Presentation on theme: "Presented by Marina Sangkavichai. What is personality? How do you define personality? What factors do you believe shape our personalities? Is."— Presentation transcript:
What is personality? How do you define personality? What factors do you believe shape our personalities? Is ones personality stable or dynamic throughout life? Starting in your 20’s, do we change much throughout our lives?
According to psychologists, personality is a person’s unique pattern of thinking, emotions, and behavior. Personality refers to the consistency in who you are, have been, and will become. Your pattern of thinking, feelings, and actions. Are you outgoing all the time or does it depend on the situation?
1. Trait: concerned with identification and description of traits Psychoanalytic: unconscious mind and that there are three parts of the mind that interact with one another. ( id, ego, superego ) 1. Behavioristic: focuses on the effect of environment on behavior 2. Humanistic: focuses on the role of each persons conscious life experiences and choices
The five factor model-a system that identifies the five most basic dimensions of personality. Extroversion vs introversion Agreeableness vs difficult and/or mistrusting Conscientious or irresponsible Emotionally stable or unstable ( Neuroticism) Openness to Experience
Temperament: is the “raw material” from which personality is formed. Temperament refers to heredity aspects of personality, such as sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, typical mood. Temperament and environmental factors along with personal experiences help in shaping your personality.
Some breeds of dogs have reputations for being friendly, aggressive, intelligent, calm, or emotional. Behavior genetics- the study of inherited behavioral traits. Twin studies have shown that identical twins are very much alike, even when reared apart. Have similar IQs.
Freud believed peoples personalities were shaped by three mental structures. ID, EGO, SUPEREGO According to Freud, behavior involves activity in all three systems. Freud focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in the development of personality.
Level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness It only surfaces in dreams and in some of the behavior people engage in without knowing why they have done so
ID- means “it”. This is made up of innate biological instincts and urges. Self-serving, irrational, has no conscious. Wants satisfaction NOW. The ID is based on the pleasure principle. It seeks to express pleasure-seeking urges of all kinds.
EGO- is the “executive” branch of this system. It is the planner, the practical part of human nature. It is based on reality. The reality principle refers to the understanding that one must sometimes defer gratification until the appropriate times and circumstances dictated by the environment. For example, waiting in line instead of pushing people out of the way.
The Superego -is our conscience. The internalized voices of our parents, or authority figures, sense of right and wrong.
According to Freud, if a conflict cannot be resolved between these three components in an appropriate manner, a person may use one or more defense mechanisms. All defense mechanisms are not equal. Some are healthy while others are troublesome.
Describe a defense mechanism you’ve used in your personal life.
Rationalization— making up reasons why an event that is distressing or disappointing is actually for the best. Jose did not get the high paying job in New York City but he reasons that he really didn’t want to move there anyway. Sublimation- spending more time engaged in work other activities to distract attention from an unpleasant event or circumstance./Working 50-60 hours a week at work after breaking off a relationship.
Projection -accusing others of having the same motives, feelings, or intentions you have. –A cheat sees a cheat in everyone. If you’re stealing from upper management you may begin to suspect those who work under you are stealing from you. Displacement - Taking it out on someone else; venting anger or another unpleasant emotion provoked by one source or another. Being rejected by someone and then going home and taking it out on your little brother.
Reaction Formation -stating strongly that one’s feelings are completely opposite from what they actually are./Henry told everyone that the woman who turned him down was really annoying. Denial- refusing to admit that a problem is real or significant Regression- acting younger than your age in response to stress-Throwing tantrums
Social learning theorists believe our behavior is shaped by observational learning, reinforcement, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, etc. If you do this, you’re considered a nice person. Do not selfishly keep your toys to yourself, you’re not being a nice person. Behaviorists believe personality is nothing more than a set of learned responses or habits.
Also believe, people’s personalities depend on the situation. Would you cheat on your next exam if you knew you could get away with it? For example, if I left a copy of Exam 3, would you take it? ( even though you’ve never cheated before and consider yourself an honest person ).
We also play a role in shaping our own behaviors. Self-efficacy-refers to the capacity for producing a desired result. You believe that your actions can make a difference. Self-reinforcement-refers to praising or rewarding yourself for having made a particular response. Treating yourself to a reward!
Others can also serve as a mirror to unlock aspects of your personality that you’re not aware of… Others perceptions of you can also affect your personality..sometimes in positive or negative ways! Other peoples perceptions of you often times reflect their own world views and opinions.
Humanistic theorists believe that individuals are inherently good and strive to fulfill their potential. Humanists believe we are not “mechanical” creatures bond by our past or conditioning but creative beings that have free choice (an ability to choose that is not controlled by genetics, learning, or unconscious forces). They believe in self actualization. Who remembers what that is?
Efficient perceptions of reality-good judgement Acceptance of self, and others Spontaneous-always learning something new Have a purpose outside of themselves-Humanitarians, Civil rights leaders, etc. Autonomy-does not rely on authorities or outside persons. Independent and resourceful. Profound interpersonal relationships-loving bonds Peak experiences-moments in which you feel harmony, peace, ecstasy, complete, and deep meaning.
Be willing to change-Am I living in a way that is truly satisfying? Is it the real me? Take responsibility-do not blame others for your shortcomings Examine your motives-get out of your comfort zone- are you scared to change jobs out of fear? Experience honestly and directly-don’t make up excuses for your behavior. Be REAL with yourself! Accept your uniqueness-don’t be afraid to be different END OF LECTURE—on to exercises!
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