the true interpretation.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 27 Landlord Aim: to ask for and give permission Level: Intermediate low Age: adults Time: 30 minutes Materials: handout
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 28 Procedure: 1.Give out one card to each student. 2.Make it clear who is a landlord and who is a tenant. 3.Have students move around the classroom asking what is and is not permitted by the various landlords until they find one who will let them do everything they want. Tenants: Can I…? / Could I…? / May I…? Landlords: You can… / You may… / You must… / You are allowed to…
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 29 Tenants You want to: Play music Use the kitchen Smoke Have visitors You want to: Use the kitchen Use the telephone Smoke Bring your cat Invite your friends round You want to: Cook your own meals Put pictures on the walls Smoke Play your stereos Use the telephone You want to: Play your stereos Smoke Use the telephone Bring your canary Put pictures on the walls You want to: Play your stereos Use the kitchen Invite your friends round Bring your cat Put pictures on the walls You want to: Use the telephone Smoke Have visitors Bring your dog Put pictures on the walls You want to: Use the kitchen Use the telephone Smoke Invite your friends round Put pictures on the walls You want to: Play music Use the kitchen Use the telephone Bring your cat Put pictures on the walls
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 30 Landlords Rules: No animals No alcohol in the house No pictures on the wall Rules: No stereos No pictures on the wall Tenants must keep their rooms tidy Rules: No visitors No animals in the house Tenants must keep their rooms tidy Rules: No visitors Tenants may not use the kitchen Rules: No smoking Tenants may not use the telephone Tenants must keep their rooms tidy Rules: No loud music Tenants may not use the kitchen Rules: No animals No stereos Rules: No smoking No visitors
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 31 Language Corpora Aim: to identify the different usage of ‘can’ using language corpora Level: Advanced Age: adults Time: 50 minutes Materials: three sets of concordance lines
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 32 Result of search ADK 1603 Try to read the feedback and get as definite a picture as you can. C97 2284 Minerals: Minerals (or trace elements) can be absorbed by fish, either from their food or from the surrounding water. CSP 316 The data can then be analysed or altered and placed back in the database. CK6 749 Can you deal with that? G0Y 2536 Can I take a message? BM1 232 This can happen if someone becomes convinced that they are food-allergic or food-intolerant without undergoing proper diagnosis.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 33 Stage 1 1.Divide the class into three groups (A, B, & C), and give each group a different set of concordance lines. 2.Ask students find two or three different usages. 3.Each group underlines ‘can’ and work out the difference in meaning. Encourage to use highlighter pens of contrasting colors to color code. 4.Teacher monitors offering assistance.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 34 Stage 2 1.Regroup the class (ABC,ABC,ABC) 2.Ask students to explain to each other their findings from their former groups. 3.Work out different meanings and present. Stage 3 Teacher summarizes if necessary.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 35 Will 1) Intention a future event that is planned, with the speaker as the one who is reporting the source for the likelihood a. I will borrow some money and buy a car. b. These competitors will try to win the grand prize.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 36 One noticeable feature of will is the influence of the type of action described on the preferred interpretation. a. I’ll make dinner for tomorrow night. (desirable action – promise) b. I’ll call the police if you don’t leave. (undesirable action – threat) c. A: I’ll talk to you about this later. (intention is not clear) B: Is that a threat or a promise? (joking response)
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 37 2) Willingness involves animate agents and physical actions ex) Will you marry me? Of course I will. When non-animate agents are treated metaphorically, speakers can complain about the ‘willingness’ of things such as doors and cars ex) My car won’t start. Will you give me a ride?
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 38 3) Prediction the act of predicting is done by the speaker, but the subjects of predictions are non-animate, third person forms ex) The weather will be terrible on Sunday. The will is clearly epistemic in logical ‘if A, then B’ statements ex) If the red light is on, the unit will be recording.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 39 The uses of the negative form ‘won’t’ Epistemic uses: ex) Paul won’t come (because he’s too busy). - Predict NOT come Root uses: ex) Paul won’t come (because he doesn’t want to). - ‘NOT willing to come’ The same utterance under different circumstances can have different interpretations.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 40 Summary Box. The meanings of will Circumstances Interpretations Examples Speaker as source Planned future action Desirable(= promise) Undesirable(= threat) intention I will call the police! Animate agent subject Physical action/activity Second person questions as requests Aspect rare Negation applies to model Social transaction (root) willingness Will you help me? Non-animate subjects common Third person, non-specific subjects Aspect common Logical statements (If A, then B.) Common in technical texts Negation applies to main verb prediction The weather will be nice.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 41 Shall There is a general element of ‘determination’ on the speaker’s part in the first person. ex) Shall we dance? A root function of ‘shall’ is fairly common in legal texts. ex) The license of a person who is arrested for driving while intoxicated shall be suspended. Speakers associate shall with an earlier period of the language because a general pattern of will becoming more frequently used for expressing all types of likelihood.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 42 Would an interpretation of some event as being distant in time or possibility from the moment of speaking addressee’s willingness to do something ex) Would you lend me some money? (has become formulaic for expressing requests and offers) habitual behaviour : when remoteness in time is combined with predictability of action ex) When she was young, Anne would such the thumb.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 43 Would little likelihood of happening soon: when remoteness in possibility is combined with ‘prediction ex) They would do much better (if they studied more) in conditional sentences ex) If I were you, I’d quit that job.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 44 Be going to is not used to express the ‘willingness’ associated with will. Future action is related to the present and will occur relatively soon after the time of speaking. ex) a. I’m going to finish these exercises now. (immediate future) b. And I’ll get round to the others later. (more remote future)
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 45 Be going to The literal source of the expression suggesting that the subject is currently on a path moving towards a goal. ex) a. Close your eyes, I’m going to give you a surprise. b. Watch out! The monster’s going to get you!
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 46 Should The core concept is ‘requirements’ socially-oriented requirements, typically expressed in terms of appropriate behavior. ex) You should brush your teeth twice a day. knowledge-oriented required interpretations, typically expressed in terms of what is probably the case. ex) The journey should take two or three days.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 47 1) Obligation Weaker sense of obligation as advice or a suggestion Why-question is used to question or deny the relevance of a social requirement ex) Why should I go there when I’m quite happy here? 2) Probability Epistemic uses of should are less common. They express the speaker’s reasonable assumptions. ex) He’s the best runner, so he should win the race Should
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 48 Ought to More frequently found in speech than in writing, is found with socially-oreinted meaning, and typically receives stress whereas should is mostly unstressed. ex) She ought to have said ‘thank you’ for the gift.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 49 Be supposed to The social requirement being mentioned is external to the speaker and may be one that the speaker feels is being ignored. ex) You’re supposed to be studying, not watching TV.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 50 Negation and Modals The effect of negation on the meaning of sentences containing modals is quite complex. The action or state (main verb) as negative The modality (modal verb meaning) as negative The Modality-NOT-action is internal negation and indicates that the level of ‘what is known’ is not being negated, but the action is ex) a. It won’t rain. = predict (NOT rain) b. It shouldn’t last. = probable (NOT last )
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 51 in socially-oriented functions, it is the modality that is affected by the negation much more. ex) a. Your friend may leave. = permit (your friend leave) b. But you may not leave. = NOT permit (you leave) NOT-modality-action is external negation and indicates that some parts of what is ‘socially-determined’ can be negated, while the nature of the action says the same. ex) a. He won’t help us. = NOT willing (help us) b. He can’t smoke here. =NOT permit (smoke here)
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 52 Mustn’t Express the epistemic meaning of ‘conclusion’ ex) She mustn’t have much money. = conclude (NOT have much money) is used in its root (obligation) sense ex) a. You mustn’t do it. = oblige (NOT do it) b. You don’t have to do it. = NOT oblige (do it)
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 53 Can’t /May not an interpretation ‘NOT possible’ will have a stronger negative implication than ‘possible NOT’ to happen. ex) a. It can’t work. = NOT possible (work) b. It may not work. = possible (NOT work) Modals are problematic for learners. Teachers need to be very patient and supportive, and provide lots of contextualized examples
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 55 Target language: should, ought to, shouldn’t Target students: intermediate & advanced 1. Print out an advice column (Dear Abby, Ann Landers, or other 'agony aunts') which can be easily found on a search engine. Teach your students what an agony aunt is, have them read the column, and discuss in pairs if they think the advice given is good or not, and whether or not advice columns are useful in general. Highlight key phrases like "What should I do?" "I don't know if I should... or..." and the classic anonymous closing, "(adjective) in (town)", i.e. Depressed in Dakota.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 56 2. Put students into pairs or small groups, and tell them that they need to invent a problem, and they should be as creative as possible. Then have each group write a paragraph to Dear Abby explaining their problem and asking for advice. 3. Collect the papers and redistribute them randomly. Now each group becomes 'Dear Abby' and has to write their advice. 4. Return the papers to the original groups, and have each one read out loud their problem and the advice that was given.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 57 Example column – asking for an advice Dear Annie: My husband and I are of low- average height, but our 16-year-old daughter is barely 4 feet 11. She is otherwise healthy, pretty and a good student, but she feels that people don't take her seriously because she looks 12 years old. Socially she is very shy and afraid she will never get a date. To be honest, I am terrified she is right. I want so much for her to be happy. How can we both feel better? – From Anxious
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 58 Example column - advice Dear Anxious: Yes, your daughter is likely to experience her share of annoyances due to her height, but this should not be cause for concern. Plenty of petite women find mates and have successful careers. Your anxiety can negatively affect how your daughter sees herself, so you should make a conscious decision to treat this lightly and with humor. Focus on her talents and personality. If she develops confidence and assurance, she will do well, regardless of her stature. Really.
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 60 Target language: should have Target students: intermediate mid - high 1. Ask students to think about regrets they’ve had in the past. To get them started, give a few examples of your own, e.g. I should have visited my grandparents more. I shouldn’t have eaten too much for lunch. I really should have learnt another language when I was young. 2. Write on the board the sentence stems: I should have I shouldn’t have I really should have
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 61 3. Ask students to complete the sentences for themselves. Tell them that these should be regrets that they don’t mind sharing with others. 4. When they have finished, ask them to work in pairs and compare their sentences. 5. As a follow up, you can make this into an instant roleplay. Tell students to work with a new partner and explain the following situation: You just got a score F for the last mid term. You are speaking to one of your best classmates. Ask students to think of ways of completing the sentence stems above.
Activity 3 Board Game – 1 st & 2 nd conditional
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 63 Target language: will or would Target students: intermediate-high or advanced 1. Preview with students questions from the worksheet to decide if the situations are likely or unlikely to happen 2. Use one example to present the different forms asking students what they will / would do if it happens / happened 3. Ask students, in pairs, to make other sentences according to the rock-scissors- paper game. (Make an agreement with studetns to move one for rock, two for scissors and three for paper.)
Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 64 4. As a follow up, have students write short, imaginative essays that begin with one of the following: If I won the lottery, I would... If I had only a month to live, I would... If I could meet anyone, I would... If I had to eat four foods for the rest of my life, I would... If I had to live on a deserted island for a year and could take only five things with me, I would... If I had three wishes, I would...