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Anonymity in Driving Behavior Shawn Bray, Zehna Gilliam and Skye Simonelli San Diego Mesa College San Diego, CA.

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Presentation on theme: "Anonymity in Driving Behavior Shawn Bray, Zehna Gilliam and Skye Simonelli San Diego Mesa College San Diego, CA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anonymity in Driving Behavior Shawn Bray, Zehna Gilliam and Skye Simonelli San Diego Mesa College San Diego, CA.

2  To test the effects of anonymity on driving behaviors and to better understand which factors may contribute to other unlawful behaviors. Objective

3  Drivers in automobiles with tinted windows are less likely to make a complete stop at four way stop intersections than drivers in automobiles without tinted windows. HYPOTHESIS

4 K EY T ERMS

5  Observational Study: Researchers observe behaviors under the conditions in which they naturally occur  Anonymity: The quality or state of being unknown  Disinhibition: A lack of restraint caused by outside factor such as drugs, alcohol, or rioting  Anti-Social Behavior: A person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others K EY T ERMS

6 Literature Review

7  Zimbardo’s (1969) famous electric shock study on the relationship between anonymity and immoral behavior.  Ed Diener’s (1976) Halloween study on the effects of being less identifiable by personal information.  Andrew Silke’s (2003) analysis of attacks in Northern Ireland, anonymous criminals committed more violent attacks. Literature Review

8  Singer’s (1965) study on less identifiable people being more likely to conform in the Asch (1951) situation.  According to Zhong & others (2010), “Even dimmed lighting or wearing sunglasses increases people’s perceived anonymity, and thus their willingness to cheat or behave selfishly.”  Patricia Ellison’s (1995) test on anonymity’s effect upon incivility amongst drivers. Literature Review

9 Methods

10  Observational Study  inconspicuous and unobtrusive  n = 400  200 tinted cars  200 un-tinted cars  3 different data collection locations  Random sample and representative  Must make a complete 3 second stop Methods

11  Only cars approaching from the North and South directions  Tally in corresponding section of “Stopped/No Stop” and “Tint/No- Tint” section of observation chart  One researcher at each separate location  Selected data collection start time  Every other car observed  Car must have back tires behind limit line Methods

12 Materials Used StoppedNo Stop Tint No Tint IIII IIII II

13  One researcher at each separate location  Selected data collection start time  Every other car observed  Car must have back tires behind limit line Inclusion Criteria

14 Observational Definitions: Tint/Stop: TS Tint/No Stop: TNS No-Tint/Stop: NS No-Tint/No Stop: NN Observational Definitions and Chart StoppedNo Stop Tint No Tint IIII IIIIII

15 Observational Location: one Oceanside, CA – 2:30-3:30pm

16 Observational Location: two Encanto, CA – 5:30-7:30pm

17 Observational location: three University City, CA – 11:30-1:30pm

18  Partially rolled down windows  Completely rolled down windows  Automobiles without doors  Convertibles  Cars yielding to pedestrians Exclusion Criteria

19 Stop: 70 No Stop: 130 Tint Stop:95 No Stop: 105 No Tint Results Stop Stop : 165 No Stop : 235

20  Tinted Windows:  35% did make complete stop  65% did not make a complete stop  Un-Tinted Windows:  47.5% did make complete stop  52.5% did not make a complete stop Results

21

22 D ISCUSSION

23  We supported our hypothesis that drivers of car with tinted windows are less likely to make a complete stop at an intersection.  We failed to reject our alternative hypothesis.  We have acknowledged that the intent of reckless drivers may not be malicious.  Some confounding variables we found:  Degree of window tint  Contrast in obedience in different socioeconomic areas Discussion

24  Other future studies will include relationships between window tint and:  Medical conditions  Safety concerns  Style preference  Overall, we realize that while Deindividuation may not be the cause of getting window tint it is, however, the result. Discussion

25  Anonymity. (2009). In The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/anonymityhttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/anonymity  Berkowitz, L. Some determinants of impulsive aggression: Role of mediated associations with reinforcements for aggression. Psychological Review, 1974, 81, 165-176.  Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2008: chap 39. References

26  Disinhibition. (n.d.). In Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/anonymityhttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/anonymity  Festinger, L., Pepitone, A., & Newcomb, T. (1952). Some consequences of deindividuation in a group. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 47, 382-389.  Johnson, R. D., & Downing, L. L. (1979). Deindividuation and valence of cues: Effects on prosocial and antisocial behavior. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 37(9), 1532-1538. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.9.1532.  Li, Brian, "The Theories of Deindividuation" (2010). CMC Senior Theses. Paper 12. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cmc_theses/12 http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cmc_theses/12  Myers, D. G. (2013). Social Psychology (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. References

27  Observational Study. (2014). In Stat Trek. Retrieved from http://stattrek.com/statistics/dictionary.aspx?definition=observational_study http://stattrek.com/statistics/dictionary.aspx?definition=observational_study  Singer, J.E., Brush, C.A., and Lublin, S.C. (1965). Some aspects of Deindividuation: Identification and Conformity. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 1, 356-378.  Zimbardo, P. G. The human choice: Individuation, reason and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. In W. J. Arnold, & D. Levinc (Eds.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 18). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970.  All images are Microsoft clipart or Google Maps screenshots. References


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