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Modern Operating Systems 2014 Lecture 1. What I'd like that you would achieve That you would underst general concepts about operation. Know how to modern.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Operating Systems 2014 Lecture 1. What I'd like that you would achieve That you would underst general concepts about operation. Know how to modern."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Operating Systems 2014 Lecture 1

2 What I'd like that you would achieve That you would underst general concepts about operation. Know how to modern operating system function (what makes them tick) Have experience with administering 2 or more operating systems Fill the caps in your knowledge Enhance your problem solving abilities.

3 Who are you ? Who are you what kind experience you have wit computer management /usage What you would expect from this course

4 Things that we will look at OS basics and history similarities and differences between OS-es Windows administration tools overview Linux administration tools overview Linux architecture, Windows architecture Virtualisation technologies Boot process Monitoring tools IOS, Android architecture

5 Additional reading ( Linux internals) … (will itroduce additional reading

6 In order to pass: You must attend to most of lectures or present some topic + do home reading ( 16 Lecture/Lab total more than 10 attended ) Do Labs /home assignment/online learning More than 50 p from 100 test scores (will be at least 2 tests)

7 Lets tap to collective Wisdom

8 Computer system

9 Computer System

10 Modern CPU

11 Modern CPU architecture

12 OS Types ●Real-time ●Multi-user ●Multi-tasking ●single-tasking ●Distributed ●Templated ●Embedded

13 Minimal components

14 Kernel privilege levels

15 OS timeline the-1950s/

16 Linux history

17 Unix philosophy väike on ilus – iga utiliit/teenus täidab ainult ühte funktsiooni – komponentide ehitus ja opsüsteemi vahendid võimaldavad kerget ja selge liidesega kombineerimist – keerulisemad teenused pannakse kokku lihtsamatest – tulemuseks on alternatiivsete lahenduste võimalus ja süsteemide mitmekihiline ehitus ühilduvus on olulisem kui efektiivsus – failid, kataloogi, seadmed on ligipääsetavad sarnase liidesega – andmed ja konfiguratsioon on tekstifailides – utiliidid suhtlevad tekstistriimidega

18 Mac os History

19

20

21 Modern Operating Systems 2 Lecture 2014

22 communication (not jet active)

23 In order to pass: You must attend to most of lectures or present some topic + do home reading ( 16 Lecture/Lab total more than 10 attended ) Do Labs /home assignment/online learning More than 50 p from 100 test scores (will be at least 2 tests)

24 What I'd like that you would achieve That you would underst general concepts about operation. Know how to modern operating system function (waht makes them tick) Have experience with administering 2 or more operating systems Fill the caps in your knowledge Enhance your problem solving abilities.

25 Things that we will look at OS basics and history similarities and differences between OS-es Windows administration tools overview Linux administration tools overview Linux architecture, Windows architecture Virtualisation technologies Boot process Monitoring tools IOS, Android architecture

26 Stallman TEDxGE2014 video.gnu.org/video/TEDxGE2014_Stallman05 _LQ.webm

27 Just for remainder

28

29 interfaces

30 Simple technical terms

31 OS: Resource Management

32 Operating System Resource Management (Sharing) Process Management (Sharing the CPU) Sharing IO devices Main (Primary Memory) Management (Shared among many programs) Disk (Secondary) Memory) Management (More sharing)

33 Process Management Sharing the CPU

34 OS: Process Management Process A program in execution Process management keeping track of processes and the states they are in CPU scheduling determines which process in memory is executed by the CPU at any given instant in time

35 More History 1950’s-1960’s Batch Processing – One big (expensive) machine – One human operating system – “The Operator” (ala The Matrix) – Several similar jobs were organized into “batches” that required the same resources – Example: Load the compiler Run all the programs to be compiled

36

37 More History: 1960’s-1970’s

38 More History: 1970’s-now Multitasking – Lots of cheap PC machines – Timesharing evolved into multitasking – ONE user running MANY PROGRAMS – Still, resources must be shared by several programs Windows was created as a single-user multitasking operating system

39

40 Process states

41 The Process Control Block The operating system must manage a large amount of data for each active process Usually that data is stored in RAM in a data structure called a Process Control Block (PCB) The OS maintains one PCB for each process

42 Processes are like Several Cooks Sharing ONE Kitchen

43 Based on slides : thttp://wserver.flc.losrios.edu/~ross/files/CISC310/Chapter10.pp t Local copy shown and bit reduced slides : https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BwLcblFEXx61RlQzbmdSUzVNbDA/edit?usp=sharing

44 Modern Operating Systems 3 Lecture

45 communication

46 Self study 1 https://www.edx.org/course/linuxfoundationx/lin uxfoundationx-lfs101x-introduction-1621 Required Exam need to be done before 29 of October to receive Honor certificate that constitutes as proof. Some concepts self learning will be covered in this course.

47 Brief tumbling into programm

48 Modern program

49 https://software.intel.com/sites/default/files/m/d/4/1/d/8/keep-memory-002.gif

50 Modern Program

51 Modern Programm Program libraries Static Dynamic Dynamic loading Dynamic linking

52 Modern programm Windows example

53 Programm is a process Process – a running instance of a program Uses memory to store code and data Can launch sub-processes Processes table residing in kernel PID – Process Identifier PPID – Parent Process Identifier UID – User Identifier GID – Group Identifier UID and GID associated with a user Process access rights are determined by UID and GID values UID and GID are passed along to subprocesses Privileged user (UID=0) Processes can change UID values upon invocation

54 States of a process

55 Virtualisation Technologies

56 Virtualisation Why ?

57

58 Virtualisation types

59 Implementations Vary greatly, with options including: Type 0 hypervisors - Hardware-based solutions that provide support for virtual machine creation and management via firmware IBM LPARs and Oracle LDOMs are examples Type 1 hypervisors - Operating-system-like software built to provide virtualization Including VMware ESX, Joyent SmartOS, and Citrix XenServer Type 1 hypervisors – Also includes general-purpose operating systems that provide standard functions as well as VMM functions Including Microsoft Windows Server with HyperV and RedHat Linux with KVM

60 Implementations Type 2 hypervisors - Applications that run on standard operating systems but provide VMM features to guest operating systems Includeing VMware Workstation and Fusion, Parallels Desktop, and Oracle VirtualBox

61 Implementations Other variations include: Paravirtualization - Technique in which the guest operating system is modified to work in cooperation with the VMM to optimize performance Programming-environment virtualization - VMMs do not virtualize real hardware but instead create an optimized virtual system Used by Oracle Java and Microsoft.Net

62 Implementations Emulators – Allow applications written for one hardware environment to run on a very different hardware environment, such as a different type of CPU Application containment - Not virtualization at all but rather provides virtualization-like features by segregating applications from the operating system, making them more secure, manageable Including Oracle Solaris Zones, BSD Jails, and IBM AIX WPARs.. Much variation due to importance of virtualization in modern computing

63 Benefits and Features ●Host system protected from VMs, VMs protected from each other o I.e. A virus less likely to spread o Sharing is provided though via shared file system volume, network communication ●Freeze, suspend, running VM o Then can move or copy somewhere else and resume ●Snapshot of a given state, able to restore back to that state o Some VMMs allow multiple snapshots per VM

64 Benefits and Features ●Clone by creating copy and running both original and copy o Great for OS research, better system development efficiency ●Run multiple, different OSes on a single machine ●Consolidation, app dev, … ●Templating – create an OS + application VM, provide it to customers, use it to create multiple instances of that combination ●Live migration – move a running VM from one host to another! o Almost no interruption of user access ●All those features taken together -> cloud computing o Using APIs, programs tell cloud infrastructure (servers, networking, storage) to create new guests, VMs, virtual desktops

65 Modern buzzwords (Cloud) ●Cloud ?? o Iaas o Paas o Saas

66 What if pizza https://premaseem.files.wordpress.com/2014/08/cloudanalogy-pizza-as-a-service.jpg

67 Cloud offering https://premaseem.files.wordpress.com/2014/08/cloudstack.png

68 Virtualbox https://www.virtualbox.org/

69 Modern Operating Systems 4 Lecture

70 communication

71 Self study 1 https://www.edx.org/course/linuxfoundationx/lin uxfoundationx-lfs101x-introduction-1621 Required Exam need to be done before 29 of October to receive Honor certificate that constitutes as proof. Some concepts self learning will be covered in this course.

72 Minimal needed services ?

73 Boot process Slides for linux boot Windows boot:

74 Modern Operating Systems 5 Lecture

75 communication

76 Plan for today Couple additional words on boot What is #Sehllshock and how it affects some systems. Authentication / Authorisation. One first lab..

77 Boot

78

79 Windows boot Troubleshooting environment/

80 Mac boot troubleshoot

81 #Sehllshok https://medium.com/message/everything-is-broken-81e5f33a24e1 https://access.redhat.com/articles/

82 reboot

83 Authentication ?

84 Authorisation ?

85 Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data (datum) or entity. In contrast with identification which refers to the act of stating or otherwise indicating a claim purportedly attesting to a person or thing's identity, authentication is the process of actually confirming that identity. identification It might involve confirming the identity of a person by validating their identity documents, verifying the validity of a Website with a digital certificate, tracing the age of an artifact by carbon dating, or ensuring that a product is what its packaging and labeling claim to be. In other words, authentication often involves verifying the validity of at least one form of identification. identity documents digital certificate carbon dating

86 Authorisation Is the function of specifying access rights to resources related to information security and computer security in general and to access control in particular. More formally, "to authorize" is to define an access policy. For example, human resources staff is normally authorized to access employee records and this policy is usually formalized as access control rules in a computer system. During operation, the system uses the access control rules to decide whether access requests from (authenticated) consumers shall be approved (granted) or disapproved (rejected). information security computer security access control human resourcesauthenticated

87 Password&Hass

88 0-9 numbers, 10 symbols (ASCII 48-57) A-Z block letters, 26 symbols (ASCII 65-90) a-z small caps, 26 symbols (ASCII ) Symbols =29 symbols (ASCII 32-47; 58-64; 91-96) !"#$%&'()*+,-./:; (ASCII )

89 Special characters, 69 symbols {|}~€‚ƒ„...†‡ˆ‰S ̌ ‹ŒZ ̌ ‘’“”–— ̃TMs ̌ ›œz ̌ Y ̈ ¡¢£¤¥¦§ ̈ ©a«¬® ̄ °±23 ́μ¶· ̧ 1o»1⁄41⁄23⁄4¿ „ umlauts, 64 symbols (ASCII ) ÀÁA ̂ ÃA ̈ A ̊ ÆC ̧ ÈÉE ̂ E ̈ ÌÍI ̂ I ̈ ÐÑÒÓO ̂ ÕO ̈ ×ØÙÚU ̂ U ̈ ÝÞßàáa ̂ ãa ̈ a ̊ æc ̧ èée ̂ e ̈ ìíi ̂ i ̈ ð ñòóo ̂ õo ̈ ÷øùúu ̂ u ̈ ýþy ̈

90

91 Leaked in statistics_ ffbc_w1500.png

92

93 Lessons.ppt

94 Homework/Lab for evaluation Install Dual boot system Linux / Windows 7 or 8 / win server 2012(Dreamspark for example) Virtualbox with 2 hd -s and install linux on one hd and windows on second one use windows boot manager to boot both systems in one hdd and Linux boot manager to boot both system in second hdd

95 Modern Operating Systems 6 Lecture

96 communication

97 Plan for today Devices and IO File systems

98 Devices you know ?

99 File System

100 /bootlaetava tuuma asukoht /mntühenduspunktid kettaseadmetele (floppy, cdrom)‏ /binkäivitamiseks vajalikud programmid /sbinkäivitamiseks vajalikud süsteemprogrammid /libbaasteegid /usrprogrammid, teegid /etckonfiguratsioonifailid /homekodukataloogid /dev seadmefailid /varmuutuvad ja ajutised andmed /tmpajutised failid /procliides operatsioonisüsteemi tuumaga /lost+foundleitud andmeblokid, mis ei kuulu ühelegi failile

101

102 File systems

103 External slides

104 Homework/Lab for evaluation Install Dual boot system Linux / Windows 7 or 8 / win server 2012(Dreamspark for example) Virtualbox with 2 hd -s and install linux on one hd and windows on second one use windows boot manager to boot both systems in one hdd and Linux boot manager to boot both system in second hdd - 19 Nov Deadline

105 Next week + Lab time opportunity to ask opportunity to present results.

106 Modern Operating Systems 7 Lecture

107 communication

108 Plan for today File systems

109 External slides

110 Homework/Lab for evaluation Install Dual boot system Linux / Windows 7 or 8 / win server 2012(Dreamspark for example) Virtualbox with 2 hd -s and install linux on one hd and windows on second one use windows boot manager to boot both systems in one hdd and Linux boot manager to boot both system in second hdd - 19 Nov Deadline

111 Modern Operating Systems 8 Lecture

112 communication

113 So What About POODLE ?

114 Plan for today File systems a bit more about them and then we will see

115 External slides+ info slides.pdf

116 What would be best file system ? Problem Big Files, USB and multi OS suport Should support MacOS, Windows 2012, Linux

117 Typical problems for OS Lets try to map them … So Problems that may occur with os and speak a bit how to resolve them.

118 Intro to easy sec diff tuebingen.de/lehre/ws12/introsec/07-unix-windows.pdf

119 Homework/Lab for evaluation Install Dual boot system Linux / Windows 7 or 8 / win server 2012(Dreamspark for example) Virtualbox with 2 hd -s and install linux on one hd and windows on second one use windows boot manager to boot both systems in one hdd and Linux boot manager to boot both system in second hdd

120 Modern Operating Systems 9 Lecture

121 communication

122 Plan for today Powershell, Bash, Cmd.

123 External slides & info Powershell from microsoft course + combined Bash

124 Cheat sheets ml /bashVsPowerShellTable.html

125 For next two Weeks Mandatory : g-courses/what-s-new-in-windows-8-1-for-it- professionals g-courses/utilizing-sysinternals-tools-for-it-pros

126 For next two Weeks Reccomended: g-courses/preparing-for-the-windows-8-1-mcsa

127 Home assignment /Lab(basic) Home assignment : Write script in powershell and in bash to do : 1. Archive only new or modified files from directory to archive directory 2. Archive it to archive directory by compressing each file separately (with zip, or tar or etc) and naming the archive OriginalFileNameDDMMYY.extension where OriginalFileName is the original file name DD is Two-digit day, e.g. 02 MM Two-digit month, e.g. 04 YY Two-digit year, e.g. 96 extension is the extension for the arcive, eg tar.gz,.zip etc..

128 Home assignment /Lab(advanced) In addition monitor directory for changes as soon new file appear in directory doo mentioned tasks.


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