Presentation on theme: "The Structures of Various Arguments"— Presentation transcript:
1The Structures of Various Arguments Quick Outlines
2Classical Argument Introduction—Sets the stage for the argument Thesis statement—the central claim of the argumentBackground—basic info needed to understand the argumentEvidence and reasons for your positionResponse to opposing views—also called refutation or rebuttalConclusion—ends the argument logically
3Classical Argument Example The WGA and AMTP are at odds over digital rights royalties.The WGA should be paid for new media broadcasts.1988 was the last renegotiation for the WGA; the DVD market was in its infancy and digital rights were unheard of.WGA members make 2 cents per DVD sold. They make 0 cents from digital rebroadcasts.The studios will lose money, but they make billions and none will fold by a 2 cent increase in writer’s pay.Writers should be paid for digital media rights and paid more for DVD sales.
4Advantages and Disadvantages It’s called “Classic” for a reason; it’s time tested and effective.It’s straightforward and provides an easy template to follow.DisadvantagesIt’s called “Classic” for a reason; Aristotle wrote it almost 2,500 years agoIt’s formulaic and doesn’t provide much room for personal flair (but it can be done).
5Rogerian ArgumentIntroduction—sets stage for the argument, gains readers interestThesis—articulates the central claimCommon ground—explains the issue under debate and looks for places of agreement between opposing viewpoints, especially those of a skeptical audience and the writer or speakerDiscussion of the position—evidence and reasons for believing the thesisConclusion—why the writer’s position is better for everyone
6Goals of Rogerian formWriters (or speakers) let readers (or listeners) know they have been understoodWriters show how readers’ positions are valid in certain contexts and under certain conditionsWriters get readers to believe that both of them share the same values, types of experience, attitudes, and perceptions and are thus similar in significant ways.
7An example of Rogerian Argument The WGA strike has been an ongoing struggle between the WGA and the AMTPWith the advent of digital media, writers deserve a fair share of the profits from internet broadcastsBoth the studios and writers benefit from new media, and we all like money.If studios pay writers royalties from new media then they will abide by the spirit of the old contracts and then writers will begin writing for new media, and all will profit handsomely.Paying writers for new media means more for all.
8Advantages and Disadvantages Eases tensionLevels out power and controlCan utilize the opposing side’s position and reframe itDisadvantagesYou may start believing your opponent’s viewYou need to find connections and risk change
9Toulmin Method of Analyzing Arguments All arguments have claimsAll arguments have support or reasons for claims (or should in order to be convincing)All arguments have unstated assumptions or warrantsThe Toulmin method of argument analysis is used to expose the unstated assumptions of another’s argument in order to question it, evaluate it, or critique it in some way
10Example of Toulmin Analysis Claim: The university should establish rules of punishment for cheating students . . .Support: because last year thirty students were caught cheating on exams.Warrants:Cheating is wrongCheating should be punishedIf students knew they would be punished, they would not cheat.Enough students are cheating that there is a problem
11More Toulmin Terminology Backing: an argument to support a warrantWhy is cheating wrong?Why do we believe punishment will deter cheating?Conditions of rebuttal: ways that counterarguments against your position might be establishedWhere might my claim be vulnerable to attacks by skeptics?Qualifier: a phrase that limits the scope of your claimThe university should establish rules of punishment for cheating students as well as ways for preventing cheating because last year thirty students were caught cheating on exams.
12Advantages and Disadvantages Requires creativityYou must be able to thoroughly analyze your opponent’s positionTakes hard work and thorough research of both sides.DisadvantagesYou must be able to analyze your opponent’s position