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1 Tactile Graphics with a Voice 2015 Richard Ladner University of Washington.

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1 1 Tactile Graphics with a Voice 2015 Richard Ladner University of Washington

2 2 Text Book Translation Problem text math images

3 Tactile Perception 3 Somatosensory system

4 4 Tactile Perception Limitations Resolution of human fingertip: 25 dpi Tactual field of perception is no bigger than the size of the fingertips of two hands Color information is replaced by texture information Visual bandwidth is 1,000,000 bits per second, tactile is 100 bits per second

5 Resolution Study 5.35mm1 mm2 mm On average, blind participants could sense 1 mm separation but no smaller. On average, sighted participant could sense 1.5 mm separation but no smaller.

6 Blind Spatial Perception Tactile perception can lead to a “spatial” model in the brain.

7 Tactile Graphic 7

8 Tactile Graphics Kit 8

9 Tactile Graphics Printing Embossing Printer Thermoform Swell Paper 9

10 10 Tiger Embosser 20 dpi (raised dots per inch) 7 height levels (only 3 or 4 are distinguishable) Prints Braille text and graphics Prints dot patterns for texture Invented by a blind physicist, John Gardner

11 Refreshable Tactile Display 11

12 12 Graphics

13 13 Graphic Translation preprocess text extract clean image original scanned image pure graphic text image location file

14 14 Graphic Translation pure graphic text image location file y (0,20) x= O x x+y=20 (15,0) (15,5) y (#0,#20) x.k#15 #15 #10 #5 O x #5 #10 #15 #20 x+y.k#20 (#15,#0) (#15,#5) text Braille

15 15

16 16 Available Books Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 3 rd Edition 25 minutes per figure (230 figures)Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 3 rd Edition Advanced Mathematical Concepts, Precalculus with Applications 6.3 minutes per figure (1,080 figures)Advanced Mathematical Concepts, Precalculus with Applications An Intoduction to Modern Astrophysics 10.2 minutes per figure (467 figures)An Intoduction to Modern Astrophysics Discrete Mathematical Structures 8.8 minutes per figure (598 figures)Discrete Mathematical Structures Introduction to the Theory of Computation, 2 nd Edition 13.3 minutes per figure (180 figures)Introduction to the Theory of Computation, 2 nd Edition

17 17 TGA Workflow Advantages –Much faster production –Batch processing instead of one figure at a time –Much tedious work is avoided Disadvantages –May be of lower quality than custom translation –A lot of technology needs to be mastered

18 18 One-offs vs. Mass Production 1916 Woods Dual Power Model T 1906 Reo

19 Audio-Tactile Graphics 19 Talking Touch Tablet Digital Pen audio-tactile graphic

20 Tactile Graphics with a Voice: using QR codes to access text in tactile graphics C.M. Baker, L.R. Milne, J. Scofield, C.L. Bennett, RE Ladner. Proceedings of the 16th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers. ASSETS

21 21 Tactile Graphics with a Voice

22 System Use 22

23 23 Modes Top SilentVerbalFinger Pointing

24 Study 10 blind users 4/10 non-Braille 4 tasks 3 modes 6 sessions 24

25 Tasks Line Parabola Triangle Bar Chart 25

26 Time 26 F 5, 640 =2.268, p<.05 F 2, 640 =0.619, p=.5391

27 Time outs 27

28 SilentVerbalFinger Pointing Line97% 93% Parabola93%95% Triangle88% 90% Bar Chart73%70%79% All Tasks88% 89% Accuracy 28

29 4 preferred silent –To be honest, I use screen readers every day and I am so sick of electronic noise. 4 preferred finger pointing –I like the concept of the finger pointing. I feel more confident that since it looks for a finger it’s getting the right QR code if you have multiple on the same page. 2 preferred verbal –The other thing I like about Verbal mode is that every time I hear a zero I think so I need to move it a little bit Preference 29

30 In a study of 82 images from a pre-calculus textbook, on average Braille took up more space –Braille was larger in 326 out of 626 labels Braille labels: 327 sq. mm QR codes: 225 sq. mm Braille comparison 30

31 Braille - Time 31

32 Braille - Accuracy 32

33 Questions 33


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