Presentation on theme: "Punctuation: Commas, semi-colons and colons Punctuation: Commas, semi-colons and colons"— Presentation transcript:
Punctuation: Commas, semi-colons and colons Punctuation: Commas, semi-colons and colons
Sentence structure All sentences have at least 2 elements: Rainfalls. Most sentences have a subject and predicate that contains additional information: Rain falls on the ground. Subject Predicate
Clauses There are 2 types of clauses: The rain fell on the ground (IC), which made puddles form (DC). Independent clause: An independent clause contains a subject and a predicate, and it can stand alone as a sentence. Dependent clause: A dependent clause may contain a subject and a predicate; it needs an independent clause to make sense.
Clauses example Once upon a time, a princess kissed a frog. The frog was green and ugly, but the princess didn’t care. The princess knew, better than most, that people shouldn’t judge appearances. She had a secret, which only her parents knew: she was actually an enchanted frog. As for the frog, he thought it was a bit strange for a princess to kiss him; however, he wasn’t about to stop her as he had also heard the stories. Independent clause Dependent clause
Joining clauses To join 2 independent clauses (IC), use a coordinating conjunction (CC: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). IC, CC IC.: The frog was green and very ugly, but the princess didn’t care. To join an independent clause (IC) and a dependent clause (DC), use a subordinate clause (SC: which, because, as, since, so, although, though, whereas, while, after). IC, SC DC.: She had a secret, which only her parents knew.
Punctuation: Comma Use a comma: 1.to join 2 independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, for, nor, so). Place the comma before the conjunction. IC, CC IC.: The frog was green and ugly, but the princess didn’t care. 2.after an introductory phrase, prepositional phrase, or dependent clause. DC, IC.: Once upon a time, a princess kissed a frog.
Use a comma: 3.to separate non-essential elements from a sentence IC, DC, continued IC.: The princess knew, better than most, that people shouldn’t judge appearances. 4.after a transition (TR) IC; TR, IC.: The frog thought it was a bit strange for a princess to kiss him; however, he wasn’t about to stop her as he had also heard the stories. Punctuation: Comma
Use a comma: 5.to separate elements in a series My favourite shirts are red, blue, yellow, and green. Use the serial comma, which comes after the second-to-last list item and before the ‘and’. Other comma usages: between coordinate adjectives (adjectives that are equal and reversible) with quoted words (The teacher said, “what are you doing?”) in a date (Thursday, March 29, 2007) in a number (10,000) in a personal title (Ima Student, M.A.) between a city and provincial/state name (Victoria, B.C.)
Punctuation: Semi-colon Use a semicolon to: 1.join 2 independent clauses when the second clause restates the first clause or when the two clauses are of equal emphasis. IC; IC.: Research is fundamental; theories advance knowledge. 2.join elements of a series when individual items of the series already include commas Major cities in Canada include: Vancouver, British Columbia; Calgary, Alberta; and Toronto, Ontario.
Punctuation: Semi-colon Use a semicolon to: 3.join 2 independent clauses when the second clause begins with a conjunctive adverb (CA)* or a transition (TR)**. IC; CA/TR, IC.: The capital city of British Columbia is Victoria; however, some people think it should be Vancouver. *Conjunctive adverb: however, therefore, moreover, furthermore, thus, meanwhile, nonetheless, otherwise ** Transition: in fact, for example, that is, for instance, in addition, in other words, on the other hand, even so
Punctuation: Colon Use a colon: 1.to join 2 independent clauses when you wish to emphasize the second clause IC: IC.: The rain caused considerable flooding in British Columbia: Highways 1, 1A, 2 and 4 were all closed for five days after the storm. 2.after an independent clause when it is followed by a list, a quotation, or other idea directly related to the independent clause. There are six colours in a rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet.
Punctuation cheat sheet Independent clause. IC.IC. Independent clause; independent clause.IC; IC. Independent clause, coordinating conjunction, independent clause IC, CC IC. Dependent clause, independent clause.DC, IC. Independent clause, dependent clause, continuation of independent clause. IC, DC, IC. Independent clause, subordinate clause dependent clause. IC, SC DC. Independent clause; conjunctive adverb/transition, independent clause. IC; CA/TR, IC. Use semi-colons to separate list items with commas within the items I’m going to Calgary, Alberta; Ottawa, Ontario; and St. John’s, Newfoundland. Independent clause: independent clause as emphasis of the first statement. IC: IC. Independent clause: List/quotation/idea related to the independent clause. IC: other information. Punctuation Cheat Sheet
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