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Socialization: Challenges of Childhood Dr. Aubrey H. Fine.

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1 Socialization: Challenges of Childhood Dr. Aubrey H. Fine

2 Why Children Don’t Behave the Way they Used to The impact of divorce and broken homes The misuse of television The effect of two working parents Does it relate to the VALUES the adult community have?

3 Children of the 2000’s Live in a more technologically orientated world Watch TV for a substantial amount of time Have more money and more possessions Mature physically and socially somewhat earlier than before (Hurried Child Syndrome)

4 Changes in the American Family Over 200 Years Differences –More emphasis on individual growth and importance and less on the family unit. –The dramatic change of the female role – more respect and recognition and overall importance. –A much more complex, sophisticated and technological society. –A change from a rural or agrarian lifestyle to an urban and more mobile way of life.

5 Children of the 2000’s – con’t Have working mothers Are less used to delayed gratification Experience lack of stability in their life, which seems to lead to lack of persistence, and poor problem solving skills

6 Gangs Media Substance Abuse Lack of Parental and Input Support Hectic Schedules Social Influences Social Norms Economic Pressures

7 Child Family School and Day Care Community Friends Values

8 Changing Families American families have undergone tremendous changes. Dual-income families, stepfamilies, and single-parent households represent significant portions of today’s families. Large numbers of children will spend a major portion of their childhood years in a single- parent household.

9 It is estimated that one out of every three Americans is now a step-parent, a step-child, a stepsibling, or some other member of a step family.

10 Year Children not living with both parents (millions) Projected Number of Children Not Living with Both Parents, U.S. Total,

11 Causes of Divorce Both economic and attitudinal changes have contributed to the growing incidence of divorce. By the end of the 1980’s, 13.3 million children ages 5 and younger were in some type of non-maternal child-care arrangement.

12 Divorce Most industrialized nations have experienced similar patterns. Divorce rates in both Sweden and Germany, for example, doubled between 1960 and However, divorce is far more prevalent in the U.S. than elsewhere.

13 Percent of Children in Poverty By the end of the 1980’s, almost 20% of children in America were poor.

14 Year Number of children in poverty (milllions) Projected Number of Children in Poverty

15 Hurrying children is expecting them to feel, think, and act much older. This usually can put extraordinary pressure on children to adapt.

16 Stress is any unusual demand for adaptation that forces us to call upon our energy sources.

17 Latchkey Children The proportion of children who take care of themselves after school – latchkey children – ranged from 3% for children ages 5-7 to 40% by age 12.

18 Childcare The USA has had a unified national policy focused directly on childcare. –There is no evidence that day care is inherently bad for children or that home rearing is inherently good for children. But the research makes it clear that good day care can be good for children and conversely, bad day care can be bad for children. The quality of care and attention is the issue.

19 There are two lasting bequests we can hope to give our children, one of those is roots; the other, wings.

20 Socialization American families today –Growing up too fast –Children of divorce Single-parent family may be stressed economically and socially Divorce has more adverse, long-term effects on boys School achievement may suffer and impulsivity increases

21 Socialization American families today – con’t Guidelines: Helping Children of Divorce –Take note of any sudden changes in behavior that might indicate problems at home –Talk individually to students about their attitude or behavior changes. This gives you a chance to find out about unusual stress such as divorce –Watch your language to make sure you avoid stereotypes about “happy” (two parent) homes. –Help students maintain self-esteem –Find out what resources are available at your school –Be sensitive to both parents’ rights to information –Child Abuse

22 The Elementary School Years Physical Development –Increase in height and weight: awareness of physical differences –Increasing trend of obesity, up to 50% in 20 years –Play less and watch TV more during this period –Research found a link between TV watching and obesity

23 The Elementary School Years Friendships in Childhood –Level one: Friends are whoever a child plays with; friendship is based on moment-to-moment actions –Level two: Friendship defined by willingness to help when help is needed –Level three: Friendships based on more personal qualities and less tied to behavior

24 The Elementary School Years Implications for Teaching –Provide wide variety of concrete experiences for initial learning –Create learning experiences that lead to success through work and effort

25 Issues Affecting Adolescents

26 Early and Late Maturers –Puberty: Type of change and duration variable –Early maturation brings academic advantage –Boys: Early-maturers more likely to be popular, late-maturers less well adjusted: may be come compensation later in life –Girls: Early-maturing may be a disadvantage

27 Issues Affecting Adolescents Early and Late Maturers – con’t –Guidelines: Dealing with Differences in Growth and Development Do not call unnecessary attention to physical differences among students Help students obtain factual information on differences in physical development Accept that concerns about appearance and the opposite sex will occupy much time and energy for adolescents

28 Issues Affecting Adolescents Adolescents at risk –Teenage sexuality and pregnancy Majority of American teens 15 and up to have had intercourse Rate of teenage pregnancy higher in United States than similar developing countries Half a million teenage girls become mothers every year Many teenagers are uninformed about birth control: Research suggests providing facts to teenagers decreases unwanted pregnancies One fourth of the 1.5 million sexually active high school students will become infected with a sexually transmitted disease before graduating.

29 Issues Affecting Adolescents – Con’t –Eating Disorders Bulimia: Binge eating Anorexia nervosa: self- starvation

30 Issues Affecting Adolescents – Con’t Drug Abuse Nearly all high school seniors report experience with alcohol; 20% of seniors are smokers; 30% have used an illegal drug Researchers link teenage alcohol and drug abuse to inadequate parental support systems that fail to provide teenagers with the right blend of structure and support and freedom

31 Issues Affecting Adolescents – Con’t –AIDS: Students must be educated and informed about risk –Suicide Third most common cause of death among teenagers Some causes of suicide: –family turmoil –depression –drug or alcohol abuse –underachievement –alienation from peers and society –child abuse Warning signs: –changes in behavior in school such as skipping classes, missing assignments, or doing poorly on exams –personality changes such as moodiness, angry outbursts, or lack of concern about health or appearance –possible drug or alcohol abuse –depression and withdrawal, either from friends or school activities

32 The best thing you can give your children is….time.

33 Erik Erikson

34 The Work of Erikson Psychosocial theory of development Developmental crisis Eight stages

35 Erikson’s Stages: Preschool Years Trust / Mistrust: birth to months - feeding Autonomy / Shame & Doubt: 18 months to 3 years – toilet training Initiative / Guilt: 3 to 6 years - independence

36 Erikson’s Stages : Elementary and Middle School Years Industry / Inferiority: 6 to 12 years - school

37 Erikson’s Stages : Adolescence Identity / Role Confusion Peer relationships “Who am I?” James Marcia’s work on identity statuses –Achievement –Foreclosure –Diffusion –Moratorium

38 Erikson’s Stages : Beyond the School Years Intimacy / Isolation: Young adulthood – love relationships Generativity / Stagnation: Middle Adulthood – parenting/ mentoring Ego integrity / Despair: Late adulthood – reflecting on and acceptance of ones life See Table 3.1, Woolfolk, page 65

39 How Erikson’s Theory Can Help Teachers Initiative: –Allow limited choices that will often result in success –Encourage make believe –Be tolerant of mistakes Industry: –Help students set and achieve realistic goals –Allow and support opportunities to be independent See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 67

40 How Erikson’s Theory Can Help Teachers Identity: –Supply a variety of positive role models –Help with resources to solve personal problems –Be tolerant of fads if they don’t offend others or interfere with teaching –Give students realistic feedback about themselves See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 70

41 Overview of Erikson: Birth through School Age

42 Kohlberg

43 Kohlberg’s Stages Pre-conventional –1: Avoid punishment –2: Personal gain Conventional –3: Good boy / Nice girl –4: Law & order Post-conventional –5: Social contract –6: Universal ethical principles

44 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development –Preconventional (Stages 1,2) Judgment based on person’s own needs and perceptions During these years, children respond mainly to cultural control to avoid punishment and attain satisfaction

45 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development – Con’t Stage 1: Punishment avoidance and obedience –Children obey rules and orders to avoid punishment; there is no concern about moral rectitude Stage 2: Exchange of favors (Naïve instrumental behaviorism) –Children obey rules, but only for pure self- interest; they are vaguely aware of fairness to others, but only for their own satisfaction –“You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours”

46 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development – Con’t Educational Implications –Try to reinforce examples of desired behavior –Encourage young children in higher-order thinking –Teach directly –Be tolerant of and use a youngster’s changed concept of the adult-child relationship, that is, children’s awareness that they have their own ideas –Urge students to move beyond this level of moral reasoning by helping them to be more sensitive to the feelings of others

47 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development – Con’t Conventional (Stages 3,4) –Taking into account expectations of society and law –Children desire approval from both individuals and society –They not only conform, but actively support society’s standards

48 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development – Con’t Good boy/good girl: Stage 3 –Children seek the approval of others –They being to judge behavior by attention: “She meant to do well” Law and order: Stage 4 –Children are concerned with authority and maintaining the social order –Correct behavior is “doing one’s duty”

49 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development – Con’t Educational implications –Students can reason about their actions, although their level of moral reasoning may not be an accurate indication of their moral behavior –Students are influenced strongly by both adults and peers –Discover the range of the child’s moral reasoning. Knowing the upper limits gives you a yardstick for measuring that child’s behavior and helps you to motivate the child to act at the appropriate level –Issues and answers: schools, violence, and moral education

50 Science Experiment Questions Table 2 Number______Age________ Gender M___ F___ The following scenarios can be justified from each of the following responses given. Read each case and select what you believe would be the best response. Put an x next to the response you believe is the correct choice. The scoring key for each question will be typed in blue. A response of 1 is at the preconventional level; 2- conventional; and 3 post conventional.

51 Science Experiment Questions 1. A fourth grader is watching his peers tease an overweight classmate. Does the fourth grader join in the teasing? No, you don’t because you don’t want to be considered mean _____ 1 No, because you can get into trouble _______ 1 Yes because everyone is doing it and you don’t want the kids to pick on you.______ 1 No, because teasing is wrong and the teacher will punish you ______2 No because you are hurting someone for your enjoyment. You should talk to the others and let them know it is wrong______ 3

52 Science Experiment Questions 2. There is light traffic, the weather is clear and you are driving. Do you speed? No because you can get caught and you don’t want to get into trouble_______ 1 Yes because everyone else is doing it._______1 No because it is against the law and you shouldn’t do it for that reason_____2 No because you are responsible for your actions. You could hit some one, and it would be your fault.______3_

53 Science Experiment Questions 3 You are a German citizen under Hitler’s regime. You have been told that unless you reveal the whereabouts of your Jewish neighbors, you will be arrested for crimes against the state. 1. You turn in your Jewish neighbors in because you want to be a good citizen. _________ 1 2. You don’t get involved because you don’t want to get into trouble_______1 3 You turn in your Jewish neighbors because you don’t want to get arrested. _______ 2 4. You hide and help your neighbors even if it is illegal because you feel it is wrong what the regime is doing. _________ 3

54 Science Experiment Questions 4) Your neighbor has been unemployed for quite some time in spite of steadily seeking work. He has a large family to feed and has fallen behind in his bills with his creditors threatening to foreclose on his home. You know that he has been hunting out of season and poaching is illegal. What do you do? You turn him in to the police because poaching is illegal. ________ 2 You go over to your neighbor and you offer him some food so he can feed his family without hunting. _______ 3 You don’t do anything. You don’t want to upset your neighbor and what he is doing doesn’t hurt___ you._____1

55 Science Experiment Questions 5. You and your friends go by a store in the mall that is handing out free merchandise which eventually may become collectors items. The table is not being monitored. What do you do? 1.You only take one because you know that other people would like to get the chance to get an item._____ 2 2.You only take one because you are afraid that you will get caught. You don’t want to get in trouble. _______ 1 3. It is important for you that everyone should get one sample. For that reason alone, you take only one 3 4. You take a few because you really don’t think you’ll get caught and you feel the cards will be very valuable in the future. _______ 1

56 Science Experiment Questions 6. Your geometry teacher grades on the curve. You are taking a test that will determine your final course grade. The teacher is not looking at you. Do you sneak a peak at your neighbor’s answers and cheat? 1.You decide to cheat as well to get a higher grade because you know you can get away with it. ____1 2.No because you can get caught and your teacher will be disappointed with you_____1 3. No you don’t cheat because you realize that cheating won’t help him you learn. _______3 4. No because cheating is wrong and you could get suspended.________2

57 Science Experiment Questions 7) Your best friend tells you that he is going to a party with his new friend who is a known “druggie” and he may try to convince him to use drugs. –You don’t say anything because you don’t want to hurt your friend’s feelings. ______1 –You go over to your friend’s house and try to help him make a good choice for his own health. You realize that he may get mad at you but his safety is more important then getting him mad at you. ________3 –You tell your best friends parents because using drugs is illegal and you don’t want your friend to get into trouble with the law. _______2

58 Science Experiment Questions 8) Steve a junior in high school is working at a night job to help support his mother, a single parent of three. Steve is a conscientious student who works hard in classes, but he doesn’t have enough time to study. History isn’t even Steve’s favorite course, and because of his night work, he has a marginal D average. If he fails the final exam, he will fail the course, wont receive credit, and will have to alter plans for working during his senior year. He arranged to be off work the night before the exam so that he could study extra hard, but early in the evening his boss called, desperate to have Steve come in and replace another employee who called in sick at the last moment. He came home very late and tried to study but he fell asleep with the book in his lap. Steve went to history class, looked at the test and went blank. Everything seemed like a jumble. Claribel, however, one of the best students in the class, happened to have the answer sheet positioned so that he could clearly see every answer by barley moving his eyes. What should Steve do? Steve should go ahead and cheat because if he doesn’t, he’ll have to repeat the course and quit his job.______1 Steve’s cheating is inappropriate because earning grades amounts to an agreement among teachers and learners that the grade will reflect individual effort. Cheating violates the agreement. _________3 Steve should not cheat because “Its against the rules to cheat.” _______2

59 Science Experiment Questions 9. A high school student is participating in a service learning project. She keeps track of her own hours spent in service. No one would know if she lied and recorded more hours worked than what she had actually done. Does she lie? 1.No because if she gets caught, she will get into a lot of trouble________1 2. No because she would not learn from the experience. She would also be hurting all the others that she was to serve and help in her project (by not being there). ______3 3.Yes, because a lot of students do it, and if she doesn’t do it she will be at a great disadvantage.______1 4.No because cheating is wrong and she could get an F if she is caught.____2

60 Science Experiment

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63 Morality

64 Moral Dilemmas Hypothetical situations in which no choice is absolutely right—used to evaluate moral reasoning Certain strategies will help you make classroom discussions of moral dilemmas most effective: –Asking “why” to help students identify the dilemma and discover their level of moral reasoning –Complications the circumstances to add a new dimensions to the problem –Presenting examples, based on incidents at school –Alternating real and hypothetical dilemmas, so that students are encouraged to live by their beliefs

65 Level of moral reasoning related to both cognitive and emotional development.

66 Stages of Morality: Problems and Criticisms In real life, stages not separate, sequenced and consistent Ordering of stages indicates a sex and cultural bias

67 Stages of Morality: Problems and Criticisms Gilligan (1977, 1982) questioned the validity of Kohlberg’s theory of women –Qualities the theory associates with the mature adult are qualities traditionally associated with “masculinity” rather than “femininity.” The characteristics that define the “good woman” all contribute to a different concept of morality. –Noting that women’s moral decisions are based on an ethics of caring rather than on morality of justice, Gilligan argues for a different sequence for the moral development of women. She does not argue for the superiority of either, but urges recognition of the difference.

68 Stages of Morality: Problems and Criticisms – con’t Gilligan (1977, 1982) questioned the validity of Kohlberg’s theory of women - con’t –Gilligan argues that for males, separation from mothers is essential for the development of masculinity, whereas for females, femininity is defined by attachment to mothers –Three levels: Orientation to individual survival Goodness as self-sacrifice The morality of non-violence

69 Deficiency needs Survival Pre-requisite –Survival –Safety –Belonging –Self-esteem Being needs Endlessly renewed Whole person –Intellect / achievement –Aesthetics –Self-actualization Maslow’s Hierarchy

70 Self- Actualization Need Aesthetic Needs Need to know & Understand Esteem Needs Belongingness & Love Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Being (growth) Needs DeficiencyNeeds Motivation increases as needs are met Motivationdecreases as needs are met Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

71 What do you really want for your children? A sense of responsibility Being honest Having a sense of empathy Having concern for others Developing respect for others Open-mindedness

72 What do you really want for your children? – con’t Having dignity and integrity Healthy self-esteem Problem solving skills Responsibility Acceptance of self Being cooperative

73 Man must cease attributing his problems to his environment, and learn again to exercise his will – his personal responsibility - Albert Schweitzer


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