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**Analysis of Algorithms**

Asymptotic Notations, Analyzing non-recursive algorithms 4/13/2017

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**Outline Review of last lecture Continue on asymptotic notations**

Analyzing non-recursive algorithms 4/13/2017

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**Asymptotic notations O: <= o: < Ω: >= ω: > Θ: =**

(in terms of growth rate) 4/13/2017

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**Mathematical definitions**

O(g(n)) = {f(n): positive constants c and n0 such that 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ cg(n) n>n0} Ω(g(n)) = {f(n): positive constants c and n0 such that 0 ≤ cg(n) ≤ f(n) n>n0} Θ(g(n)) = {f(n): positive constants c1, c2, and n0 such that 0 c1 g(n) f(n) c2 g(n) n n0} 4/13/2017

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**O, Ω, and Θ The definitions imply a constant n0 beyond which they are**

satisfied. We do not care about small values of n. Use definition to prove big-O (Ω,Θ): find constant c (c1 and c2) and n0, such that the definition of big-O (Ω,Θ) is satisfied 4/13/2017

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**Big-Oh Claim: f(n) = 3n2 + 10n + 5 O(n2) Proof by definition:**

(Hint: Need to find c and n0 such that f(n) <= cn2 for all n > n0. You can be sloppy about the constant factors. Pick a comfortably large c when proving big-O or small one when proving big-Omega.) (Note: you just need to find one concrete example of c and n0, but the condition needs to be met for all n > n0. So do not try to plug in a concrete value of n and show the inequality holds.) Proof: 3n2 + 10n + 5 3n2 + 10n2 + 5, n > 1 3n2 + 10n2 + 5n2, n > 1 18 n2, n > 1 If we let c = 18 and n0 = 1, we have f(n) c n2, n > n0. Therefore by definition 3n2 + 10n + 5 O(n2). 4/13/2017

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**Properties of asymptotic notations**

Textbook page 51 Transitivity f(n) = (g(n)) and g(n) = (h(n)) => f(n) = (h(n)) (holds true for o, O, , and as well). Symmetry f(n) = (g(n)) if and only if g(n) = (f(n)) Transpose symmetry f(n) = O(g(n)) if and only if g(n) = (f(n)) f(n) = o(g(n)) if and only if g(n) = (f(n)) 4/13/2017

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Binary Search In binary search we throw away half the possible number of keys after each comparison. How many times can we halve n before getting to 1? Answer: ceiling (lg n) 4/13/2017

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Logarithms and Trees How tall a binary tree do we need until we have n leaves? The number of potential leaves doubles with each level. How many times can we double 1 until we get to n? Answer: ceiling (lg n) 4/13/2017

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**Logarithms and Bits How many numbers can you represent with k bits?**

Each bit you add doubles the possible number of bit patterns You can represent from 0 to 2k – 1 with k bits. A total of 2k numbers. How many bits do you need to represent the numbers from 0 to n? ceiling (lg (n+1)) 4/13/2017

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**logarithms lg n = log2 n ln n = loge n, e ≈ 2.718 lgkn = (lg n)k**

lg lg n = lg (lg n) = lg(2)n lg(k) n = lg lg lg … lg n lg24 = ? lg(2)4 = ? Compare lgkn vs lg(k)n? 4/13/2017

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**The iterated logarithm function**

lg * n is the least positive integer i such that lg(i) <= 1. Also known as (n). The number of times you need to take the logarithm of something until it becomes smaller than or equal to 1 lg * 256 = ? lg 256 = 8 lg 8 = 3 lg 3 < 2 lg lg 3 < 1 lg*2 = 1 lg*4 = 2 lg*16 = 3 lg*65536 = 4 lg* = lg*( ) = 5 For any practical purpose, lg*(n) can be considered as a constant. 4/13/2017

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**Useful rules for logarithms**

For all a > 0, b > 0, c > 0, the following rules hold logba = logca / logcb = lg a / lg b logban = n logba blogba = a log (ab) = log a + log b lg (2n) = ? log (a/b) = log (a) – log(b) lg (n/2) = ? lg (1/n) = ? logba = 1 / logab 4/13/2017

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**More advanced dominance ranking**

4/13/2017

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**Analyzing the complexity of an algorithm**

4/13/2017

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**Kinds of analyses Worst case**

Provides an upper bound on running time Best case – not very useful, can always cheat Average case Provides the expected running time Very useful, but treat with care: what is “average”? 4/13/2017

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**General plan for analyzing time efficiency of a non-recursive algorithm**

Decide parameter (input size) Identify most executed line (basic operation) worst-case = average-case? T(n) = i ti T(n) = Θ (f(n)) 4/13/2017

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**Example repeatedElement (A, n)**

// determines whether all elements in a given // array are distinct for i = 1 to n-1 { for j = i+1 to n { if (A[i] == A[j]) return true; } return false; 4/13/2017

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**Example repeatedElement (A, n)**

// determines whether all elements in a given // array are distinct for i = 1 to n-1 { for j = i+1 to n { if (A[i] == A[j]) return true; } return false; 4/13/2017

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Best case? Worst-case? Average case? 4/13/2017

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**Best case Worst-case Average case? A[1] = A[2] T(n) = Θ (1)**

No repeated elements T(n) = (n-1) + (n-2) + … + 1 = n (n-1) / 2 = Θ (n2) Average case? What do you mean by “average”? Need more assumptions about data distribution. How many possible repeats are in the data? Average-case analysis often involves probability. 4/13/2017

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**Find the order of growth for sums**

T(n) = i=1..n i = Θ (n2) T(n) = i=1..n log (i) = ? T(n) = i=1..n n / 2i = ? T(n) = i=1..n 2i = ? … How to find out the actual order of growth? Math… Textbook Appendix A.1 (page ) 4/13/2017

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Arithmetic series An arithmetic series is a sequence of numbers such that the difference of any two successive members of the sequence is a constant. e.g.: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 In general: Recursive definition 4/13/2017

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**Sum of arithmetic series**

If a1, a2, …, an is an arithmetic series, then e.g … + 99 = ? (series definition: ai = 2i-1) This is ∑ i = 1 to 50 (ai) = 50 * (1 + 99) / 2 = 2500 4/13/2017

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**Closed form, or explicit formula**

Geometric series A geometric series is a sequence of numbers such that the ratio between any two successive members of the sequence is a constant. e.g.: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 or 1, ½, ¼, 1/8, 1/16 In general: Recursive definition Closed form, or explicit formula Or: 4/13/2017

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**Sum of geometric series**

if r < 1 if r > 1 if r = 1 4/13/2017

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**Sum of geometric series**

if r < 1 if r > 1 if r = 1 4/13/2017

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Important formulas 4/13/2017

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**Sum manipulation rules**

Example: 4/13/2017

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**Sum manipulation rules**

Example: 4/13/2017

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**using the formula for geometric series: **

i=1..n n / 2i = n * i=1..n (½)i = ? using the formula for geometric series: i=0..n (½)i = 1 + ½ + ¼ + … (½)n = 2 Application: algorithm for allocating dynamic memories 4/13/2017

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**Application: algorithm for selection sort using priority queue**

i=1..n log (i) = log 1 + log 2 + … + log n = log 1 x 2 x 3 x … x n = log n! = (n log n) Application: algorithm for selection sort using priority queue 4/13/2017

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**Recursive definition of sum of series**

T (n) = i=0..n i is equivalent to: T(n) = T(n-1) + n T(0) = 0 T(n) = i=0..n ai is equivalent to: T(n) = T(n-1) + an T(0) = 1 Recurrence Boundary condition Recursive definition is often intuitive and easy to obtain. It is very useful in analyzing recursive algorithms, and some non-recursive algorithms too. 4/13/2017

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**Recursive definition of sum of series**

How to solve such recurrence or more generally, recurrence in the form of: T(n) = aT(n-b) + f(n) or T(n) = aT(n/b) + f(n) 4/13/2017

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