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Surveys. Respondents Respondents are a representative sample of people.

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Presentation on theme: "Surveys. Respondents Respondents are a representative sample of people."— Presentation transcript:

1 Surveys

2 Respondents Respondents are a representative sample of people

3 Surveys Surveys ask respondents for information using verbal or written questioning

4 Gathering Information via Surveys Quick Inexpensive Efficient Accurate Flexible

5 Total error Systematic error (bias) Random sampling error Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

6 Random Sampling Error A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of change variation in the elements selected for the sample

7 Total error Systematic error (bias) Random sampling error Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

8 Common Errors in Survey Research Systematic Error –Also called Nonsampling Error –Results from some imperfect aspect of the research design or from a mistake in the execution of the research.

9 Systematic error (bias) Administrative error Respondent error Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

10 Respondent Error A classification of sample bias resulting from some respondent action or inaction Nonresponse bias Response bias

11 Nonresponse Error Statistical difference between –a survey that includes only those who responded and –a perfect survey that would also include those who failed to respond Nonrespondent –Person who is not contacted or who refuses to cooperate in the research –No Contact Person who is not at home on the 1 st or 2 nd contact, or who is otherwise inaccessible. –Refusal Person who is unwilling to participate in a research project

12 Response Bias Bias that occurs when respondents either consciously or unconsciously tend to answer questions with a certain slant that misrepresents the truth. Can arise from –The question format –The question content –Some other stimulus such as the situation in which the question is asked Deliberate falsification may occur when people misrepresent answers to appear intelligent, to conceal personal information, to avoid embarrassment, etc.

13 Acquiescence bias Extremity bias Interviewer bias Auspices bias Social desirability bias Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

14 Acquiescence Bias A category of response bias that results because some individuals tend to agree with all questions or to concur with a particular position.

15 Extremity Bias A category of response bias that results because response styles vary from person to person; some individuals tend to use extremes when responding to questions.

16 Interviewer Bias A response bias that occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences answers.

17 Auspices Bias Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the respondents being influenced by the organization conducting the study.

18 Social Desirability Bias Bias in responses caused by respondents’ desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or appear in a different social role.

19 Systematic error (bias) Administrative error Respondent error Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

20 Administrative Errors Error caused by the improper administration or execution of the research task. Caused by –Carelessness –Confusion –Neglect –Omission –Some other blunder

21 Data processing error Sample selection error Interviewer error Interviewer cheating Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

22 Types of Administrative Errors Data-Processing Error –Occurs because of incorrect data entry, incorrect computer programming, or some other procedural errors during the data-processing stage Sample Selection Error –Caused by improper sample design or sampling procedure execution –Hoover vs. Roosevelt, 1932 Presidential Election

23 Types of Administrative Errors Interviewer Error –Mistakes made by interviewers who fail to record survey responses correctly –Could also occur if selective perception causes interviewers to misrecord data that do not support their own attitudes and opinions Interviewer Cheating –Practice by interviewers of filling in fake answers or falsifying questionnaires. –If suspect this, tell interviewers that a small percentage of respondents will be called back to confirm whether the initial interview was actually conducted

24 Survey Methods TelephonePersonalElectronic Traditional Telephone Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing Mall Intercept In-Home E-Mail Internet Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing Mail Mail Panel Mail/Fax Interview Classification of Survey Methods Figure 7.4 Classification of Survey Methods

25 Personal Interviews Form of direct communication in which an interviewer asks respondents questions face-to-face.

26 Advantages of Personal Interviews Opportunity for Feedback Probing Complex Answers –Interviewer asks for clarification or expansion of answers Length of Interview Completeness of Questionnaires –Minimizes Item Nonresponse: failure by a respondent to answer a question on a questionnaire Props & Visual Aids High Participation

27 Disadvantages of Personal Interviews Interviewer Influence Lack of Respondent Anonymity Cost

28 Types of Personal Interviews Door-to-Door (In-Home) Interviews –Conducted at the respondent’s home or place of business Mall Intercept Interviews –Personal interview conducted in a shopping mall or other high-traffic area

29 Aspects of Personal Interview Speed of data collection –Slow to Moderate Geographical flexibility –Limited to moderate Respondent cooperation –Excellent Versatility of questioning –Quite versatile

30 Aspects of Personal Interview Questionnaire length –Long Item nonresponse –Low Possibility of respondent misunderstanding –Lowest

31 Aspects of Personal Interview Degree of interviewer influence of answer –High Supervision of interviewers –Low to Moderate Anonymity of respondent –Low

32 Aspects of Personal Interview Ease of call back or follow-up –Difficult Cost –Highest Special features –Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated; extended probing possible

33 Telephone Surveys

34 Speed of Data Collection –Very fast Geographical Flexibility –High Respondent Cooperation –Poor Versatility of Questioning –Moderate

35 Telephone Surveys Questionnaire Length –SHORT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Item Nonresponse –Medium Possibility of RespondentMisunderstanding –Average Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answer –Moderate

36 Telephone Surveys Supervision of interviewers –High, especially with central location WATS interviewing Anonymity of respondent –Moderate Ease of call back or follow-up –Easy

37 Telephone Surveys Cost –Low to Moderate to High Special features –Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are simplified; quite adaptable to computer technology

38 Self-Administered Questionnaires

39 Mail Surveys

40 Speed of data collection –Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire; slow Geographical flexibility –High Respondent cooperation –Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rate

41 Mail Surveys Versatility of questioning –Highly standardized format Questionnaire length –Varies depending on incentive –Varies depending on whether business or consumer respondents Item nonresponse –High

42 Mail Surveys Possibility of respondent misunderstanding –Highest--no interviewer present for clarification Degree of interviewer influence of answer –None--interviewer absent Supervision of interviewers –Not applicable

43 Mail Surveys Anonymity of respondent –High Ease of call back or follow-up –Easy, but takes time Cost –Moderate

44 Methods of Improving Response Rates Prior Notification IncentivesFollow-up Other Facilitators MonetaryNonmonetary PromisedPrepaid Improving Response Rates Figure 7.5 Improvi ng Respons e Rates

45 E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys Speed of data collection –Virtually Instantaneous Geographic flexibility –worldwide Cheaper distribution and processing costs

46 E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys Flexible, but –Extensive differences in the capabilities of respondents’ computers and e-mail software limit the types of questions and the layout E-mails are not secure and “eavesdropping” can possibly occur Respondent cooperation –Varies depending if e-mail is seen as “spam”

47 Internet Surveys Self-administered questionnaire posted on a site. Respondents answer questions displayed online by highlighting a phrase, clicking an icon, or keying in an answer. Many of the same advantages & disadvantages as E-Mail Surveys. Key differences between Internet & E-Mail surveys: –Must rely on respondents coming to the site (and deciding to participate) –Data collection can be much slower


49 Internet & E-Mail Surveys Never forget: Not all individuals in the general public have Internet access. Many respondents lack powerful computers with high-speed connections to the Internet. Many respondents’ computer skills will be relatively unsophisticated.

50 There is no best form of survey; each has advantages and disadvantages.

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