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Ethics Date: Wednesday, May 22, 2013 Time: 2 – 3:50 p.m. Eastern Time Bobby A. Derrick, MBA, CGFM.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethics Date: Wednesday, May 22, 2013 Time: 2 – 3:50 p.m. Eastern Time Bobby A. Derrick, MBA, CGFM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethics Date: Wednesday, May 22, 2013 Time: 2 – 3:50 p.m. Eastern Time Bobby A. Derrick, MBA, CGFM

2 Surprise: It’s 2 CPEs 2

3 “It takes many good deeds to build a good reputation and only one bad one to lose it.” -- Benjamin Franklin

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5 Importance of a good reputation Pretty simple—who wants to do business with an organization whether it is a business or governmental entity Investors Customers Corporate executives surveyed by Weber- Shandick estimated 63% of their companies’ market value is due to reputation 5

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7 Good Reputation What drives our ethical decision making? What determines how we will deal with ethical challenges? When does our system begin? What are the differences between values, morals, and ethics? 7

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9 “Leaders understand that responsible companies attract the best talent, earn valuable trust, and generate more positive word of mouth.”

10 The Challenges Reputation is about building trust than an organization lives up to: – A set of core values – Acts with integrity – Takes responsibility for its mistakes 10

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12 Ethics in America Many have said that America has a severe lack of ethics Been said Americans are far less ethical than previous generations—more willing to accept unethical behavior in their leaders What motivates our ethical behaviors? 12

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14 Organizations Ethical Code Must arise from the company’s stated values Should provide guidance for handling ethical challenges General principles without specific provisions – Risk perception of window dressing – May breed cynicism Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

15 Code of Ethics – Must be Specific and Clear Six Pillars of Character 1.Trustworthiness 2.Respect 3.Responsibility 4.Fairness 5.Caring 6.Citizenship Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

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18 Six Pillars: Trustworthiness Honest in Conduct (not stealing or cheating) Integrity Reliability (promise-keeping) and Loyalty Safeguard public confidence in the integrity of the organization Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

19 Six Pillars: Trustworthiness Examples: – The goal of corporate communication is the truth— well and persuasively told. In our advertising and other public communications, we will avoid not only untruths, but also exaggeration and overstatement. (Caterpillar, Inc. “A code of Worldwide Business Conduct and Operating Principles”) – Our organization is based on a strong trust. It is the reason our customers come to us. – Our continued success depends on doing what we promise—promptly, competently and fairly. (American Express Company Code of Conduct) Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

20 Six Pillars: Respect Civility (courtesy and decency) Autonomy and tolerance Treat others with dignity—the way you would like to be treated Be civil, courteous and decent with all employees, customers and business partners Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

21 Six Pillars: Respect Examples: – We will consistently treat customers and company resources with the respect they deserve. – We treat one another with respect and take pride in the significant contributions that we come from the diversity of individuals and ideas. – We owe out suppliers the same type of respect that we show our customers (Northrop Grumman Values) Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

22 Six Pillars: Responsibility Accountability Pursuit of excellence (diligence and perseverance) Self-Restraint Conduct business efficiently and honorably in a manner that permits employees, suppliers, vendors, customers and members of the local community to make informed judgments and hold the company accountable. Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

23 Six Pillars: Responsibility Examples: – We accept individual responsibility, in partnership with the company, for the success of the business, for our personal development and for balancing work and family responsibilities (The Chevron Way) Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

24 Six Pillars: Fairness Impartiality and Equity Seek to be impartial Employ independent objective judgment on merit Free from conflicts of interest—both real and apparent Compensate all employees equitably Minimize wage disparities Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

25 Six Pillars: Fairness Examples: – Wherever it operates in the world, the corporation offers salaries and benefits that are competitive and fair. – In its hiring practices, Nortel will be fair and equitable (Northern Telecom, “commitments to Nortel Stakeholders”) – The BagelWorks rage ration ensures that the highest salary is only 3.5 times more than the lowest. (BagelWorks) Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

26 Six Pillars: Caring Charity and Compassion Demonstrate a genuine sense of compassion and concern for the welfare of others—inside and outside the company walls Don’t allow tax advantages to dictate charitable contributions from the company. These are ploys, not contributions. Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

27 Six Pillars: Citizenship Volunteerism (doing your share) Environmental protection Law abidance Honor and respect the principles and spirit of democracy and set a positive example by observing the letter and spirit of laws. Demonstrate a commitment to the environment and to social responsibility that goes beyond legal requirements Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

28 Six Pillars: Citizenship Examples: – Our social mission... Is to operate the company in a way that actively recognizes the central role that business plays in the structure of society by initiating innovative ways to improve the quality of life of a broad community: local, national, and international (Ben & Jerry’s) Including the Six Pillars of Character in Your Company’s Ethics Code by Josephson Institute on November 3,

29 These are some of the issues and questions that we will address today.

30 On a job application one question read, “Have you ever been arrested?” The applicant printed the word NO in the space.

31 THE NEXT QUESTION WAS A FOLLOW-UP TO THE FIRST. IT ASKED “WHY”. NOT REALIZING HE DID NOT HAVE TO ANSWER THIS PART, THE “HONEST” AND RATHER NAÏVE APPLICANT WROTE, “I GUESS IT’S BECAUSE I HAVEN’T BEEN CAUGHT.” 31

32 Webster puts it like this... “The discipline dealing with what is good and bad or right and wrong or with moral duty and obligation.” Ethics “Definition” 32

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34 Ethics is about how we BEHAVE, about the standards we hold ourselves to Ethics is about how we treat each other (RELATIONSHIPS), even those we don’t know What is Ethics About? Santa Clara University 34

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36 Ethics is not… Ethics vs. Morals – Ethics and morals are NOT always the same – Morals = personal view of values i.e. beliefs related to moral issues such as drinking, sex, gambling, Can reflect influence of religion, culture, family and friends – Ethics = how a moral person should behave Ethics transcends cultural, religious, and ethnic differences 36

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38 Not just feelings or conscience Not the same as religion Not just following the law Not following “what everybody does” Not technology or science—what can be done Ethics is… 38

39 How we act as individuals How we structure our organizations How we structure our society, our laws, our systems Ethics is… 39

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41 What is Ethics?  Involves learning what is right or wrong, then doing the right thing  But the “right thing” is not nearly as straightforward  There’s always a right thing to do based on moral principles  Others believe the right thing to do depends on the situation 41

42 Have you read Ethics for Dummies? 42

43 What do we know about Ethics?  Ethics refer to well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues.  Ethical standards include those things that enjoin virtues of honesty, compassion, and loyalty  Ethical standards include standards relating to rights such as the right to life, to freedom from injury, and the right to privacy 43

44 Ethics decisions on issues Ethical issues include: – Privacy – Confidentiality – Honest – Fairness Actions we should take encompass taking: – Responsibility – Meeting obligations – Telling the truth – Keeping promises – Avoid harming people 44

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46 What prevents us from making the right ethical decisions? Fear, guilt, and our own self-interests can prevents us from doing the “ethical thing” – Fear can mean we’re afraid of jeopardizing a relationship or believe that harm will come to us – Guilt can be caused by psychological or spiritual conflicts – Self-interests can blind us to the negative ramifications our actions can cause 46

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48 Bruce Weinstein outlines In What Should I Do? the steps that one should take when making a decision. Gather facts. Identify values at stake. Find the options open to you. Evaluate options and Choose the best one. "Our actions determine what kind of person we are, and our character is revealed by what we choose to do," Weinstein claims. 48

49 What's Your Ethics IQ? What would you do? After leaving a grocery store, you notice a six-pack of soda sitting in an otherwise empty shopping cart in the parking lot. Would you: A.Leave the soda where it is. B.Take it and keep it. C.Bring it back to the store. 49

50 What's Your Ethics IQ? What would you do? A friend recently set you up on a blind date, which didn't go well. Your friend, who is extremely sensitive to criticism, asks you how it went Would you: A.Lie and say it went well. B.Tell the truth. C.Thank your friend for the setup but be vague in your answer 50

51 What's Your Ethics IQ? What would you do? One of your co-workers is having some difficulties at home and the quality of his work is suffering. Would you: A.Say nothing and cover for him. B.Talk to him and offer some suggestions about how he can resolve his personal dilemma. C.Talk to the supervisor about situation. 51

52 Does this dress make me look fat? 52

53 What's Your Ethics IQ? What would you do? Your boss wants you to overlook a problem so the aircraft can meet its flight schedule. Would you: A.Do what he asks if it's not serious. B.Uphold the responsibility placed in you by the Federal Aviation Administration. C.Will your boss - put his name on the line. 53

54 What's Your Ethics IQ? What would you do? You and your beloved are having dinner at a fancy restaurant to celebrate your anniversary. When the check arrives, you notice that the waiter forgot to include the expensive bottle of wine you had. Would you: A.Pay the bill without notifying the waiter of the omission but leave a larger tip than you had planned. B.Pay the bill as is and leave a normal tip. C.Tell the waiter about the error. 54

55 What's Your Ethics IQ? What would you do? After leaving a grocery store, you notice a six-pack of soda sitting in an otherwise empty shopping cart in the parking lot. Would you: A.Leave the soda where it is. B.Take it and keep it. C.Bring it back to the store. 55

56 What are Ethics? My ethics are the rules or standards governing the conduct by which I live my life and make all my decisions. – One of the best ways about ethics is to take a quick look at what you believe and then think about how you would react when those beliefs are challenged Your ethics govern your thought process so that when a problem arises or you need to try and work your way through a situation your solution is based on your ethics. 56

57 Where Do Ethics Come From? They are not born in a vacuum Ethics are like a jigsaw puzzle When completed---it makes up who you are and what you believe From our earliest days we start to learn from those around us (can you remember who?) These learned behaviors help shape us into the person we will become We develop what will become our norms 57

58 At the heart of ethics…  Ethics are the integrity and values of an individual  If you change the values and increase the integrity of the individual, you will change their ethics 58

59 Integrity seems like a vanishing commodity - - In a world that has taken hot pursuit of personal pleasure and shortcut to success  When I have integrity, my words and my deeds match up.  I am who I am, no matter where I am or who I am with 59

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61 Capital Punishment Transplant Surgery What do you hear most often when it comes to Ethics? Almost nothing about: Private Decency Honesty Personal Responsibility Honor Topics such as hypocrisy, self-deception, cruelty or selfishness rarely came up. Are we concentrating too much on social policy? Doesn’t this promote the wrong ideas about ethics. Social morality is only half of the moral life; the other half is private morality. 61

62 Why do some people not act ethically? Is it just greed or is it often a case of ordinary people who might prefer to be good, doing bad things? Can we agree with the premise that most people, particularly business leaders want to be ethical? Ethics is about social relations and the evidence is that people want good social relations; it is good for their mental health and their sense of self. Most human beings their sense of self worth is tied to feelings of decency, integrity and the respect and trust of other people. Behaving ethically is a path to that sense of self worth. 62

63 Why do some people not act ethically? Does “doing the right thing” put you in a risky position? – You could lose power and position – Your material success could be impacted—or your very way of life Many people crumble, acquiesce, and even abdicate their values Remember there are profits to be made, job opportunities too good to lose, connections to be made, perks to enjoy, and ego to satisfy, competitions to be won, vacations and homes to be had…. 63

64 University teacher said…  Said she would only continue to focus on issues of social justice  She taught: Women’s oppression in big business Multinational corporations Their transgressions in the Third World (sort of thing)  She said, “ You are not going to have moral people until you have moral institutions. You will not have moral citizens until you have a moral government.” 64

65 At the end of the semester….  She had made it clear that she thought anything else was a waste of time even doing harm by not awakening social conscience of her students.  At the end of the semester she came into her fellow professor’s office very upset.  She said, “They cheated on their social justice take-home finals. They plagiarized!”  More than half of the students in her ethics class had copied long passages from the secondary literature. 65

66 Did you know? That in 2005, “Integrity” was the most looked up word in the dictionary 66

67 Integrity is not what we do as much as who we are  And who we are determines what we do  Our system of values is so much a part of us we cannot separate it from ourselves.  It is the navigating system that guides us  It establishes priorities in our lives and judges what we will accept or reject. 67

68 We are all faced with conflicting desires  No one can avoid it.  The factor that determines which one will prevail  Faced daily with situations - demand decisions between what we want to do vs. what we ought to do  Establishes the ground rules for resolving these tensions.  It determines who we are and how we will respond before the conflict even appears. 68

69 Hit and Run – What would you do? 69

70 Hit and Run  Picture is worth a thousand words  Newspaper headline – wrote… “SO INHUMANE” Newspaper headline  At 5:45 on a recent Fri in plenty of remaining daylight:  78-year-old Angel Torres was crossing a street  struck by one of two cars driving recklessly across the center line.  The impact—caught on a streetlight surveillance camera  flipped Torres into the air - sent him crashing to the pavement.  Torres lay in the road bloodied and paralyzed 70

71 Hit and Run  Surveillance tape shows approximately nine motorists slowing to have a look at him, then driving away.  Other people are seen on the tape staring from the sidewalk or venturing into the street none of the gawkers halted traffic aided the severely hurt Torres approximately a minute and a half after the impact, a police car arrived. Torres was taken to a hospital in critical condition, paralyzed from the neck down. “We no longer have a moral compass,” said Hartford’s shocked and angry police chief 71

72 What would you have done? 72

73 Cheating in Schools – Atlanta Scandal 73

74 Cheating Scandals in Schools! At Toomer Elementary, one of 56 schools in the report, investigators said teachers either: – Prompted students to choose the correct answer or – Looked at test booklets in advance to be sure students were ready for the questions. More than 178 educator/teachers (32 principals) were involved in the scandal – Accused of spending nights changing the answers on students' tests in a scathing state investigation released Source: cheating-investigation-full-report 74

75 Cheating Scandal is a “cancer that does damage for many years” Thousands of students will need extra tutoring and after-school help this year because they were promoted based on inflated test scores. – Meanwhile, enrollment in the district is projected to be up by about 2,000 children this year - from about 47,000 to about 49,000 - which means some classes will have to be slightly larger than in the past. Criminal investigations conducted in three counties. Source: cheating-investigation-full-report 75

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77 Cheating Scandal – Bottom Line  The report named 178 educators, 82 of whom confessed.  The testing problems first came to light after The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported that some scores were statistically improbable  The district has placed more than 130 of the educators named in the state's report on paid leave pending hearings  Another 40 or so have either quit or retired Source: cheating-investigation-full-report 77

78 Why did the cheating scandal happen?  Targets set by the district were often unrealistic (especially given cumulative effect over the years)  Administration put unreasonable pressure on teachers and principals to achieve targets  A culture of fear, intimidation, and retaliation spread throughout the district  Dr Hall and her administration emphasized test results and public praise to the exclusion of integrity and ethics. 78 Source: cheating-investigation-full-report

79 Atlanta Superintendent, Alleged Ring Leader 79

80 Atlanta Cheating Scandal 35 Face felony charges – Conspiracy, Theft, and Giving false testimony But report shows that nearly 200 took part in the alleged conspiracy 65 Count Indictment alleges – Cheating incurred at 52 of Atlanta’s 83 elementary and middle schools – Test answer sheets were altered, fabricated, and falsely certified Some teachers said they had a pizza party to erase wrong answers and fill in the circles of the correct answers 80

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82 Atlanta Cheating Scandal At one 8 th grade math proficiency scores soared from 24% to 86% in one year Atlanta educators received bonuses when student performance improves It was alleged that the former now retired Atlanta Superintendent was the ring leader – Rewarding teachers and principals who cheated, and – Punishing those who refused – Superintendent earned more than a half a million in bonuses All 35 educators have been charged with racketeering and conspiracy which carry a possible 20 year prison sentencing 82

83 Are American students making the grade when it comes to ethics ? A new survey from the Josephson Institute of Ethics High school students who admit to cheating, lying or stealing dropped in 2012 for the first time in a decade – Students who said they had cheated on an exam in the past year plunged from 59 % in 2010 to 51 % in – The number of students who said they lied to a teacher in the past year about something significant fell from 61 % in 2010 to 55 % in – In 2010, 27 % of pupils said they had stolen from a store in the past year. In 2012, 20 % said they did so 83

84 Reasons for Decline One reason for the decline may be more attention to character. “Changes in children’s behavior of this magnitude suggest a major shift in parenting and school involvement in issues of honesty and character,” Mr. Josephson said in a statement. 84

85 Differences between sexes Boys are more likely than girls to engage in dishonest conduct: 45 % of boys said they believe “a person has to lie and cheat at least occasionally in order to succeed,” compared with 28 % of girls. Boys have a tendency toward aggressiveness and competitiveness, said David Walsh, a developmental psychologist in Minneapolis. “We want our sons to be able to channel that energy in a positive direction,” said Dr. Walsh, the author of the books Smart Parenting, Smarter Kids and Why Do They Act That Way? “Some boys end up being leaders and being outstanding.” The 2012 survey’s margin of error is less than 1 percentage point. 85

86 Academic Cheating Fact Sheet Cheating among high school students has risen dramatically during the past 50 years. Use to be more likely that the struggling student would be more likely to cheat. Today it is also the above-average college bound students who are cheating. 73% of all test takers, including prospective graduate students and teachers agree that most students do cheat at some point--86% of high school students agreed. Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service 86

87 Academic Cheating Fact Sheet Cheating no longer carries the stigma that it used to. – Less social disapproval coupled – With increased competition for admission into universities and graduate schools – Made students more willing to do whatever it takes to get the A. Grades, not education--become the major focus Fewer college officials (35%) believe that cheating is a problem, in this country than do members of the public (41%). Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service 87

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89 Academic Cheating Fact Sheet High school students are less likely than younger test takers to report cheaters, because it would be "tattling" or "ratting out a friend." Feeling--honesty in academic endeavors will not effect anyone else. In the 1940s, 20% of college students admitted to cheating in high school Now between 75 and 98 % of college students surveyed each year report having cheated in high school. Students who cheat often feel justified in what they are doing. – They cheat because they see others cheat and – They think they will be unfairly disadvantaged. Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service 89

90 Academic Cheating Fact Sheet In most cases cheaters don't get caught. If caught, they seldom are punished severely, if at all. Cheating increases due to pressure for high grades. Math and Science are the courses in which cheating most often occurs. Computers can make cheating easier than ever before. For example, students can download term papers from the world wide web. "Thirty years ago, males admitted to significantly more academic dishonesty than females. Today, that difference has decreased substantially and some recent studies show no differences in cheating between men and women in college." Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service 90

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92 Academic Cheating Fact Sheet Cheating may begin in elementary school when children break or bend the rules to win competitive games against classmates. It peaks during high school when about 75% of students admit to some sort of academic misgivings. Research about cheating among elementary age children has shown that: – There are more opportunities and motivations to cheat than in preschool; – Young children believe that it is wrong, but could be acceptable depending on the task; – Do not believe that it is common; – Hard to resist when others suggest breaking rules; – Need for approval is related to cheating; Boys cheat more. Academic cheating begins to set in at the junior high level. Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service 92

93 Academic Cheating Fact Sheet Research about cheating among middle school children (Ages ) has shown that: – There is increased motivation to cheat because there is more emphasis on grades; – Even those students who say it is wrong, cheat; – If the goal is to get a good grade, they will cheat. According to a poll of Who's Who Among American High School Students, 80% of the country's best students cheated to get to the top of their class. – More than half the students surveyed said they don't think cheating is a big deal – and – Most did not get caught. Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service 93

94 Academic Cheating Fact Sheet The Josephson Institute of Ethics survey among – 20,000 middle and high school students, – 64% of high school students admitted to cheating in – That number jumped to 70% in Primary reasons for cheating: – Campus norm; – No honor code; – Penalties not severe; – Faculty support of academic integrity policies is low; – Little chance of being caught; – Incidence is higher at larger, less selective institutions. Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service 94

95 Academic Cheating Fact Sheet Additional influencers include: – Others doing it; – Faculty member doesn't seem to care; – Required course; – No stated rules or rules are unclear; – Heavy workload. Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service 95

96 Academic Cheating Fact Sheet Profile of college students more likely to cheat: – Business or Engineering majors; – Those whose future plans include business; – Men self-report cheating more than woman; – Fraternity and Sorority members; – Younger students; – Students with lower GPA's or those at the very top. Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service 96

97 Academic Cheating Fact Sheet Cheating is seen by many students as a means to a profitable end. Cheating does not end at graduation. – For example, resume fraud is a serious issue for employers concerned about the level of integrity of new employees. Copyright © 2013 by Educational Testing Service 97

98 Questionable State of Our Integrity Did you cheat to get into graduate school? – 43% Liberal Arts – 52% Education – 63% Law and Medicine – 75% Business Source: Rutgers University survey of students 98

99 Questionable State of Our Integrity 76% of employees observed a high level of illegal or unethical conduct at work in the past 12 months 49% of employees observed misconduct that, if revealed, would cause their firms to “significantly lose public trust” KPMG 2000 Organizational Integrity Survey 99

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101 Survey of Employees 65% don’t report ethical problems they observe 96% feared being accused of not being a team player 81% feared corrective action would not be taken away 68% feared retribution from their supervisors Source: Society of Human Resource Management 101

102 Personal Ethical Understanding Concepts – of right and wrong, – fair play, – respect for rights of others – honesty – personal integrity Best learned in the home at an early age—and follow-up is needed throughout life Institutions (churches, schools, etc.) can help Difficult to “back fill” in adulthood 102

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104 Understanding Ethics is a set of moral principles and a code for behavior that govern an individual’s actions with other individuals and within society Morality is what people believe to be right and good, while ethics is a critical reflection about morality 104

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106 Ethic of Reciprocity Often called the Golden Rule (in Christianity) Simply states that we are to treat other people as we would wish to be treated ourselves Almost all organized religions have such an ethic. It is normally applied to the entire human race. 106

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108 Making a Case for the Golden Rule John Maxwell, “How would I like to be treated in this situation?” is an effective integrity guideline for any situation. Works in the— – Boardroom – On the ball field – In the classroom – In the living room 108

109 The Golden Rule John C. Maxwell 109

110 Making a Case for the Golden Rule John Maxwell, “How would I like to be treated in this situation?” is an effective integrity guideline for any situation. Works with— – Employees – Employers – Family – Peers 110

111 Making a Case for the Golden Rule John Maxwell, “How would I like to be treated in this situation?” is an effective integrity guideline for any situation. Works whether— – You’re managing a paper route – A Fortune 500 Company Henry Ford observed, “We have always found that if our principles were right, the area over which they were applied did not matter.” 111

112 Golden Rule is Right and It Works 19 th Century Novelist George Eliot said, “Keep true, never be ashamed of doing right, decide on what you think is right and stick to it.” “Doing what’s right won’t always be the popular choice to make, but when we choose to be an influence instead of popular; we will always choose doing what’s right no matter what!” -- Deone Higgs 112

113 The Golden Rule “There are really two important points when it comes to ethics.” – The first is a standard to follow. – The second is the will to follow it. Every day, whenever the issue of ethical behavior confronts you, ask the question: – “How would I like to be treated in this situation.” 113

114 How to live one’s life and do one’s job with long term success "If you want to do something that will make an impact beyond your own life," Maxwell writes in summary, – "then treat people better than they treat you, – walk the extra mile, – help people who cannot help you, – do right when it's natural to do wrong, and – keep your promises even when it hurts." 114

115 Want to be a Leader? What are the core essentials of leadership? Is “ethical behavior” one of your answers? Knowing right from wrong and applying Being an ethical person is not something that you switch on and off like a light switch In a survey of 54,000 people Integrity was by far the number one attribute desired in a leader. 115

116 When the Golden Rule does not necessarily apply Author and freethinker Ali Sina comments: "A much more accurate definition of the Golden Rule is: Treat others with the same consideration and respect that you wish to be treated. It does not mean do to others exactly what you like to be done to you. – For example, if you like peanut butter, it does not mean you should feed it to someone who is allergic to it, which can kill him. – It does not mean you should take your wife who likes concerts, to a basketball game because you like basketball or – Invite your Hindu friend to a barbeque because you are a meat lover when you know he is vegetarian." 116

117 Dalai Lama: "Every religion emphasizes human improvement, love, respect for others, sharing other people's suffering. On these lines every religion had more or less the same viewpoint and the same goal."


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