Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CoolRunner™-II Advanced Features - I. Quick Start Training Goals Be familiar with some of the special features of CR2 CPLDs and know which applications.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CoolRunner™-II Advanced Features - I. Quick Start Training Goals Be familiar with some of the special features of CR2 CPLDs and know which applications."— Presentation transcript:

1 CoolRunner™-II Advanced Features - I

2 Quick Start Training Goals Be familiar with some of the special features of CR2 CPLDs and know which applications can benefit from them Explore some solutions to special signaling and interface requirements

3 Quick Start Training Agenda Clock Divider – Ultra low lag! Dual Edge Flip Flops – Increase PWM resolution – Binary to BCD converter – Double speed synchronous communication – Divide by 3,5,7 – Increased timer resolution – Duty cycle trick Interfacing to 5V signals Pseudo LVPECL Interface – How to...

4 Quick Start Training Clock Division Global Clock (GCK2) External Sync Reset Clock Divide By 2,4,6,…,16 DIV2 DIV4 DIV16 to FB 1 to FB n Divide Select Gives solid clock division without using macrocells Duty cycle improvement Available in larger densities (128 macrocells and above) Very low lag…typically 50ps!

5 Quick Start Training DualEDGE Flops Available in all CoolRunner-II CPLDs Useful in making sequential operations faster PTC GCK0 GCK1 GCK2 CLK CT PTC to I/O D/T/L Q CE T FF Latch DualEDGE D

6 Quick Start Training PWM Controller Used to digitally control or modulate power density – Motor controllers – Light intensity – LCD contrast – Power conversion – Position indication – Analog signal generation Follow PWM output with low pass filter 50% 90% 10%

7 Quick Start Training PWM Basics A higher frequency clock than the fundamental frequency of the PWM signal is required This clock is counted Count value is compared to a value in a register bank to determine high / low times Output registered to avoid glitches Minimum duty cycle width typically set by period of input clock signal

8 Quick Start Training PWM Block Diagram Counter (CNT) PWM Register PWM Value Load CNT < PWM?

9 Quick Start Training CoolRunner-II Benefit: Increased Resolution Clock Traditional PLDs: Minimum resolution of pulse set by clock period CoolRunner-II CPLDs provide twice the resolution due to dual edge flops….for the same clock rate!

10 Quick Start Training Binary to BCD Converter Application : Digital Thermometer Can implement with look up table (Need memory) Implement with sequential conversion algorithm 8 bits of data requires 8 clock edges for full conversion See XAPP029 for detail on conversion

11 Quick Start Training BIN2BCD : Single Edge Converting h63 to d99 700ns conversion time with 10MHz clock

12 Quick Start Training BIN2BCD : Dual Edge Converting h63 to d99 350ns conversion time with 10MHz clock

13 Quick Start Training Synchronous Serial Use dual edge capable flops for data transmission across serial interface Twice the data for the same amount of clock periods

14 Quick Start Training Double Speed Synchronous Serial 16 bit data System Clock Double Rate Data Isolation nLOAD / SHIFT 16 bit data Receive data valid Ready to Receive ACK Busy

15 Quick Start Training Odd Clock Generation DualEDGE registers can be used in conjunction with the clock divider to create ‘odd’ sub-harmonic clocks Divide by 3, 5, 7 possible No additional macrocells required to implement! Useful for asynchronous communication (bit centering), frequency synthesis, energy distribution for noise reduction

16 Quick Start Training Odd Clock Generation Look for customers doing UARTs, or clock management! QD Clock Divider CLK DualEDGE CLK / 6CLK / 3 CLK Clock

17 Quick Start Training Increased Timer Resolution Ability to index counters on rising and falling edges allows for twice the measurement resolution for any given clock! For best accuracy, use 50% duty cycle clocks. Gear Speed Measurement

18 Quick Start Training Clock Duty Cycle Improvement Many applications benefit from balanced (50%) duty cycle clocks. Consider using referenced inputs on CoolRunner-II devices for clock balancing. Use with caution, as this reduces noise rejection CRII IN REF HSTL/SSTL Input

19 Quick Start Training CoolRunner-II 5V Tolerance CoolRunner-II inputs only support up to 3.3V directly Input voltage tolerance determined by a couple of major factors: – Gate Oxide thickness – Transistor scale CoolRunner-II CPLDs use 70Å oxide thickness and 0.35u transistors on the I/Os

20 Quick Start Training Gate Oxide Basics Thick Gate – Higher voltage tolerance – Slower speed p-substrate n well p+p+ p+p+ n+n+ n+n+ s1s1 s2s2 d1d1 g Oxide Thin Gate – Lower voltage tolerance – Faster speed

21 Quick Start Training Oxide Breakdown and Lifetime Oxide can be stressed with too high of a field such that charge ‘tunneling’ occurs. – Charge traps can begin to accumulate in the oxide – Enough charge traps accumulate, and the oxide breaks down and conducts Rule of thumb for voltage vs. oxide thickness : – Do not exceed 6MV per cm of thickness cm = 10^8 Å, so 0.06V per Å – 70Å thickness has a limit of ~ 4.2V Data Sheet absolute max of 4.0V – Higher voltages exponentially decrease lifetime

22 Quick Start Training How to… Simple R/D termination scheme works Watch your trace length / impedance! Resistor should be chosen to match with diode, driving source, and required delay / rise time – Typical resistor values might be 100 to 1000 Ohms Pick your diode carefully…. – Watch for junction capacitance – Use Fast Recovery type diodes – Forward voltage impacts limiting Tradeoff : Power consumption !

23 Quick Start Training 5V Input Implementation 1N4148 Diode : 4pf junction, 4ns recovery, Vf = 1.0V All tests run with 3ns input edges 5V signal Vtt R

24 Quick Start Training 100 Ohm Resistor / Rise Input : LVCMOS18 No term (float) Vdde set to 1.8V Diode term to 1.8V

25 Quick Start Training 100 Ohm Resistor / Fall Input : LVCMOS18 No term (float) Vdde set to 1.8V Diode term to 1.8V

26 Quick Start Training 1000 Ohm Resistor / Rise Input : LVCMOS18 No term (float) Vdde set to 1.8V Diode term to 1.8V

27 Quick Start Training 1000 Ohm Resistor / Fall Input : LVCMOS18 No term (float) Vdde set to 1.8V Diode term to 1.8V

28 Quick Start Training Poor Diode Choice : MBR Ohms Input : LVCMOS18 No term (float) Vdde set to 1.8V Diode term to 1.8V 170pf !!

29 Quick Start Training “Sweet” Diode Choice : SD101AWS (Diodes Inc) 100 Ohms Input : LVCMOS18 No term (float) Vdde set to 1.8V Diode term to 1.8V 2pf !!! 1 ns Trr !!!

30 Quick Start Training “Sweet” Diode Choice : SD101AWS (Diodes Inc) 100 Ohms Input : LVCMOS18 No term (float) Vdde set to 1.8V Diode term to 1.8V 2pf !!! 1 ns Trr !!! 3.64V

31 Quick Start Training “Sweet” Diode Choice : SD101AWS (Diodes Inc) 100 Ohms Input : LVCMOS18 No term (float) Vdde set to 1.8V Diode term to 1.8V 2pf !!! 1 ns Trr !!!

32 Quick Start Training Termination Tips Terminate Vtt to power plane, and/or use good decoupling technique Keep trace length short to minimize reflection Match impedance when possible – Edges slower than 5ns, ringing not generally a problem Use low capacitance diodes, fast recovery Watch current through limiting resistor and through diode Use LVCMOS18 or LVCMOS25 input, no termination, and terminate to 1.8V / 2.5V depending on diode/resistor/signal source

33 Quick Start Training Driving 5V Logic Most 5V logic has a Vil requirement of 2.4V CoolRunner-II devices have p-channel pull up drivers in the outputs. Outputs swing very close to the rail ‘Cheat’ for more headroom by supplying the device with a 3.6V Vccio level The higher the drive to the downstream element, the better the low power performance Voh dependent on load – 1 mA load results in Voh ~ 99% of Vccio – 5 mA load results in Voh ~ 94% of Vccio – 10mA : ~ 89% Vccio

34 Quick Start Training On Semiconductor MC74VHC1GT50 Logic Level translation Vin max = 7.0V – Independent of Vcc = 1uA Package SC-88A / SOT353 $0.19 – 2.2mm X 1.35 mm Package TSOP5 / SOT23 $0.13 – 3.1mm X 2.7 mm 3.5ns Tpd NC IN A GND VCC OUT Y

35 Quick Start Training Source Follower N chan mosfet Source voltage limited to Vgate - Threshold Choose mosfet with – threshold of 1.0V to 2.5V – low gate capacitance Ultra low power solution – Slow…. Maybe 25ns delay – Use Schmitt trigger Decouple gate to ground May need series resistor on drain side CPLD 5V DS Vgate - Vt

36 Quick Start Training Pseudo LVPECL (LVP 2 ECL?) Customers have asked for some way to interface LVPECL input to CR2 parts. LVPECL is a differential / referenced signaling method used in high speed applications, notably clocks. Voltage swings: – Voh 2.5V – Vol 1.5V AC and DC termination methods exist What to do????

37 Quick Start Training Typical LVPECL DC Coupling LVPECL Driver LVPECL Receiver Vcc 127Ω 82.5Ω Zo = 50Ω Sig !Sig Sig !Sig

38 Quick Start Training CoolRunner-II Solution SSTL3 Vref Sig 2.0V 127Ω 82.5Ω XC2C256 Zo = 50Ω Termination resistors for 50Ω traces Tested CR2 parts using char board on bench termination different, signaling 1.6V to 2.4V

39 Quick Start Training Pseudo LVPECL Results

40 Quick Start Training LVPECL Details…. Match impedance to obtain LVPECL signal swings Single ended operation removes common mode rejection benefits of operation Turn off input pin termination…. ‘Float’ pin Vref not to be used as a dynamic input

41 Quick Start Training A Quick Overview / Summary… Keep in mind the special features of CoolRunner-II devices when designing.. Saves time, money, and improves performance – Clock Divider – DualEDGE registers – Schmitt triggers 5V signaling LVPECL capable with minimal external requirements


Download ppt "CoolRunner™-II Advanced Features - I. Quick Start Training Goals Be familiar with some of the special features of CR2 CPLDs and know which applications."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google