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Report on ‘The State of Affordable Housing in Mumbai’ November 2014 Supported by: FORD FOUNDATION 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Report on ‘The State of Affordable Housing in Mumbai’ November 2014 Supported by: FORD FOUNDATION 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Report on ‘The State of Affordable Housing in Mumbai’ November 2014 Supported by: FORD FOUNDATION 1

2 Outline of Report I.Housing Shortage in Mumbai II.(Public) Housing Stock created since 1995 III.Deliberation by Elected Representatives IV.Concept of ‘Affordable Housing’ V.From FSI to ‘Density’ & ‘Crowding’ 2

3 41.9% Mumbaikars in slums Of 28 lakh households, 11.36 lakh in slums 15,274 houseless households (census 2011) 3 I. SLUM CITY

4 Ward-wise slum population, 2011 4 In 9 of 24 wards ≥ 50 % population in slums F/N, P/N, P/S, R/N, R/S, L, M/W, N, S

5 Living Conditions in Households 5 57% households in one room dwellings 8% households have no exclusive dwelling room i.e. share one room with another household

6 What is the State Government’s plan to address this acute housing shortage for the economically weak and low income groups? 6

7 Agency/Scheme Completed Units Units under Construction Status as on Date Government of Maharashtra MHADA20,121 19,267 October 2014 SRA1,57,40286,069April 2014 MMRDA (SRA cell)26,1013,565October 2014 Government of India Rajiv Awas Yojana00 September 2014 Affordable Housing in Partnership 00 September 2014 Total2,03,6241,08,901 7 II. (Public) Housing Stock created 1995-2014

8 1995- April 2014 Proposals Proposals Received 2,622 100% Proposals Approved1,34451.2% Tenements Tenements in Approved Proposals4,67,673100% Tenements issued Commencement Certificates (CC) 2, 43,47152% Tenements issued Occupation Certificates (OC) 1, 57,40233.7% 8 Progress of Slum Rehabilitation Authority’s (SRA) Schemes

9 SRA -> setup 1995 -> 4.9 lakh households in slums 1995-2014 -> 1.5 lakh houses built (< 1/3, over 19 years) Of tenements proposed, only 52% have CCs (April 2014) Of tenements proposed, 34% have OCs, 18% are under construction (April 2014) 9 SRA’s track-record

10 At this rate, how many years will it take to provide houses to 11.5 lakh slum households? SRA rate of construction: 1.5 lakh houses in 19 years 11.5 lakh houses will take 140 years! 10

11 Maharashtra’s 12 th Assembly (November 2009-October 2014) 32 MLAs (excluding four ministers) Total No. of Questions asked by MLAs in 12 th Assembly 40,520 Questions asked on Subject of Housing and related issues 5,970 11 III. Deliberation by Elected Representatives

12 Issue-wise Deliberation in 12 th Assembly Issue-wise questionsNo. of questions Slum Development345 Slum Rehabilitation Authority244 Housing issues (affordable housing, housing for economically weaker sections etc.) 228 MHADA515 Displacement/Rehabilitation/Compensation328 Cheat/fraud cases220 Scams/corruption280 Unauthorized Construction/Development683 Repairs and reconstruction of old buildings394 Miscellaneous issues2,733 Total5,970 12

13 IV. ‘Affordable Housing’: What is Affordability? Income Group Economically Weak Low-income Middle-income Size300-600 sq ft carpet area ≤ 1,200 sq ft carpet area Cost≤ 4 years’ income ≤ 5 times household gross annual income EMI/Rent ≤ 30% of monthly income ≤ 40% of gross monthly income 13 E.g. For a semi-skilled worker, like a motor car driver: Income Rs.10,000/month, Rent: Rs.2,500 a month, Cost of House: about Rs.4 lakhs

14 Income vs. Affordability in Mumbai 50% households earn < Rs.20,000 per month (2008) 14

15 Dreaming of a Home in Mumbai? 269 Sq.ft house costs Rs.28 lakhs (Minimum Ready Reckoner Rate) For 50% population (income 12 years’ income Ready Reckoner prices are underestimates 15

16 What does a MHADA home cost in Mumbai? Monthly Income (Rs.) % Households Affordable House (Rs.) MHADA House (Rs.) Economically Weak ≤ 16,00038.8 %≤ 7.68 lakhs14.77 lakhs Low-income 16,001- 40,00031.1 % 7.68- 19.2 lakhs 19.3 lakhs Middle- income 40,001- 70,0009.8 % 19.2- 33.6 lakhs 39 lakhs High-income ≥ 70,00120.3 %Not defined76 lakhs 16 MHADA home is unaffordable for 80% households

17 V. From FSI to ‘Density’ & ‘Crowding’ Will increasing FSI deliver affordable housing? Why is Manhattan’s FSI sometimes 15, whereas Mumbai’s is 1.33? 17

18 Mumbai, FSI 1.33, has 2,667 p / hectare; Manhattan, FSI 15 has 2,727 p / ha. Mumbai, people use 5 sqm/p, Manhattan has 55 sqm/p, so needs 11 times more FSI for the same people count. Are Mumbai’s amenities like transport, educational institutions, hospitals and parks comparable with Manhattan? If more FSI means more houses, we need more land for amenities, open spaces, and streets First provide more roads and amenities, before increasing FSI and adding houses 18

19 FSI must be derived, not prescribed. It depends on indoor space/person; and outdoor space/person: roads, parks, amenities. ‘Crowding’= a measure of p/ha for each activity in a locality: indoor living, roads, parks, schools, hospitals. Choose optimum crowding levels for the available streets, parks, and amenities, and derive FSI from floor space/person! Better: abandon FSI for Form Based Codes 19


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