Presentation on theme: "Film Editing HUM 110: Intro to American Film JC Clapp, North Seattle College Info here borrowed heavily from the Film Art (10 th ed.) textbook by Borwell."— Presentation transcript:
Film Editing HUM 110: Intro to American Film JC Clapp, North Seattle College Info here borrowed heavily from the Film Art (10 th ed.) textbook by Borwell & Thompson and from the Yale Film Studies website:
Overview of Transitions Super basic overview of transitions (38 sec)
Type of Transitions: Cut Cut – instant change from one shot to another – there are different kinds of cuts, such as jump cuts and cheat cuts
Type of Transitions: Fade-Out and Fade-In Fade-out – gradually darkens the end to black Fade-in – gradually lightens a shot from black (17 sec)
Type of Transitions: Dissolve Dissolve – briefly superimposes the end of shot A and the beginning of shot B. (The example below from Aliens uses a graphic match, as well)
Type of Transitions: Wipe Wipe – shot B replaces shot A by means of a line that moves across the screen (both shots are seen at the same time, but don’t blend). Line may move from top to bottom or from left to right. (9 sec)
Graphic relations between shots – visual connections and continuity Rhythmic relations between shots -- pace Spatial relations between shots – creating space and meaning Temporal relations between shots -- time Examples... Editing Allows for...
Graphic Relations Between Shots Graphic match – shapes, colors or composition in shot A is reflected in shot B. (Shower scene from Psycho)
Rhythmic Relations Between Shots Pace or tempo is the amount of time the audience has to grasp and reflect on what we see. Rapid shots leave us with little time and can build excitement. Pay attention to the rhythm of the film – the pace matters. Some examples...
Spatial Relations Between Shots Juxtaposing any two points in space suggests some kind of relationship. Kuleshov Effect: cutting together portions of a space in a way that prompts the viewer to assume a spatial whole or relationship that isn’t actually shown onscreen. (1:40) Montage
Temporal Relations Between Shots Order of events (chronology) Flashback Flashforward Elliptical editing: presents an action so that it consumes less time on screen than it does in the story. Overlapping editing: stretches the action out past its story duration
Overview of Editing Effects (9:00 -- show only parts)
Continuity Editing Aims to transmit narrative information smoothly and clearly. Graphic qualities are kept roughly continuous, figures are balanced in the frame, lighting tonality remains constant, action occupies central zones of the screen. Long shots left on screen longer than medium shots, and medium shots are left on longer than close-ups.
Continuity Shot/reverse-shot: shot from one end of the axis of action, then the other POV shot: shot down the axis Eyeline match: shot A presents someone looking at something offscreen and shot B shows us what is being looked at. (Eyeline matches often used with Kuleshov effect to create false spaces through editing.) Match on action: carrying a single movement across a cut Establishing shots and reestablishing shots
Examples of Continuity Editing (7:35)
Continuity: 180 degree system Ensures that relative positions in the frame remain consistent Ensures consistent eyelines Ensures consistent screen direction (direction of movement) Ensures the viewer always knows where the characters are in relation to one another
180 degree system
Explanation of 180 degree Rule (1:50)
Practice! Watch North by Northwest beginning at 0:33:39 through 0:42:19 – write down the various editing techniques you see 1:06:12 – the crop-duster plane scene (watch how it’s done) – next slide has map