Presentation on theme: "Socialization: Challenges of Childhood"— Presentation transcript:
1Socialization: Challenges of Childhood Dr. Aubrey H. Fine
2Why Children Don’t Behave the Way they Used to The impact of divorce and broken homesThe misuse of televisionThe effect of two working parentsDoes it relate to the VALUES the adult community have?
3Children of the 2000’s Live in a more technologically orientated world Watch TV for a substantial amount of timeHave more money and more possessionsMature physically and socially somewhat earlier than before (Hurried Child Syndrome)
4Changes in the American Family Over 200 Years DifferencesMore emphasis on individual growth and importance and less on the family unit.The dramatic change of the female role – more respect and recognition and overall importance.A much more complex, sophisticated and technological society.A change from a rural or agrarian lifestyle to an urban and more mobile way of life.
5Children of the 2000’s – con’t Have working mothersAre less used to delayed gratificationExperience lack of stability in their life, which seems to lead to lack of persistence, and poor problem solving skills
6Lack of Parental and Input Support GangsEconomic PressuresMediaSocial InfluencesSubstance AbuseSocial NormsLack of Parental and Input SupportHectic Schedules
7ChildFamilyFriendsValuesSchool and Day CareCommunity
8Changing Families American families have undergone tremendous changes. Dual-income families, stepfamilies, and single-parent households represent significant portions of today’s families.Large numbers of children will spend a major portion of their childhood years in a single-parent household.
9It is estimated that one out of every three Americans is now a step-parent, a step-child, a stepsibling, or some other member of a step family.
10Children not living with both parents (millions) Projected Number of Children Not Living with Both Parents, U.S. Total,Children not living with both parents (millions)Year
11Causes of DivorceBoth economic and attitudinal changes have contributed to the growing incidence of divorce.By the end of the 1980’s, 13.3 million children ages 5 and younger were in some type of non-maternal child-care arrangement.
12Divorce Most industrialized nations have experienced similar patterns. Divorce rates in both Sweden and Germany, for example, doubled between 1960 and 1988.However, divorce is far more prevalent in the U.S. than elsewhere.
13Percent of Children in Poverty By the end of the 1980’s, almost 20% of children in America were poor.
14Projected Number of Children in Poverty Number of children in poverty (milllions)Year
15Hurrying children is expecting them to feel, think, and act much older Hurrying children is expecting them to feel, think, and act much older. This usually can put extraordinary pressure on children to adapt.
16Stress is any unusual demand for adaptation that forces us to call upon our energy sources.
17Latchkey ChildrenThe proportion of children who take care of themselves after school – latchkey children – ranged from 3% for children ages 5-7 to 40% by age 12.
18ChildcareThe USA has had a unified national policy focused directly on childcare.There is no evidence that day care is inherently bad for children or that home rearing is inherently good for children. But the research makes it clear that good day care can be good for children and conversely, bad day care can be bad for children. The quality of care and attention is the issue.
19There are two lasting bequests we can hope to give our children, one of those is roots; the other, wings.
20Socialization American families today Growing up too fast Children of divorceSingle-parent family may be stressed economically and sociallyDivorce has more adverse, long-term effects on boysSchool achievement may suffer and impulsivity increases
21Socialization American families today – con’t Child Abuse Guidelines: Helping Children of DivorceTake note of any sudden changes in behavior that might indicate problems at homeTalk individually to students about their attitude or behavior changes. This gives you a chance to find out about unusual stress such as divorceWatch your language to make sure you avoid stereotypes about “happy” (two parent) homes.Help students maintain self-esteemFind out what resources are available at your schoolBe sensitive to both parents’ rights to informationChild Abuse
22The Elementary School Years Physical DevelopmentIncrease in height and weight: awareness of physical differencesIncreasing trend of obesity, up to 50% in 20 yearsPlay less and watch TV more during this periodResearch found a link between TV watching and obesity
23The Elementary School Years Friendships in ChildhoodLevel one: Friends are whoever a child plays with; friendship is based on moment-to-moment actionsLevel two: Friendship defined by willingness to help when help is neededLevel three: Friendships based on more personal qualities and less tied to behavior
24The Elementary School Years Implications for TeachingProvide wide variety of concrete experiences for initial learningCreate learning experiences that lead to success through work and effort
26Issues Affecting Adolescents Early and Late MaturersPuberty: Type of change and duration variableEarly maturation brings academic advantageBoys: Early-maturers more likely to be popular, late-maturers less well adjusted: may be come compensation later in lifeGirls: Early-maturing may be a disadvantage
27Issues Affecting Adolescents Early and Late Maturers – con’tGuidelines: Dealing with Differences in Growth and DevelopmentDo not call unnecessary attention to physical differences among studentsHelp students obtain factual information on differences in physical developmentAccept that concerns about appearance and the opposite sex will occupy much time and energy for adolescents
28Issues Affecting Adolescents Adolescents at riskTeenage sexuality and pregnancyMajority of American teens 15 and up to have had intercourseRate of teenage pregnancy higher in United States than similar developing countriesHalf a million teenage girls become mothers every yearMany teenagers are uninformed about birth control: Research suggests providing facts to teenagers decreases unwanted pregnanciesOne fourth of the 1.5 million sexually active high school students will become infected with a sexually transmitted disease before graduating.
30Issues Affecting Adolescents – Con’t Drug AbuseNearly all high school seniors report experience with alcohol; 20% of seniors are smokers; 30% have used an illegal drugResearchers link teenage alcohol and drug abuse to inadequate parental support systems that fail to provide teenagers with the right blend of structure and support and freedom
31Issues Affecting Adolescents – Con’t AIDS: Students must be educated and informed about riskSuicideThird most common cause of death among teenagersSome causes of suicide:family turmoildepressiondrug or alcohol abuseunderachievementalienation from peers and societychild abuseWarning signs:changes in behavior in school such as skipping classes, missing assignments, or doing poorly on examspersonality changes such as moodiness, angry outbursts, or lack of concern about health or appearancepossible drug or alcohol abusedepression and withdrawal, either from friends or school activities
32The best thing you can give your children is….time.
34The Work of Erikson Psychosocial theory of development Developmental crisisEight stages
35Erikson’s Stages: Preschool Years Trust / Mistrust: birth to months - feedingAutonomy / Shame & Doubt: 18 months to 3 years – toilet trainingInitiative / Guilt: 3 to 6 years - independence
36Erikson’s Stages : Elementary and Middle School Years Industry / Inferiority: 6 to 12 years - school
37Erikson’s Stages : Adolescence Identity / Role ConfusionPeer relationships“Who am I?”James Marcia’s work on identity statusesAchievementForeclosureDiffusionMoratorium
38Erikson’s Stages : Beyond the School Years Intimacy / Isolation: Young adulthood – love relationshipsGenerativity / Stagnation: Middle Adulthood – parenting/ mentoringEgo integrity / Despair: Late adulthood – reflecting on and acceptance of ones lifeSee Table 3.1, Woolfolk, page 65
39How Erikson’s Theory Can Help Teachers Initiative:Allow limited choices that will often result in successEncourage make believeBe tolerant of mistakesIndustry:Help students set and achieve realistic goalsAllow and support opportunities to be independentSee Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 67
40How Erikson’s Theory Can Help Teachers Identity:Supply a variety of positive role modelsHelp with resources to solve personal problemsBe tolerant of fads if they don’t offend others or interfere with teachingGive students realistic feedback about themselvesSee Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 70
43Kohlberg’s Stages Pre-conventional Conventional Post-conventional 1: Avoid punishment2: Personal gainConventional3: Good boy / Nice girl4: Law & orderPost-conventional5: Social contract6: Universal ethical principles
44Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Preconventional (Stages 1,2)Judgment based on person’s own needs and perceptionsDuring these years, children respond mainly to cultural control to avoid punishment and attain satisfaction
45Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development – Con’t Stage 1: Punishment avoidance and obedienceChildren obey rules and orders to avoid punishment; there is no concern about moral rectitudeStage 2: Exchange of favors (Naïve instrumental behaviorism)Children obey rules, but only for pure self-interest; they are vaguely aware of fairness to others, but only for their own satisfaction“You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours”
46Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development – Con’t Educational ImplicationsTry to reinforce examples of desired behaviorEncourage young children in higher-order thinkingTeach directlyBe tolerant of and use a youngster’s changed concept of the adult-child relationship, that is, children’s awareness that they have their own ideasUrge students to move beyond this level of moral reasoning by helping them to be more sensitive to the feelings of others
47Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development – Con’t Conventional (Stages 3,4)Taking into account expectations of society and lawChildren desire approval from both individuals and societyThey not only conform, but actively support society’s standards
48Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development – Con’t Good boy/good girl: Stage 3Children seek the approval of othersThey being to judge behavior by attention: “She meant to do well”Law and order: Stage 4Children are concerned with authority and maintaining the social orderCorrect behavior is “doing one’s duty”
49Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development – Con’t Educational implicationsStudents can reason about their actions, although their level of moral reasoning may not be an accurate indication of their moral behaviorStudents are influenced strongly by both adults and peersDiscover the range of the child’s moral reasoning. Knowing the upper limits gives you a yardstick for measuring that child’s behavior and helps you to motivate the child to act at the appropriate levelIssues and answers: schools, violence, and moral education
50Science Experiment Questions Table 2Number______ Age________ Gender M___ F___The following scenarios can be justified from each of the following responses given. Read each case and select what you believe would be the best response. Put an x next to the response you believe is the correct choice.The scoring key for each question will be typed in blue. A response of 1 is at the preconventional level; 2- conventional; and 3 post conventional.
51Science Experiment Questions 1. A fourth grader is watching his peers tease an overweight classmate. Does the fourth grader join in the teasing?No, you don’t because you don’t want to be considered mean _____ 1No, because you can get into trouble _______ 1Yes because everyone is doing it and you don’t want the kids to pick on you.______ 1No, because teasing is wrong and the teacher will punish you ______2No because you are hurting someone for your enjoyment. You should talk to the others and let them know it is wrong______ 3
52Science Experiment Questions 2. There is light traffic, the weather is clear and you are driving. Do you speed?No because you can get caught and you don’t want to get into trouble_______ 1Yes because everyone else is doing it._______1No because it is against the law and you shouldn’t do it for that reason_____2No because you are responsible for your actions. You could hit some one, and it would be your fault.______3_
53Science Experiment Questions 3 You are a German citizen under Hitler’s regime. You have been told that unless you reveal the whereabouts of your Jewish neighbors, you will be arrested for crimes against the state.1. You turn in your Jewish neighbors in because you want to be a good citizen. _________ 12. You don’t get involved because you don’t want to get into trouble_______13 You turn in your Jewish neighbors because you don’t want to get arrested. _______ 24. You hide and help your neighbors even if it is illegal because you feel it is wrong what the regime is doing. _________ 3
54Science Experiment Questions 4) Your neighbor has been unemployed for quite some time in spite of steadily seeking work. He has a large family to feed and has fallen behind in his bills with his creditors threatening to foreclose on his home. You know that he has been hunting out of season and poaching is illegal. What do you do?You turn him in to the police because poaching is illegal. ________ 2You go over to your neighbor and you offer him some food so he can feed his family without hunting. _______ 3You don’t do anything. You don’t want to upset your neighbor and what he is doing doesn’t hurt___ you._____1
55Science Experiment Questions 5. You and your friends go by a store in the mall that is handing out free merchandise which eventually may become collectors items. The table is not being monitored. What do you do?1.You only take one because you know that other people would like to get the chance to get an item._____ 22.You only take one because you are afraid that you will get caught. You don’t want to get in trouble. _______ 13. It is important for you that everyone should get one sample. For that reason alone, you take only one 3You take a few because you really don’t think you’ll get caught and you feel the cards will be very valuable in the future. _______ 1
56Science Experiment Questions 6. Your geometry teacher grades on the curve. You are taking a test that will determine your final course grade. The teacher is not looking at you. Do you sneak a peak at your neighbor’s answers and cheat?1.You decide to cheat as well to get a higher grade because you know you can get away with it. ____12.No because you can get caught and your teacher will be disappointed with you_____13. No you don’t cheat because you realize that cheating won’t help him you learn. _______34. No because cheating is wrong and you could get suspended.________2
57Science Experiment Questions 7) Your best friend tells you that he is going to a party with his new friend who is a known “druggie” and he may try to convince him to use drugs.You don’t say anything because you don’t want to hurt your friend’s feelings. ______1You go over to your friend’s house and try to help him make a good choice for his own health. You realize that he may get mad at you but his safety is more important then getting him mad at you. ________3You tell your best friends parents because using drugs is illegal and you don’t want your friend to get into trouble with the law. _______2
58Science Experiment Questions 8) Steve a junior in high school is working at a night job to help support his mother, a single parent of three. Steve is a conscientious student who works hard in classes, but he doesn’t have enough time to study. History isn’t even Steve’s favorite course, and because of his night work, he has a marginal D average. If he fails the final exam, he will fail the course, wont receive credit, and will have to alter plans for working during his senior year. He arranged to be off work the night before the exam so that he could study extra hard, but early in the evening his boss called, desperate to have Steve come in and replace another employee who called in sick at the last moment. He came home very late and tried to study but he fell asleep with the book in his lap. Steve went to history class, looked at the test and went blank. Everything seemed like a jumble. Claribel, however, one of the best students in the class, happened to have the answer sheet positioned so that he could clearly see every answer by barley moving his eyes. What should Steve do?Steve should go ahead and cheat because if he doesn’t, he’ll have to repeat the course and quit his job.______1Steve’s cheating is inappropriate because earning grades amounts to an agreement among teachers and learners that the grade will reflect individual effort. Cheating violates the agreement. _________3Steve should not cheat because “Its against the rules to cheat.” _______2
59Science Experiment Questions 9. A high school student is participating in a service learning project. She keeps track of her own hours spent in service. No one would know if she lied and recorded more hours worked than what she had actually done. Does she lie?1.No because if she gets caught, she will get into a lot of trouble________12. No because she would not learn from the experience. She would also be hurting all the others that she was to serve and help in her project (by not being there). ______33.Yes, because a lot of students do it, and if she doesn’t do it she will be at a great disadvantage.______14.No because cheating is wrong and she could get an F if she is caught.____2
64Moral DilemmasHypothetical situations in which no choice is absolutely right—used to evaluate moral reasoningCertain strategies will help you make classroom discussions of moral dilemmas most effective:Asking “why” to help students identify the dilemma and discover their level of moral reasoningComplications the circumstances to add a new dimensions to the problemPresenting examples, based on incidents at schoolAlternating real and hypothetical dilemmas, so that students are encouraged to live by their beliefs
65Level of moral reasoning related to both cognitive and emotional development.
66Stages of Morality: Problems and Criticisms In real life, stages not separate, sequenced and consistentOrdering of stages indicates a sex and cultural bias
67Stages of Morality: Problems and Criticisms Gilligan (1977, 1982) questioned the validity of Kohlberg’s theory of womenQualities the theory associates with the mature adult are qualities traditionally associated with “masculinity” rather than “femininity.” The characteristics that define the “good woman” all contribute to a different concept of morality.Noting that women’s moral decisions are based on an ethics of caring rather than on morality of justice, Gilligan argues for a different sequence for the moral development of women. She does not argue for the superiority of either, but urges recognition of the difference.
68Stages of Morality: Problems and Criticisms – con’t Gilligan (1977, 1982) questioned the validity of Kohlberg’s theory of women - con’tGilligan argues that for males, separation from mothers is essential for the development of masculinity, whereas for females, femininity is defined by attachment to mothersThree levels:Orientation to individual survivalGoodness as self-sacrificeThe morality of non-violence