Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Review of Scientific Programming in C and Fortran Michael McLennan Software Architect HUBzero™ Platform for Scientific Collaboration.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Review of Scientific Programming in C and Fortran Michael McLennan Software Architect HUBzero™ Platform for Scientific Collaboration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review of Scientific Programming in C and Fortran Michael McLennan Software Architect HUBzero™ Platform for Scientific Collaboration

2 Monte Carlo Simulator ¢ ? ¢ 50/50 chance left or right at each peg Simulate by randomly generating thousands of tracks count bucket

3 Plinko Simulator in C #include #define LEVELS 9 int main(int argc, char **argv) { int max, drop, i, pos, count[LEVELS+1]; double rnum; printf("number of drops?\n"); if (scanf("%d", &max) != 1) { fprintf(stderr,"bad number!\n"); exit(1); } for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { count[i] = 0; } #include #define LEVELS 9 int main(int argc, char **argv) { int max, drop, i, pos, count[LEVELS+1]; double rnum; printf("number of drops?\n"); if (scanf("%d", &max) != 1) { fprintf(stderr,"bad number!\n"); exit(1); } for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { count[i] = 0; } Definitions of functions we’ll use below Constant value, substituted wherever it is referenced in the rest of the file

4 Plinko Simulator in C #include #define LEVELS 9 int main(int argc, char **argv) { int max, drop, i, pos, count[LEVELS+1]; double rnum; printf("number of drops?\n"); if (scanf("%d", &max) != 1) { fprintf(stderr,"bad number!\n"); exit(1); } for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { count[i] = 0; } #include #define LEVELS 9 int main(int argc, char **argv) { int max, drop, i, pos, count[LEVELS+1]; double rnum; printf("number of drops?\n"); if (scanf("%d", &max) != 1) { fprintf(stderr,"bad number!\n"); exit(1); } for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { count[i] = 0; } Main program must be defined like this number of drops? 500 “%d” max Quit the program and indicate that it failed: exit(0)  “ok” exit(1)  “failure”

5 Plinko Simulator in C #include #define LEVELS 9 int main(int argc, char **argv) { int max, drop, i, pos, count[LEVELS+1]; double rnum; printf("number of drops?\n"); if (scanf("%d", &max) != 1) { fprintf(stderr,"bad number!\n"); exit(1); } for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { count[i] = 0; } #include #define LEVELS 9 int main(int argc, char **argv) { int max, drop, i, pos, count[LEVELS+1]; double rnum; printf("number of drops?\n"); if (scanf("%d", &max) != 1) { fprintf(stderr,"bad number!\n"); exit(1); } for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { count[i] = 0; } Done once before loop Determines when to quit Increment i at bottom of loop count[0] = 0; count[1] = 0; count[2] = 0; … C arrays start at 0

6 Plinko Simulator in C … for (drop=0; drop < max; drop++) { pos = LEVELS; for (i=0; i < LEVELS; i++) { pos += (drand48() < 0.5) ? -1 : 1; } count[pos/2]++; } /* print out final results */ printf("Statistics:\n"); for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { printf("Bucket %d: %d\n", i, count[i]); } return 0; } … for (drop=0; drop < max; drop++) { pos = LEVELS; for (i=0; i < LEVELS; i++) { pos += (drand48() < 0.5) ? -1 : 1; } count[pos/2]++; } /* print out final results */ printf("Statistics:\n"); for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { printf("Bucket %d: %d\n", i, count[i]); } return 0; } Check random number Less than 0.5, go left Otherwise, go right Add on to value: pos += 1; pos = pos + 1; Lather, rinse, repeat… LEVELS

7 Plinko Simulator in C … for (drop=0; drop < max; drop++) { pos = LEVELS; for (i=0; i < LEVELS; i++) { pos += (drand48() < 0.5) ? -1 : 1; } count[pos/2]++; } /* print out final results */ printf("Statistics:\n"); for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { printf("Bucket %d: %d\n", i, count[i]); } return 0; } … for (drop=0; drop < max; drop++) { pos = LEVELS; for (i=0; i < LEVELS; i++) { pos += (drand48() < 0.5) ? -1 : 1; } count[pos/2]++; } /* print out final results */ printf("Statistics:\n"); for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { printf("Bucket %d: %d\n", i, count[i]); } return 0; } Statistics: Bucket 0: 2 Bucket 1: 7 Bucket 2: 23 … “Bucket %d: %d” i count[i] Same as exit(0) Everything is “ok” Comment text

8 Compiling and Running C Code $ gcc -g plinko.c -o plinko -lm Add debugging info for later Create executable called “plinko” Include math library for drand48() $./plinko number of drops? 500 Statistics: Bucket 0: 1 Bucket 1: 14 Bucket 2: 24 Bucket 3: 87 Bucket 4: 137 Bucket 5: 102 Bucket 6: 95 Bucket 7: 29 Bucket 8: 10 Bucket 9: 1

9 C Language Cheat Sheet Conditionals: if (x > 0) { statements; } if (x > 0) { statements; } else if (x < 0) { statements; } else { statements; } switch (x) { case 1: statements; break; case 2: default: statements; } Looping: while (x != 0) { statements; } do { statements; } while (x < 10); for (x=0; x < 10; x++) { statements; } break continue Break out of loop Go back to top of loop

10 Plinko Simulator in Fortran program plinko implicit none integer levels parameter ( levels=9 ) integer max, drop, i, pos, + count(levels+1) double precision rnum; write(6,*) 'Number of drops?' read(5,*) max c set all counts to zero do 10 i=1,levels+1 count(i) = 0; 10 continue program plinko implicit none integer levels parameter ( levels=9 ) integer max, drop, i, pos, + count(levels+1) double precision rnum; write(6,*) 'Number of drops?' read(5,*) max c set all counts to zero do 10 i=1,levels+1 count(i) = 0; 10 continue 6 spaces, start in col 7 Character in this spot makes the line a comment Line numbers start in column 2 Continue on the next line by putting + in column 6 lines limited to 80 characters

11 Plinko Simulator in Fortran program plinko implicit none integer levels parameter ( levels=9 ) integer max, drop, i, pos, + count(levels+1) double precision rnum write(6,*) 'Number of drops?' read(5,*) max c set all counts to zero do 10 i=1,levels+1 count(i) = 0 10 continue program plinko implicit none integer levels parameter ( levels=9 ) integer max, drop, i, pos, + count(levels+1) double precision rnum write(6,*) 'Number of drops?' read(5,*) max c set all counts to zero do 10 i=1,levels+1 count(i) = 0 10 continue Fortran assumes… i-n  integer a-h o-z  real This turns that off Defines a constant count(1) = 0 count(2) = 0 count(3) = 0 … Fortran arrays start at 1

12 Plinko Simulator in Fortran do 20 drop=1,max pos = levels do 30 i=1,levels if (rand().lt.0.5) then pos = pos - 1 else pos = pos + 1 endif 30 continue count(pos/2+1) = count(pos/2+1) continue c write out final results write(6,*) 'Statistics:' do 40 i=1,levels+1 write(6,99) i, count(i) 40 continue 99 format('Bucket ',i5,': ',i5) end do 20 drop=1,max pos = levels do 30 i=1,levels if (rand().lt.0.5) then pos = pos - 1 else pos = pos + 1 endif 30 continue count(pos/2+1) = count(pos/2+1) continue c write out final results write(6,*) 'Statistics:' do 40 i=1,levels+1 write(6,99) i, count(i) 40 continue 99 format('Bucket ',i5,': ',i5) end Conditional operators:.lt. less than.le. less than or equal to.gt. greater than.ge. greater than or equal to.eq. equal to.ne. not equal to.and. logical and.or. logical or Don’t care about the format

13 Fortran Cheat Sheet Conditionals: if (x.gt. 0) then statements endif if (x.gt. 0) then statements elseif (x.lt. 0) then statements else statements endif Looping: 10 if (x.lt. 10) then statements; goto 10 endif 20 continue statements; if (x.lt. 10) goto 20 do 30 x=1,10,2 statements; 30 continue “while loop” “do-while loop” “for loop”

14 Compiling and Running Fortran Code $ g77 -g plinko.f -o plinko Add debugging info for later Create executable called “plinko” $./plinko Number of drops? 500 Statistics: Bucket 1: 1 Bucket 2: 9 Bucket 3: 28 Bucket 4: 77 Bucket 5: 141 Bucket 6: 124 Bucket 7: 75 Bucket 8: 35 Bucket 9: 8 Bucket 10: 2

15 Makefiles $ gcc -g plinko.c -o plinko -lm $ vi plinko.c $ gcc -g plinko.c -o plinko -lm $ vi plinko.c … $ make $ vi plinko.c $ make all $ vi plinko.c $ make $ make clean file: Makefile plinko: plinko.c gcc -g plinko.c -o plinko -lm clean: rm -f *.o plinko plinko: plinko.c gcc -g plinko.c -o plinko -lm clean: rm -f *.o plinko TAB Follows the instructions in a “make” file No changes, does nothing Clean up and start from scratch

16 Debugging What if something goes horribly wrong? $./plinko Number of drops? 500 Segmentation Fault (Core Dumped) $ gdb plinko (gdb) l 4 5 #define LEVELS int 8 main(int argc, char **argv) 9 { 10 int max, drop, i, pos, count[LEVELS+1]; 11 double rnum; printf("number of drops?\n"); (gdb) break 13 Breakpoint 1 at 0x80484c5: file plinko.c, line 13. Start GNU debugger with your program (must be compiled -g) Stop at this line

17 Debugging (gdb) break 13 Breakpoint 1 at 0x80484c5: file plinko.c, line 13. (gdb) run Starting program: /home/nanohub/mmc/bootcamp2008/plinko/c/plinko Breakpoint 1, main () at plinko.c:13 13 printf("number of drops?\n"); (gdb) n number of drops? 14 if (scanf("%d", &max) != 1) { (gdb) n for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { (gdb) n 20 count[i] = 0; (gdb) n 19 for (i=0; i < LEVELS+1; i++) { (gdb) p i $1 = 1

18 Debugging (gdb) break 24 if drop == 3 Breakpoint 2 at 0x : file plinko.c, line 24. (gdb) c Continuing. Breakpoint 2, main () at plinko.c:24 24 pos = LEVELS; (gdb) p drop $2 = 3 Cheat Sheet l line … list source code (starting at optional line) break line … stop at this line run arg arg … run program with these arguments n … next s … step (step inside routines) c … continue running to next breakpoint p expr … print out value of expression


Download ppt "Review of Scientific Programming in C and Fortran Michael McLennan Software Architect HUBzero™ Platform for Scientific Collaboration."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google