Presentation on theme: "Brenham Writing Room Created by D. Herring"— Presentation transcript:
1Brenham Writing Room Created by D. Herring The Writing ProcessBrenham Writing RoomCreated by D. Herring
2Stages of the Writing Process There are several stages to the Writing Process. Each stage is essential.PrewritingWriting (Drafting)RevisingEditing
3I. Prewriting Choose/narrow your topic Determine your AudiencePurposeTonePoint-of-viewTenseExplore your topicMake a plan
4Choose/Narrow Your Topic Your topic should pass the 3-question test:Does it interest me?Do I have something to say about it?Is it specific?
5Determine Your Audience Your Audience is composed of those who will read your writing.Ask yourself:Who are my readers?What do my readers know about my topic?What do my readers need to know about my topic?How do my readers feel about my topic?
6Audience continued. . . What do my readers expect? Standard Written EnglishCorrect grammar and spellingAccurate informationLogical presentation of ideasFollowed directions of the assignment!!!What are my length requirements?What is my time limit?What does the assignment consist of?Is research required?What format should be used?
7Determine Your Purpose Purpose is the reason you are writing.Whenever you write, you always have a purpose. Most writing fits into one of 3 categories:Expressive WritingInformative WritingPersuasive WritingMore than one of these may be used, but one will be primary.
8Determine Tone Tone is the mood or attitude you adopt as you write. Serious or frivolous/humorous?Intimate or detached?
9Determine Point-of-View Point-of-view is the perspective from which you write an essay.There are 3 points-of-view:First person—”I, we”Second person—”you”Third person—”he, she, they”One of the most common errors in writing occurs when the writer shifts point-of-view unnecessarily!
10Determine TenseTense is the voice you use to designate the time of the action or state of being.Present tensePast tenseFuture tense
11Explore Your Topic Pre-writing Techniques: Brainstorming/Listing FreewritingClustering/MappingQuestioningDiscussingOutlining
12Make a PlanBefore you begin drafting your essay, you should make a plan (a roadmap).Review, evaluate, and organize ideas written in your pre-writing; then make a plan for your essay’sThesis statementSupportOrderStructure
13Thesis StatementThe thesis statement expresses the MAIN IDEA of your essay, the central point that your essay develops/supports.
14Thesis continued. . . Your thesis SHOULD: Accurately predict your essay’s direction, emphasis, and scopeMake no promises that the essay will not fulfillBe direct and straightforwardNOT be an announcement, statement of opinion, or statement of fact.
15SupportBe sure to evaluate the information in your prewriting carefully in order to choose the best support for your topic.Primary Support—major ideas or examples that back up your main pointsSecondary Support—details which further explain your primary support
16Support continued. . . Basics of good support Relates to main point Considers readers, i.e. provides enough informationIs detailed and specific
17Order The Order is the sequence in which you present your ideas. There are 3 types of order:Time (chronological) orderSpace orderEmphatic order (order of importance: least-to-most, most-to-least)
18Structure/Organization Consider how your essay will be organized; then create an Outline.Sample Outline of standard5-paragraph essay:IntroductionBody Paragraph 1Body Paragraph 2Body Paragraph 3Conclusion
19II. Writing During the Writing Stage, you should Create your essay’s TitleCompose a draftA Draft is the first whole version of all your ideas put together; it’s a “dress rehearsal.”You should plan to revise your Draft several times throughout the writing process.
20Creating Your Title Your essay’s title should: Your title should NOT: Be originalBe a reasonable lengthReflect your topicBe lively and attention-gettingYour title should NOT:Be generic/repeat the assignmentBe in ALL CAPSBe in boldface, “quotation marks,” underlined, or italicizedBe followed by a period
21Titles, continued Capitalization Rules for Titles: Always capitalize the first letter of the first word and the last word.Capitalize the first letter of each “important” word in between the first and last words.Do not capitalize articles (a, an, the)Do not capitalize coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.)Do not capitalize prepositions (on, at, in, off, etc.)
22Effective vs. Ineffective Titles Topic: Cheating in CollegeEffective Titles:Cheaters Never Win!Cheating in Higher EducationWhy Do Students Cheat?Ineffective Titles:Don’t Do It!CheatingStudents Cheat for Many Different Reasons.
23Writing a Draft Basics of a good draft: Has a fully developed introduction and conclusionHas fully developed body paragraphs, each containing a topic sentence, at least two examples, and detailed supportFollows standard structure and uses complete sentences
24Write Your Introduction Your introductory paragraph should do the following:Be a minimum of 4-6 sentencesTell the audience what to expect from your discussion (thesis)Move from general to specific, with the thesis as the last sentence in the introGet the reader’s attentionSet the tone for the rest of the essay
25Introduction, continued Strategies for developing an Introduction includeProviding background informationTelling a personal anecdoteBeginning with a quotationUsing an oppositeAsking a question
26Write Your Body Paragraphs Each body paragraph should develop one of the specific points mentioned in the thesis.Each BP should contain:Topic Sentence—main idea of BPPrimary Support—examplesSecondary Support—details
27Body Paragraphs: Topic Sentence A Topic Sentence expresses the main idea of the body paragraph.Begin each body paragraph with a Topic Sentence thatNarrows the focus of the paragraphAccurately predicts the direction of the paragraphRefers back to the Thesis statement
28Body Paragraphs continued Body paragraphs must haveUnity—everything refers back to main pointSupport—examples and detailsCoherence—all points connect to form a whole; one point leads to another
29Body Paragraphs: Unity Unity is achieved when everything refers back to the main pointALL SENTENCES SHOULD RELATE BACK TO TOPIC SENTENCE & THESIS.Do not include any ideas that are irrelevant or off-topic.
30Body Paragraphs: Support Support is achieved through adequate examples and details.Each body paragraph should include at least two examples to support the main idea of the paragraph.Each example should include at least one specific detail that further illustrates the point.
31Body Paragraphs: Coherence Coherence is achieved when all points connect to form a whole; one point leads to another.Coherence is mainly achieved through the use of transitions.Transitions—words & phrases which connect your sentences so that your writing flows smoothly.
32Write Your Conclusion The concluding paragraph should Contain a minimum of 4 sentencesRefer back to the main point, but not simply repeat the thesisMake an observation on what is writtenNOT introduce any new ideasCreate a sense of closure
33III. RevisingRevising is finding & correcting problems with content; changing the ideas in your writing to make them clearer, stronger, and more convincing.Revising looks at the “Big Picture”—the Idea level.
34Revision Strategies Look for Unity Detail and support Coherence Does everything refer back to main point?Does each topic sentence refer to the thesis?Does each sentence in each BP refer back to the topic sentence?Detail and supportDoes each BP contain at least two examples?Is each example followed by at least one supporting detail?CoherenceAre all points connect to form a whole?Are transitions used to move from one idea to the next?
35Revision TipsTake a break from your draft before attempting to revise.Read your draft out loud and listen to your words.Imagine yourself as your reader.Look for consistent problem areas.Get feedback from peers.Get help from a tutor!
36IV. EditingEditing is finding and correcting problems with grammar, style, word choice & usage, and punctuation.Editing focuses on the “Little Picture”—Word level.
37Editing StrategiesKeep an Error Log to help you identify your problem areas and improve your writing.When editing, review your paper for one type of error at a time; don’t try to read through looking for everything at once.
38Editing TipsWork with a clean printed copy, double-spaced to allow room to mark corrections.Read your essay backwards.Be cautious of spell-check and grammar-check.Read your essay out loud.Get feedback from peers.Work with a tutor!
39Self-ReviewYou should never move to peer review without first completing a self-review (revising & editing); you want your peer to look for mistakes that you were unable to catch yourself!After you have reviewed your own work, make the necessary corrections and print a clean, revised copy before moving on to peer review.
40Peer-Review It is important to make the peer review process useful. Basics of useful feedback:It is given in a positive wayIt is specificIt offers suggestionsIt is given both verbally and in writing