4The Boy Who Cried Wolf, also known as The Shepherd Boy and the Wolf, is a fable attributed to Aesop. The protagonist of the fable is a bored shepherd boy who entertained himself by calling out “Wolf“! Nearby villagers who came to his rescue found that the alarms were false and that they had wasted their time. When the boy was actually confronted by a wolf, the villagers did not believe his cries for help and the wolf ate the flock (and in some versions the boy). The moral is stated at the end of the fable as:Even when liars tell the truth, they are never believed. The liar will lie once, twice, and then perish when he tells the truth.
5In the mid-1980's researchers at Cleveland State University made a startling discovery. They conducted an experiment by creating two fictitious job candidates David and John. The candidates had identical resumes and letters of reference. The only difference was that John's letter included the sentence "Sometimes, John can be difficult to get along with". They showed the resumes to a number of personnel directors. Which candidate did the personnel directors overwhelmingly prefer?Difficult to get along with, John.The researchers concluded the criticism of John made praise of John more believable. Admitting John's wart actually helped sell John. Admitting flaws gives you more credibility. A key to selling.
6To Lie or Not to Lie?P99Discuss the following cases in groups and see what you would probably say in each of the situations and why.
7What would you do?P100Discuss in groups what you would do in the following situations.
8Cheating: Alive and Flourishing In-class ReadingCheating: Alive and FlourishingIt is difficult to get a handle onThe cheating habits in elementary school,in high school and in college. Parents care more about their than about their The problem is more likely toscholastic cheatingtake rootbudflowerchildren’s successmoral developmentget worse than to get better
9between parents’ words and their actions drives children crazy. The roots of the problem must be dealt with in the home because it is there that children must be helped to develop enough to make occasional failure an unthreatening prospect and enough of to overcome the urge to cheat. Many parents are Thebetween parents’ words and their actions drives children crazy.self-esteema sense of right and wrongabdicating their responsibilityinconsistency
10Some colleges have set up faculty sub-committees Students in colleges still offer papers not written by themselves and seem to find to be irresistible. Parents and teachers encourage cheating by their own No one seems much bothered about Even the most outspoken opponents of cheating areProfessors are turning to open-book exams, the dual purpose of which is to 1)2)Some colleges have set up faculty sub-committeesto on the “pedagogical” goals of exams.peeking at each other’s testsattitudescheating in youngstersless critical of youngsters who cheatfoster conceptual thinkingmake crib sheets and peeking uselesscreate a campus-wide dialog
11The way to stop students from cheating in college is to The way to stop students from cheating in college is to And parents have to take the responsibility.Listen to the recording of the text and try to answer the following questions.keep them from developing the habit in high school
121. Para 1: In which way are American eating habits similar to scholastic cheating? 2. Para 3&7: According to teachers, who is likely to cheat and why do they cheat?3. Para 4&17: What should children be taught about failure?4. Para 6: What does the author imply by saying that “the inconsistency drives children crazy”?5. Para 8: What does “a way of life” mean?6. Para 13: What is “conceptual thinking”?7. Para 16: What is a “two-income family”? What is the “elusive goal”?
13Para 1: In which way are American eating habits similar to scholastic cheating? This involves a contrast. People say they watching their weight, but at the same time they probably eat a lot of snack foods. Students cheated on exams but people say the problem is not serious. People claim to be trying hard to stop cheating, yet it is flourishing.2. Para 3&7: According to teachers, who cheats and why do they cheat?Top students at top schools are the worst offenders. Parents care more about their children’s success than their moral development. The pressure and values from the parents eventually become their own.3. Para 4&17: What should children be taught about failure?Occasional failure does not mean the end of the world, but just an indication that more work needs to be done. It’s not as bad as many people often believe.
144. Para 6: What does the author imply by saying that “the inconsistency drives children crazy”? Children feel confused when they find their parents’ behavior is no consistent with their words. Since parents are not honest themselves, how could their children be taught about the sense of right and wrong?5. Para 8: What does “a way of life” mean?It means “a common practice”. Students cheat so often that it is almost routine.6. Para 13: What is “conceptual thinking”?It is a learning approach. The learner tries to understand concepts rather than memorize facts and formulas.7. Para 16: What is a “two-income family”? What is the “elusive goal”?It refers to a family in which both parents work. (vs DINK)The elusive goal is to keep children from developing the habit at high school.
15Language Points1. ll. 2-4: Everyone says he is watching his weight – yet the streets are full of overweight folk, and the snack-food industry reports record sales.watch – pay attention to or be careful of sthe.g.: Watch your language in front of ladies, young man!I have to watch my weight.record – higher, lower, better, worse etc. than ever beforeChina's railways carry record-high of 6.3 mln passengers.Record-high number of Chinese flock to post-graduate exam.Chinese New Year sales hit record high of 5 billion.
162. ll. 20-21: …too many parents are abdicating that responsibility 2. ll : …too many parents are abdicating that responsibility. “Students just aren’t brought up to see cheating as dishonest…”abdicate – give up formally a high office or responsibilityabdicate a rightabdicate the throne in sb.'s favorsee…as…--- think of / regard / consider / treat / look on / perceive / take … as…The library doesn’t see the Wilson collection as valuable.I think of him as someone who will always help me.Stress is widely perceived as contributing to heart disease.
173. Para. 6: “A child cheats on an exam and his parents get outraged 3. Para. 6: “A child cheats on an exam and his parents get outraged.” …”Yet he keeps hearing his folks talk about cheating on expense accounts or income taxes. The inconsistency drives children crazy.”folks (pl.) – (AmE) parents and / or relativesI’m going home to see my folks.consist – consistent – inconsistent – inconsistencybe compatible with; accord; in agreement withThe information consists with her account.What you said is inconsistent with what you did.There is a great inconsistency between what you said and what you did.
184. ll.46-51: At least one school…issues a pamphlet for its faculty that describes some of the more ingenious methods students may use to cheat (written crib sheets attached to cap visors, writing a couple of math formulas on their hand …) and ways to stop them. Several others are tightening their computer security, after having discovered that computer hackers were breaking into electronic college files in order to alter their grades.
195. L61: “But I can’t lay a guilt trip on a child for cheating – it is too tempting, too common and too much a part of human nature.” (translate)6. L64: “I wouldn’t be comfortable with an honor code like ours in grammar school or even high school…our system really says, you are on the threshold of being an adult, of taking responsibility for your actions.” (translate)7. L74: “I give open-book problems without unique solutions.” (translate)8. L86: They are worried whether, in a society where two-income families and high-pressure jobs are prevalent, that is an ever more elusive goal.
20Translation 1. 中国各大城市房价创历史新高。 The housing prices in China’s big cities hit record high.2. 我们应该以事实为依据，以法律为准绳。We should take the fact as a basis and the law as a criterion.3. 你的提议中有许多前后矛盾的地方。There are many inconsistencies in your proposal.4. 在学生看来，扒窃商品是不诚实的，而写几个数学公式在手上却不是。To the students, shoplifting is dishonest; writing a couple of math formulas on their hand is not.5. 这种方法有一箭双雕的作用：既培养了学生的概念思维能力，又使得夹带纸条和偷看无济于事。The approach serves a dual purpose: it fosters conceptual thinking and makes crib sheets and peeking useless.
21After-class Reading PASSAGE ONE 1. According to the passage, how many types can lies be classified into? What are they?Social lies, peace-keeping lies, protective lies and trust-keeping lies.
222. Decide which type of lie each of the following situations falls into. 1) A woman expects her best friend to cover for her if her husband suspects what is true: that she had been having an affair.2) You reduce what you really paid for your shoes when your mother asks you about the price.3) The doctor reassures a patient that he is recovering though his condition is actually deteriorating.4) You promised to keep your friend’s secret, for which you had to lie to your other friends.5) You might lie to your friend about their hairdo because it really is hideous.6) You forgot to call a friend, but you explained that you called many times and the line was busy.3. Give more examples in your daily life to illustrate the above four types of lies.
23PASSAGE TWOAccording to the passage, which of the following will be considered unethical practices?The accused in court does not tell the truth in order to win the case.The defendant’s attorney does not reveal the truth in order to get his clients off.An employee tells lies to his boss for fear of losing his job.A poker player hides a useful card up his sleeve.A poker player marks the cards so that he can recognize them immediately.A poker player talks loudly so as to distract others’ attention.A poker player gets other players drunk while he himself stays sober.A poker player hides his strength and intentions from other players.If permitted by the law, a businessman can make a killing without considering who is going to be hurt.A businessman practices occasional bluffs but never breaks the law.Key: 4、5
24Cover Letter Writing Tips What is a cover letter?Cover letters are simply a letter of introduction. In these letters you are explaining who you are and why you are writing to the resume reader. It is a matter of courtesy that you introduce yourself when you are requesting an interview. What Instances Require a Cover Letter? If you are not shaking hands with the hiring decision maker and introducing yourself, then you need a cover letter to introduce you. On the other hand, if you are sending a resume by mail, if you give your resume to a friend to hand in, or if you leave your resume with the hiring manager's secretary then you are not shaking the hiring manager's hand and you need to have a cover letter enclosed with your resume.
25What is included in a cover letter? It is recommended that letters be 3-4 paragraphs to address the following 4 topics in a succinct manner.1) For what position are you applying? 2) How did you learn of the position or company? 3) Why are you perfect for the position? 4) How can you be contacted?