Presentation on theme: "Social Learning Theories"— Presentation transcript:
1Social Learning Theories Differential Association TheoryAkers’ Social Learning Theory
2Differential Association Theory Edwin H. Sutherland (1939)Sutherland's theory departs from the psychological perspective and biological perspective by attributing the cause of crime to the social context of individuals
4Differential association “Tell me who your friends are and I will tell you who you are.. “
5Diagnose Your NetworkYou can map the connections you have with other people to determine the network you currently haveWrite down the names of the most important contacts in your network—people you rely on for the exchange of private information, specialized expertise, advice, and inspiration/emotional support
6Diagnose Your NetworkAfter you identify your key contacts, think about how you first meet them (make sure to write down the names of someone who introduced you to this contact) + who they are and where they are from.
7Two things to look atSelf-similarity principle –we tend to choose people who resemble us in terms of experience, training, worldview, and so on.Proximity principle- people with similar background, experience, etc tend to live in the neighborhood, go to the same school, work at the same department, etc.
8Differential Association Theory Criminal behavior is learned.Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication.The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups.
9Differential Association Theory 4. When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes(a) techniques of committing the crime, which are sometimes very complicated, sometimes very simple;(b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.
10Differential Association Theory 5. The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable.6. A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violations of law.
11A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the lawIf DFC/DUC > 1.0,DFC = weighted definitionsfavorable to crimeDUC = weighted definitionsunfavorable to crime
12Differential Association Theory 7.Differential associations may vary infrequency,duration,priority,intensity.
13Differential Association Theory 8. The process of learning criminal behavior and anticriminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning. 9. While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values, since noncriminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values.
14Ronald Akers: Central concepts of Differential Reinforcement Theory Differential association (groups provide major social context for learning)Definitions (attitudes/meanings)Differential reinforcement (anticipated/actual rewards and punishments)Imitation
15Main ConceptsDifferential association refers to direct association and interaction with others who engage in certain kinds of behavior or express norms, values, and attitudes supportive of such behavior, as well as the indirect association and identification with more distant reference groups .
18Main ConceptsDefinitions are one’s own orientations, rationalizations, justifications, excuses, and other attitudes that define the commission of an act as relatively more right or wrong, good or bad, desirable or undesirable, justified or unjustified, appropriate or inappropriate.
19DefinitionsGeneral Definitions - include religious, moral, and other conventional values and norms that are favorable to conforming behaviorSpecific Definitions orient the person to particular acts. Thus, one may believe that stealing is bad, but stealing from bad people/drug dealers is O.K.
20Definitions Unfavorable to Crime “Crime doesn’t pay.”“Marijuana causes brain damage and leads to cocaine and heroin.”“Turn the other cheek when insulted.”“Always be a law abiding citizen and you’ll be respected.”“Don’t drink and drive – you can hurt someone.”“Don’t throw your life away by breaking the law!”“Sinners will be damned for eternity.”“Never rat on a fellow criminal or hold out on them.”
21Definitions Favorable to Crime “The Justice Department should be going after real criminals, not me!”“It’s technically not sex if there isn’t penetration and if you don’t touch her!”“I can drive after five beers, no problem.”“If someone questions your manhood, you have tostand up for yourself.”
22Main conceptsDifferential Reinforcement refers to the balance of anticipated or actual rewards and punishments that followWhether individuals will refrain from or commit a crime at any given time depends on the balance of past, present, and anticipated future rewards and punishments for their actions.
23Main conceptsImitation refers to the engagement in behavior after the direct or indirect (e.g. in media depictions) observation of similar behavior by othersWhether or not the behavior modeled by others will be imitated is affected by the characteristics of the models, the behavior observed, and the observed consequences of the behavior
24White-collar crimeIntroduced by Edwin H. Sutherland during his presidential address at the American Sociological Society Meeting in 1939White-collar crime “may be defined approximately as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation” (p. 9)
25Occupational CrimeOccupational crime occurs when crimes are committed to promote personal interestsCrimes that fall into this category include altering books by accountants and overcharging or cheating clients by lawyers
26Sutherland’s explanation College graduate without history of criminal behaviorHigh level aspirations/ambitionsAren't in deviant peers groups, and aren't poorThey live well-ordered lives for the most part;They are well respected at work and in communityCheating clients by lawyersNew attitudes, drives, and rationalizations
27Sutherland’s explanation Many major corporations require their employees to lie, cheat, steal and betray customers, competitors, inspectors and other employeesIf the company steals from customers; if the company violates pollution laws; if the company converts pension plans to corporate purpose, the moral base is lost and, being lost, renders the company fair game to the dis-enchanted employee Follow the group/ leave/outlier
28Crime Rates Predicted by Differential Social Organization