Gradient: drop in ft per mile Flow Volume: cubic ft per second River type / conditions KNOW BEFORE YOU GO Good info on the Internet Search on: “usgs river flows” Search “American Whitewater Association” or “American Canoe Association”
eo8E eo8E National Falls on Upper Youghioheny
BIG: challenging because it’s high volume; might require a roll, but good room to maneuver TECHNICAL: challenging because skilled river reading and precise maneuvers are needed; maybe low volume and lots of rocks
Low: 200 – 600 cfs Pine River; Red Cedar in Spring (Red Cedar 1700 on 24 Mar 14) Medium: 600 – 3000 cfs Youghioheny, Lehigh, Middle Fork, Blackfoot early summer High: 3000 – 40,000 Snake, Yellowstone, upper Missouri in June Very High: 200,000 + Fraser, Niagara, Indus, Amazon, Mississippi
Gradient x Volume is one good measure Continuous rapids or pool-drop? Water Temp: warm or snow melt? Occlusions: rocks, trees (strainers), fences Access: urban, road/RR, wilderness Weather changes Wind, Sun
Length: shorter for turning 10ft – 17ft Depth: deeper for dryness 14” – 16” Rocker: 2” – 6” for turning and punching/climbing waves Toughness: for hitting rocks/trees with some water weight
Airbags prevent boat from being destroyed and allow it to be rolled back up when overturned.
Shorter is slower Deeper more susceptible to wind Rockered means more work tracking and more susceptible to wind Tougher means heavier A quality 16 ft “plastic” WW canoe with air bags will weigh 70 lbs+ and cost $1500+ new
Longer for solo than doubles Maybe 54” in class 1-2; 60 or longer for 3-4 (I know an expert who uses 70”) WW paddles up to 2 lbs, but not used at a steady pace Much shorter paddles for flat water: maybe 52” solo and 50” doubles. Carbon fiber paddles can weigh only 12oz – good for C2C!
See video of length 1:42 under noc-2 Air bag outfitting Nice eddy out by Ed Sharp Possible 0:24 noc-4 video of Wesser with inflatable Father-son canoeing 0:48 noc-3 video
Solo or double (strokes are same; move boat diff.) Draw and rudder strokes High and low brace Eddying out Ferrying Beware of long academic lists of fundamental strokes! But do check Internet information
Sweeping on right to move bow to left. Ruddering on right to move bow right.
Or, this could be a high brace (to stabilize the boat).
“cross-deck hanging” (never heard the term!): turning left; fighting the wind; preparing for a drop -- whatever
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nm3W0Owi5y g https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nm3W0Owi5y g https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQuR-3Iv6AA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQuR-3Iv6AA Grab slow water from the bow of canoe and let the fast current turn you 180 in the “eddy” Beware Tom’s Eddy by the Red Cedar Golf Course!
Going from slow water (eddy) out into a fast current. Grab the faster water from the bow and pull the boat downstream holding onto the mass of water going downstream. Better lean downstream to keep from turning over, since the fast current will grad the bottom of your boat to accelerate it.
Waves – steady, diagonal, explosion Holes – hydraulic w. kicking back upstream Tongue – downstream water in a hole or wave Eddy – still or even upstream water usually at the shore or behind large rocks
Tongue is mass of water going downstream Hole Violent eddy: waves, holes, swirls big drop Tumbleweed Clark Fork, MT
TONGUE HOLE PILLOW
Video taken 22 March 2013 Flow of 1650 cfs Cold weather SEE VIDEO UNDER iPhoto
Storm Hole on Susquehana hoto/detail/photoid/883370/ hoto/detail/photoid/883370/ Aerial view on Yampa hoto/detail/photoid/883366/
Can acquire many skills in 1-2 weeks A) Start out: start in MI on the Pine, Pere Marquette, [Ausable, Manistee], Jordan, Sturgeon] B) then WI: Wolf, Pestigo C) or PA-WV: Slippery Rock, Youghioheny, Cheat Narrows then Canyon (class 3-5) D) or south: Nantahala, New, Ocoee, Chattooga https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6WHLgY 3NKs
PPPPP Challenging WW requires 3 cooperating boats Cold water disables a body quickly Do your own research Rivers change; WW rivers change a lot Water level (CFS) is critical: Lower Yough at 2000 is safe fun; at 8000 it’s intimidating and dangerous Scout difficult sections of a river (eddy out and look) Make sure you have a leader before following: beware of young buck kayakers READ: fety:start
Use airbags to protect your boat Do not have loose ropes Have no entrapping rigging (big boots under low seats, etc.) Do not have sharp objects in your boat Wear a helmet Beware of frowning holes, smiling ones are OK
https://www.americanwhitewater.org/content/ River/state-summary/state/MI/ https://www.americanwhitewater.org/content/ River/state-summary/state/MI/ Books with maps and launching and rapid information can be well worth the price
NORTH CENTRALSOUTH Ausable, Pere Marquette, Jordan, Manistee, Pine, Pestigo, Wolf, Menominee, Oconto, Brule, Otter Tail, St Louis, St. Francis, St. Croix, Little Missouri, Missouri Dan, French Broad, Green, Nantahala, Nolichucky, Ocoee, Pigeon, Chattooga, Tellico, Obed, Emory, Cumberland, Buffalo, Little Missouri, Cassatot, Guadalupe, Rio Grande, San Juan, Animas,