# 1. MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION: COMPETITION AMONG MANY Learning Objectives 1.Explain the main characteristics of a monopolistically competitive industry,

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1. MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION: COMPETITION AMONG MANY Learning Objectives 1.Explain the main characteristics of a monopolistically competitive industry, describing both its similarities and differences from the models of perfect competition and monopoly. 2.Explain and illustrate both short-run equilibrium and long-run equilibrium for a monopolistically competitive firm. 3.Explain what it means to say that a firm operating under monopolistic competition has excess capacity in the long run and discuss the implications of this conclusion.. Imperfect competition refers to a market structure with more than one firm in an industry in which at least one firm is a price setter. Monopolistic competition refers to a model characterized by many firms producing similar but differentiated products in a market with easy entry and exit.

1.1 Profit Maximization 18.25 10.40 9.20 MC ATC D1D1 MR 1 2,150

1.1 Profit Maximization 18.25 17.50 MC ATC D1D1 MR 1 MR 2 D2D2 A

1.2 Excess Capacity: The Price of Variety Excess capacity refers to a situation in which a firm operates to the left of the lowest point on its average total cost curve.

2. OLIGOPOLY: COMPETITION AMONG THE FEW Oligopoly refers to a situation in which a market is dominated by a few firms, each of which recognizes that its own actions will produce a response from its rivals and that those responses will affect it. Learning Objectives 1.Explain the main characteristics of an oligopoly, differentiating it from other types of market structures. 2.Explain the measures that are used to determine the degree of concentration in an industry. 3.Explain and illustrate the collusion model of oligopoly. 4.Discuss how game theory can be used to understand the behavior of firms in an oligopoly.

2.1 Measuring Concentration in Oligopoly Concentration ratio is the percentage of output accounted for by the largest firms in an industry. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index is an alternative measure of concentration found by squaring the percentage share (stated as a whole number) of each firm in an industry, then summing these squared market shares.

Concentration Ratios and Herfindahl-Hirschman Indexes IndustryLargest 4 firms Largest 8 firms Largest 20 firms Largest 50 firms HHI Ice cream48648293736 Breakfast cereals7891991002521 Cigarettes9599100*D Men’s and boys’ shirts38537389481 Women’s and girls’ blouses and shirts21324970186 Automobiles7694991001911 Sporting and athletic goods23324662182 Dental laboratories1318233054 *D, data withheld by the government to avoid revealing information about specific firms.

2.2 The Collusion Model Duopoly is an industry that has only two firms. Overt collusion is when firms openly agree on price, output, and other decision aimed at achieving monopoly profits. A Cartel consists of firms that coordinate their activities through overt collusion and by forming collusive coordinating mechanisms. Tacit collusion is an unwritten, unspoken understanding through which firms agree to limit their competition.

Monopoly through Collusion PMPM PCPC QMQM QCQC MR firm D combined 1/2Q M C B A D firm = MR combined MC

2.3 Game Theory and Oligopoly Behavior Strategic choice is a choice based on the recognition that the actions of others will affect the outcome of the choice and that takes these possible actions into account. Game theory is an analytical approach through which strategic choices can be assessed. A payoff is the outcome of a strategic decision. A Dominant strategy is when a player’s best strategy is the same regardless of the action of the other player. A Dominant strategy equilibrium is a game in which there is a dominant strategy for each player.

Payoff Matrix for the Prisoners’ Dilemma

Repeated Oligopoly Games A tit-for-tat strategy is a situation in which a firm responds to cheating by cheating, and responds to cooperative behavior by cooperating. A trigger strategy is a situation in which a firm makes clear that it is willing and able to respond to cheating by permanently revoking an agreement.

To Cheat or Not to Cheat: Game Theory in Oligopoly

3. EXTENSIONS OF IMPERFECT COMPETITION: ADVERTISING AND PRICE DISCRIMINIATION Learning Objectives 1.Discuss the possible effects of advertising on competition, price, and output. 2.Define price discrimination, list the conditions that make it possible, and explain the relationship between the price charged and price elasticity of demand.

3.1 Advertising Firms use advertising when they expect it to increase their profits. Advertising could lead to higher prices for consumer by: –Increased costs shift supply –Demand shifts Advertising and information Advertising and competition

3.2 Price Discrimination Price discrimination refers to a situation in which a firm changes different prices for the same good or service to different consumers, even though there is no difference in the cost to the firm of supplying these consumers. –E.g. student and senior discounts on city buses, children’s admission price at movie theater, physicians charging wealthy patients more than they charge poor patients. For price discrimination monopoly power is one of three conditions which must be met. The others include: –A price-setting firm –Distinguishable customers –Prevention of resale

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