Presentation on theme: "Process Mapping - Session One Northwest Vista College"— Presentation transcript:
1 Process Mapping - Session One Northwest Vista College Marlene Masten, instructor
2 Welcome! A valuable tool An investment by your employer 4 hours with break(s) – get back on time!Instructor-led discussion, audience participation, activities, exercisesParticipant’s Guide – left margin for notesGlossary and Appendices – back of Guide
3 Your Instructor Marlene Masten Former teacher, past and current professional education and trainingIndustrial engineer, project and personnel manager, consultant – more than 21 industries and 14 countriesCurrent local business consultant and animal rescue volunteer
4 Getting to Know You Name? What department are you with? How long have you been with NVC / ACCD?What do you want out of this class?
5 After this portion of the class, you will be able to: Course ObjectivesAfter this portion of the class, you will be able to:Understand the benefits of process mapping.Identify different levels of processes (detailed versus high-level).Understand how to collect the data necessary for basic mapping – no small task!
6 Course Objectives Achieved Through: Your instructor’s skill and experienceHands-on experienceGroup and independent exercisesGuide for referenceQuestions and answers
7 Course Agenda First Session Introduction and overview Defining what is a process and what is process mappingMapping benefitsGetting startedCollecting data
8 Your Guide continues with: Course AgendaYour Guide continues with:Opening the process mapping toolboxChoosing the right tool for the task at handAnalyzing the processDocumenting findings
9 Why Do All This?Get a better understanding of your department’s processes.Focus on core processes and identify ways to improve.Enable all departments to use one tool and one consistent, continuous process when looking at how they provide services to meet their clients’ expectations.Focus your attention on wasted time and energy.
10 Overview of the “Process Approach” Enables client satisfaction and consistencyFormal and disciplined – to identify, understand, manage the activities and elements required by clientsMeet requirements 100% of the time
11 Teams who use this method: Process ManagementTeams who use this method:Understand “who” and “what” and “why”DocumentMeasureImplement and improve
12 Today’s Focus Documenting how work is done Allowing focus on core processes, enabling identification of opportunities for improvementYour Guide continues with more exercises & guidelines on two other mapping techniques.
13 Define “process” (p. 5)“A series of actions or operations which lead to an end” (Webster’s Dictionary)Example: What process is used to drive a car?Open door, sit, close door, foot to brake, seatbelt on, insert key, disengage parking brake …Are there any alternative steps or methods?
14 Define “process map” (p. 6) “A graphic representation of a process, showing the sequence of tasks, using standard flowcharting symbols”Standard, so anyone who picks it up can understand it.Document:What is really doneWhat takes timeWhat uses resources
15 “Typical” Map How can people get to work? Alternate paths possible? LEGENDRailroadSchoolsGovernment BldgsHigh SchoolFranklin St.Post OfficeJohnson’s CreekCity HallFirst St.Thrid St.BroadwayElementary SchoolWinding WayPolice StationLibraryUtopia Rd.Middle SchoolHow can people get to work?Alternate paths possible?
16 Benefits of Process Maps (p. 6) Objectively describe how activities are doneDocument control points (like intersections)Show where variation exists (how many routes are possible)Investigate where problems may occurHighlight “handoffs” (go from one city to another)
17 More Benefits of Process Maps Train others on processesDevelop process thinkingLogically identify areas that need to be improved (and with proof!)Identify best practicesMonitor and update the process when conditions change
18 process map = “flowchart” a “visual picture” of a process Review – Process Maps“A graphic representation of a process, showing the sequence of tasks, using standard flowcharting symbols”process map = “flowchart”a “visual picture” of a process
19 Example: Doing the Laundry See in Guide, p.8 - EXAMPLE
20 Flowcharts show: Process as a whole Sequence of steps Relationship between stepsBeginning and ending steps – the boundaries of the process
21 Please answer the questions in your Guide, p.8-9
22 Common Types of Flowcharts (p. 10-11) Basic / Detailed (“Value Stream”)Swim Lane (“Deployment”)Spaghetti (“Transportation / Work Flow”)
23 Flowcharting Highlights The basic steps are the same no matter what type of map you use.Strive for a level of detail that is useful to your project – no more, no less.Example: “sort clothes” isn’t helpful to someone new. You’d get pink laundry.
24 What to Map?Series of activities or steps contributing to the final result or outputStart and end of a process (boundaries)Interfaces / transition points / handoffsInputs & outputs“Ownership”Applies to every organization.Note that boundaries lead to interfaces.
25 Who is responsible and accountable for the results? Process OwnershipDepartment?Individual?Who is responsible and accountable for the results?
26 Core, Sub, and Activity Level Processes CORE PROCESSSUB-PROCESSTASKACTIVITYPossible to have one owner at each levelFull definitions in Glossary
27 Please answer the questions in your Guide, p. 12-13
28 The SIPOC FormA process snapshot that captures information that will help you determine where that process begins and ends.SupplierINPUTProcessOUTPUTClientSEE EXAMPLE in appendixSuppliers (internal or external, vendors or another dept), inputs, process, outputs, clients (internal or external)
29 Creating a SIPOC FormIdentify process boundaries and key activities at a high levelIdentify key outputs and clients for each outputIdentify inputs and suppliers for each input
30 SIPOC Diagram Format Supplier(s) Input(s) Core process Output(s) Client(s)
31 Please answer the questions in your Guide, p.15-16. Then discuss answers with the person next to you.
33 Group Activity Wrap-up Answer the questions on p. 17 in your Guide.How did it feel to wear a blindfold?Thoughts and feelings as moved around: navigator versus seeing impaired person?What did you wish your partner could have said to help you: navigator versus seeing impaired person?What did the observers notice about the interaction between the navigators and the seeing impaired persons?What could have been done to alleviate the navigator’s thoughts and fears?What could have been done to minimize the seeing impaired person’s degree of frustration?
34 Group Activity Wrap-up Navigators had information – their partners did not.What does this exercise suggest about gathering information? Or even how to interview people about their work?
35 But remember - NO JUDGMENT ALLOWED! InterviewingBefore mapping, you need to:Interview and/or watch the people actually doing the workInterview their supervisors and/or managersLeaders clarify scope, involved areas, types of measurement, rationale, and related information.But remember - NO JUDGMENT ALLOWED!
36 Data Collection: Performing Interviews Ride-along – observe an individual and probe for more detailsversusPanel – get information from a group of people all at once
37 Data Collection Matrix Required in interviewing“Process Activity” = work being done“Input(s)” = materials, equipment, info, environmental conditions required“Output(s)” = product(s)/service(s) created or handed off“System(s)” = digital information accessed or reviewed to perform an activity“Reference(s)” = manuals, cheat sheets, etc., used to understand how to complete stepsAPPENDIX E
38 Data Collection: Ride-along Interviews DO:ObserveTake notesAsk for clarification, more detailUse Data Collection MatrixWatch for hidden steps (job aids, cheat sheets, etc.)Check often for understandingDO NOT:Make assumptionsAdd detail when it is not there“Correct” the process
39 Data Collection: Panel Interviews DO:Use checklist on p. 19Facilitate by asking leading questionsGive everyone a chance to participateAsk for clarification, more detailCheck often for understandingSeek consensusUse Data Collection MatrixDO NOT:Make assumptionsAdd detail when it is not there“Correct” the processGet too caught up in the format – most people haven’t been trained to use this technique
40 Panel InterviewsUse post-it notes for each person to put on blank flipchart, whiteboard, or table.Clean up – eliminate duplicates, combine similar ideas, agree on wording.Use consistent level of detail.Remember:You are only collecting information.NOT an audit, check for compliance - NO judgment
41 Data Collection: Checklist Planning ensures your time and your interviewees’ time is best spent.Use the checklists (p. 18, 19, & Appendix D) to make sure all of your bases are covered.Practice inquiry techniques (Appendix C)REVIEW EACH FORM ABOVE WITH CLASS
43 Review Role Play: Apply What We’ve Learned Part OneGet into pairs and turn to p.20Choose an interviewee versus interviewersIntroduce yourself and the project’s scopeUse verbal walk-through to get informationComplete SIPOC FormCollect data using Ride-along interview method and the Data Collection MatrixCheck for understandingHOW TO MAKE MACARONI
44 Review Role Play: Apply What We’ve Learned Part TwoRecord your group’s sub-process steps on sticky notes and put on classroom wall.Present your results to the class.
45 “Done” = subjectiveQuality check?Measurements?What boxes can be improved? (12, 19, 22, 23)How did your pair do?What was difficult?What was easy?Are you comfortable with what we’ve learned this morning?
46 Exercise Check Inputs: Outputs: Pot Stove Water Mac box Butter Milk SpoonStrainerPlate/bowlMeasuring cupSinkOutputs:Mac ready to eatEmpty boxDirty panDirty spoonDirty potDirty strainerDirty measuring cupDirty water
47 When Studying Any Process: Define core process using SIPOC FormInterview / observeComplete Data Collection MatrixMapAnalyze for accuracy
48 Process Mapping Toolbox CONSISTENCYAll maps use the same basic steps.Flowcharts use symbols to represent different kinds of process steps.
49 Common Flowcharting Symbols Direction of flowStarting, stopping, or control pointDecision pointProcessingInput or output (optional)
50 *As a class, review flowchart in your Guide. p. 23
51 ? Decision Diamonds Always pose a question – inspection or choice Lead to two or more pathsAre best if you can put into yes/no formatUse objective criteria, not subjective
52 Basic Flowcharts with Detailed Steps Show: Sequence and relationship of stepsDifferent types of actions with different shaped boxesDecision pointsSteps taken when things go wrongMost common type of flowchart
53 Use Basic Flowcharts When You Need To: Understand, improve, and standardize a process.Show sequence and relationships in detail.Identify where people are doing things differentlyHighlight decision points.Use when a SINGLE organization or person is responsible for most steps in a process.
54 Critical Components of Basic Flowcharts Process nameDate of creation or update (version)Name of person or group creating it (contact)Clear start and end points (boundaries)Clear direction flowConsistent level of detailNumbered stepsKey of symbol definitions
55 Basic Flowcharts - Steps Clarify purposeDecide level of detailWrite down all stepsDecide start and end stepsArrange steps’ sequenceCheck for completenessIdentify decision points (diamonds)Develop alternate paths for decision pointsAdd flow lines and arrowsNumber each step
56 *Tips for Basic/Detailed Flowcharts Walk the process.Draw first drafts manually.Use numbered reference sheets.Always date or provide version #.Maintain version control.Create a “parking lot” folder.Concentrate on process, not symbols.Ask lots of questions.p. 26
57 More Tips for Basic Flowcharts Avoid confusionIdentify contact(s) and boundariesFollow the flow and spot problemsNote reference pointsBe sure it is easy to interpret
60 *Let’s Practice Once More Using the steps in your Guide and examples given in class, create a detailed flowchart for how to pay your credit card bill with a check (p. 29).Follow along in your Guide, using the instructions and all forms provided.P. 28Can’t dead-end: must have a trigger to look at it again.What’s the preferred way to do this?
62 Detailed Flowchart Activity Debrief It’s not easy to maintain a consistent level of detail.It’s not always easy to show different paths.Steps often need to be moved as you get clearer about the sequence.Numbering the steps is usually arbitrary.
63 To Remember:Selecting the start and end points provides boundaries for the flowchart.It’s easier to follow when it has a consistent level of detail.Be sure you make it clear where decisions are made in the process.Sequence is shown by flow lines and arrows.
64 How Much Detail?The more detail you have, the more information you have about how a process actually works.Lots of detail is necessary when it is absolutely critical the process be done exactly the same way each time.Weigh costs and benefits – detail takes time.Don’t get bogged down … or your users!
65 Analyzing the Process Review the categories of: Who, what, when, where, whyPeople, material, machine, environment, methodsMap to see where can improveHave redundant steps?Do things in parallel?Reduce customer wait time or cycle time?Map to document how things are done hereGet right level of detail?Is it accurate?
66 All Good Flowcharts Should Have: Process nameDate of creation or update (“version”)Name of person or group creating itClear start and end pointsClear direction flowConsistent level of detailNumbered stepsKey of symbol definitions“Parking lot” folderSee appendix checklist for reference.
67 Remember the Steps Review the process and its boundaries Identify chart type to useHave participants identify stepsUse note/card per step, with chosen symbolArrange steps in orderEliminate duplicatesDetermine and maintain consistent level of detailNumber each stepTransfer flowchart to paper or computerCheck for completeness
68 Wrap-UpFinal thoughts or questions?Thanks for coming!1130