Presentation on theme: "Ritva Ruponen & Marjatta Vanhalakka-Ruoho"— Presentation transcript:
1Ritva Ruponen & Marjatta Vanhalakka-Ruoho GROUP COUNSELLING IN ENHANCING AGENCY AT WORK:THE CASE OF IT-PROFESSIONALSCareer guidance and development practices around the worldCape Town South Africa19-21 October 2011
2University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus (15,000 degree students – 2,700 staff members – 4 faculties)
3STARTING POINTS We are developing one methodological approach to evaluate the outcomes of group counselling.This study is part of a more extensive research project entitled’Group counselling in encountering uncertainty and changes.Navigating forward’
4STARTING POINTSOur study is connected with the issues of work place counselling.In this study a group counselling trial was carried outin an IT enterprise.The central model is the structured group counselling model(Borgen et al. 1989).clearly defined goalsflexible designa framework promoting learninga diversity of learning activities.
5SOME THEORETICAL FRAMES AgencyThe core essence of agency is seen to be relatedto the individual’s ability to choose and directtheir own actions according to their choices(e.g. Richardson 2004; Gergen 2009).Socio-cultural models stress that the individual’sintentions and desires are not only found intheir minds, but they must be understoodin a multiplicity of contexts in regard to othersand environments.
6SOME THEORETICAL FRAMES RelationalityLife-designing of individuals occurs in relation to and negotiationwith significant others both nearby and distant.Individuals are also viewed relationally as acting and connectedto the bonds, opportunities and limitations of the cultural andsocial environment (Schultheiss 2007; Savickas et al. 2010).In work contexts relationality is discussed in many terms:it is a question of joint action, shared expertise and collectiveaction.
7SOME THEORETICAL FRAMES DialogicalityHuman action is understood in interactive relations and theconstruction of agency is seen as reciprocal.The individual’s action is analyzed as positioned relationsto the self, other persons as well as objects and situations,and as the development of these positioned relations(Leiman 2007, 2008).The focus is onthe development of reflective self-observationmovements generated in the subject and object positions(location of agency; being a subject or an object )
8How to evaluate the outcomes of group counselling? The key question:How to evaluate the outcomes of group counselling?
9RESEARCH DESIGNThe research task is to clarify what workers receive both individuallyand collectively from group counselling for their agency at work.What incentives has the group counselling trial given theparticipants to develop their agency at work?How can these changes be analyzed dialogically as situationallybound and relationally associated processes?
10RESEARCH DESIGNThe goal of the trial was to help the workers recognizetheir own work methods and develop their strengths andwork methods amid changes in and challenges to their competence.Group counselling was effectuated according to thefive session and one follow-up (5 + 1) model.Pre-group tasks and intermediate tasks were includedin the counselling process.The researchers also served as group counsellors.
11An example of the design 2nd sessionOpening of sessionJoint work chartZooming in on teamwork chart:chat groupsIndividual relation to work: pair workIntermediate task for the next session: Mapping my experiencesof learning and successSummary of session. Thoughts for next time.
12RESEARCH DESIGN Participants Half of the enterprise’s personnel participated in the group counsellingtrial; people were present at different sessions.Male-dominated workplace: One female employee present.Methods-questionnaire prior to beginningThe notes of the counselors and the materials (charts) producedby the participants in the group sessions were collected.The main data were collected by interviews (n=11) some weeksafter the last session.
13RESEARCH DESIGN Analysis of interview data: The subject of the analysis is verbal expressions and relational speechThe interview material was analyzed on two levels.The first stage was a group-level analysis. It examined the changes the participants described in respect to group counselling, teamwork and their own work.The second level analyzed individual changes. The subject of this analysis was individual self-observations, action patterns and changes in them.
14A solution to the key question? In this second stage of the analysis some principles of dialogical sequence analysis (DSA) (Leiman & Stiles) are applied to the participants’ self-observations and action patterns and changes in themThe distinctive feature is the use of an individualised formulation of the self-observations, action patterns and the recurring positions.Interest focuses on how the experiences from group counselling process are expressed, how self-observation occurs and which subject and object positional moves are observed.
15Some reservations…..The analysis conditions differ from the original use of DSA in that the materials do not come from the counselling process itself but the participants reflect retrospectively (one month later) on their experiences of group counselling and their significance at work.
16RESULTSThe results from the group level analysis showed e.g. In regard to group counselling Experience of teamwork Opportunity to observe the perspective of others Possibility of open discussion Expressing problems Possibility to voice their own ideas and views Stimulation of new methods of perceiving “the actions of others” but also Handling of joint familiar problems
17RESULTS But we focus on the results of the second level of analysis: how the participants reflected on the group counselling process and work processes,what kind of qualitative changes occurred the in area of self- observation andhow movements are generated in the subject and object positions., i.e in the location of agency; being a subject or an object
18RESULTSThree different patterns of changes are presented which are, at the same time, both individual and relational.The descriptions are based on interviews of three key informants.These development courses differ when they are examined from the perspectives of shade of self- observation, field of self-observation and the location of agency.
19RESULTS Course of development Shade of self-observation Expansion of perspectivesSubject/object positionProgressiveactively stimulatingwidening, analyticrenewed/reinforced subject positionSkepticalstimulating and skepticalwidening, vacillatingchanging subject and object positionDissociatedstimulating and vanishingwidening, disappearingdisengaging
20RESULTSProgressive H4:41-44: Well probably something like that if you’d try to take others into account more, and also see things from their viewpoints and see the bigger picture too. At least something like that would be a good goal. H4: At least people all got something to think from the other people’s viewpoints, which is a good thing, and then they can also identify with the others’ work and can in the future hopefully look at things from a distance, and through that get a different picture of situations. That’s what I hope for and that would remain with the whole group that took part there..
21RESULTSSkeptical H6:38-46:Well, there hasn’t really been any improvement seen in these work procedures, more like that I don’t really know, can you really increase team work in certain circumstances at all. Of course if there is some bigger project like this that you take part in and in a situation like that, but I have a lot of projects that I work on my own on, and there is no bigger group that would do the same work, so there hasn’t been any concrete improvements yet.
22RESULTSDissociated But to be honest I don’t really know, but this starts from the CEO level, so why hasn’t this been brought up that we should make these responsibilities clearer in different fields of products and then get some sort of clarity in these different projects. Now there are too much different kinds of work at the moment and that’s pretty confusing, and then it came up that people, good useful people, tend to get a bit stressed when there’s always someone pushing you do this and do that and for the sake of this work it should be clearer that certain people take care of certain things, instead of just this running around.
23DISCUSSIONGroup counselling enabled the expansion of viewpoints and perspectives created opportunities of sharing widened the possibilities to see “otherness” led to reflective considerations -> These are among the basic group counselling goals
24DISCUSSION Challenges of group counselling how to support the progressive processes afterwardshow to deal with the skepticism during the process and afterwardshow to prevent dissociation between the process and the daily life afterwards
25DISCUSSION Evaluating the outcomes of group counselling: Agency, relationality and dialogicality are promising theoretical toolsThis was a preliminary ’sketch’, we have to develop our methodological solutions furtherThe depicted courses of development are individual, but at the same time they are relationalOutcomes have to be analyzed as meaning-making that is situationally bound and related to individual and collective proximal zones of development.the participant’s life- and work situationthe everyday work and the character of expert workthe operational culture of the enterprise.
26References e.g.Borgen, W.A., Pollard D.E., Amundson, N.E. & Westwood, M.J. (1989). Employment groups: the counseling connection. Toronto: Lugus. Gergen, K.J. (2009) Relational being: beyond self and community. New York: Oxford University Press. Leiman, M. (2007). Dialoginen ohjaus ja neuvonta. Julkaisussa Tuetusta toimijuudesta itsenäiseen toimijuuteen. Dialoginen ohjaus ja neuvonta käytännössä. Optio työelämään-projekti,9-27. Leiman, M. (2008). Kognitiivis-analyyttinen näkökulma. Teoksessa S. Kähkönen, I.Karila & N. Holmberg (toim.) Kognitiivinen psykoterapia. Helsinki. Duodecim, Leiman, M. & Stiles, W.B. (2001). Dialogical sequence analysis and the zone of proximal development as conceptual enhancements to the assimilation model: The case of Jan revisited. Psychotherapy Research, 11(3), Richardson, M.S. (2004). The emergence of new intentions in subjective experience: A social/personal constructionist and relational understanding. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, Savickas, M., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J-P., Duarte, M.E., Guichard, J., Soresi, S., Van Esbroeck R. & van Vianen, A.E.M. (2009). Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century. Journal of Vocational Behavior 75(3), 239─250. Schultheiss, D.E. (2007). The emergence of a relational cultural paradigm for vocational psychology. Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance 7(3), 145─147.
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