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SHELTERED INSTRUCTION Part I Pilar Moreno-Recio Executive Director of Bilingual/ESL Education ECISD.

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Presentation on theme: "SHELTERED INSTRUCTION Part I Pilar Moreno-Recio Executive Director of Bilingual/ESL Education ECISD."— Presentation transcript:

1 SHELTERED INSTRUCTION Part I Pilar Moreno-Recio Executive Director of Bilingual/ESL Education ECISD

2  8:00-11:30 TRAINING 10:00-10:15Break  11:30-1:00 LUNCH BREAK  1:00-4:00 TRAINING 2:00-2:15 Break

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4 Content Objectives: At the end of this two-day training... You will have an awareness of some challenges ELLs, as well as other students, and teachers of ELLs face in the classroom. You will become cognizant of some strategies for overcoming these challenges. Language Objectives: During this two-day training... You will interact with your fellow educators demonstrating your new understanding of terms associated with second language acquisition and sheltered instruction.

5 Background on English Learners Second Acquisition Second Language Acquisition Improving Instruction Getting Started with Sheltered Instruction

6 LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE: In this section, you will work in collaborative groups to write down the ideas you already have about sheltered instruction and/or SIOP, compare them to the new information, and develop a working vocabulary relating to second language acquisition.

7 L1– L2 – LEP - ELL/EL – TELPAS LPAC – ELPS – CALP – BICS – a student’s primary or home language a student’s second language or language of acquisition Limited English Proficient English Language Learner/English Learner Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (English Language Proficiency Standards) – replaced the ESL TEKS; is now the responsibility of all content-area teachers to give instruction that supports development of listening, speaking, reading, and writing Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) – the language of everyday conversations (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) – the language of the classroom or of the academic content

8 One challenge ELL face is…

9  The States with the highest growth in ELLs are: SC, NC, TN, GA & IN.  1:5 students in the U.S. is the child of an immigrant (Capps et al., 2005)  General student population grew 2.6% between vs. ELL student population grew 56% (Batalova, Fix & Murray, 2007)  79% of ELs speak Spanish as their L1 followed by: Chinese/Cantonese, Vietnamese, Hmong, Korean and all other languages (National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, 2006a).  ELLs struggle in school more than any other group except those identified for special education (Gandara & Hopkins, 2010).  More than 80% of ELLs are born in the U.S. and are U.S. citizens (Gandara & Hopkins, 2010).

10  Since NCLB in 2001, increased number of high school ELs not receiving a diploma because they failed high-stakes tests despite fulfilling all other graduation requirements (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004; Center on Education Policy, 2005; Edley & Wald, 2002). - - Only 30% of all secondary students read proficiently, but for students of color, the situation is worse: 89% of Hispanic students and 86 % percent of African American middle and high school students read below grade level (Perie, Grigg, & Donahue, 2005). - - Since NCLB in 2001, increased number of high school ELs not receiving a diploma because they failed high-stakes tests despite fulfilling all other graduation requirements (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004; Center on Education Policy, 2005; Edley & Wald, 2002).

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12 Above the surface How can this picture possibly relate to second language acquisition? I think this picture relate to second language acquisition …

13 What you see is NOT ALWAYS what you get.

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15 la hipotenusahypotenuse el catetoleg Elevada a la segunda potencia squared mas plus es is Common Underlying Proficiency Theory

16 1. Motivation (yours and the students’) 2. First language development in ELL students 3. Access to the language 4. Age 5. Personality and learning style 6. Quality of instruction We think ______ affects second language acquisition because…..

17 1. What are the factor(s) that we CANNOT control? Look at the list of factors which we can control. Which ONE do we have the most control over? What factor(s) can we control and why?

18 “The lack of success in educating linguistically and culturally diverse students is problematic because federal and state governments expect all students to meet high standards... Are We Prepared?...and have adjusted national and state assessments as well as state graduation requirements to reflect new levels of achievement and to accommodate requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (2001).” - Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)

19 “Academic programs are not well-established, sheltered curricula, and appropriate resources are not readily available; most importantly, many teachers are not trained to meet the needs of these second language learners.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008) “41.2 % of the 2,984,791 public school teachers reported teaching ELLs, but only 12.5% had had 8 or more hours of training in the past three years on how to support ELLs.” - Schools and Staffing Survey, NCES, Schools and Staffing Survey, NCES, 2002

20 What is Sheltered Instruction (SI)?

21 Can sheltered instruction benefit Non- LEP students? Sheltered Instruction (SI) Content is Comprehensible (scaffolding) Socio-cultural awareness is infused Level of rigor is maintained (higher order thinking) Academic English language is developed Class makeup: ELLs + native English speakers or just ELLs English learners access grade- level content (TEKS)

22 Make content comprehensible Develop academic language

23 Low Cognitive Demand (easy) High Cognitive Demand (difficult) High Context (Many clues) A.(easiest) Immediate and very concrete Immediate and very concrete allowing one to use his/her five senses to understand his/her environment not, but not quite necessitating higher order thinking. mmediate concrete B. Immediate and very concrete with regard manipulating to manipulating aspects of one’s environment, able to learn and one is able to learn complex concepts complex concepts through more than just auditory or visual input. Low Context (Few Clues) Abstract not complex cognitive functions C. Abstract in terms of physical or sensory input, yet not necessitating the use of complex cognitive functions, such as analysis, synthesis, evaluation, or creation. Abstract D.(most difficult) Abstract with regard to natural sensory input with the added seeking to challenge of seeking to understand content understand content or ideas that are distant and not immediate. Cummins’ (1981) Model of Academic Language

24 Low Cognitive Demand (easy) High Cognitive Demand (difficult) High Context (Many clues) A.(easiest) Immediate concrete Immediate and very concrete allowing one to use his/her five senses to understand his/her not environment, but not quite higher necessitating higher order thinking order thinking. B. Immediate concrete Immediate and very concrete manipulating with regard to manipulating aspects of one’s environment, able to learn and one is able to learn complex concepts complex concepts through more than just auditory or visual input. Cummins’ (1981) Model of Academic Language Tracing, Singing for fun, Push-ups while counting Follow simple directions Face-to-face conversations Demonstrations Audio-visual assisted lesson Science experiments

25 Low Cognitive Demand (easy) High Cognitive Demand (difficult) Low Context (Few Clues) C. Abstract not complex cognitive function Abstract in terms of physical or sensory input, yet not necessitating the use of complex cognitive functions, such as analysis, synthesis, evaluation, or creation. D.(most difficult) Abstract Abstract with regard to natural sensory input with the added seeking to challenge of seeking to understand content understand content or ideas that are distant and not immediate. Cummins’ (1981) Model of Academic Language Demonstrations Audio-visual assisted lesson Science experiments Demonstrations Audio-visual assisted lesson Science experiments

26 Low Cognitive Demand (easy) High Cognitive Demand (difficult) High Context (Many clues) A.(easiest) Immediate concrete Immediate and very concrete allowing one to use his/her five senses to understand his/her environment not, but not quite necessitating higher order thinking. mmediate concrete B. Immediate and very concrete with regard manipulating to manipulating aspects of one’s environment, able to learn and one is able to learn complex concepts complex concepts through more than just auditory or visual input. Low Context (Few Clues) Abstract not complex cognitive functions C. Abstract in terms of physical or sensory input, yet not necessitating the use of complex cognitive functions, such as analysis, synthesis, evaluation, or creation. Abstract D.(most difficult) Abstract with regard to natural sensory input with the added seeking to challenge of seeking to understand content understand content or ideas that are distant and not immediate. Cummins’ (1981) Model of Academic Language

27 1.What is a blue tick? 2.What is the best way to catch catfish? 3.What is a hahna bata? 4.What is jan ken po?

28 1. A dog (in Appalachia) 2. Electrofishing (in Appalachia) 3. A runny nose (in Hawaii) 4. Rock, paper, scissors (in Korea)

29 . LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE: In this section, you will work in collaborative groups to write down the ideas you already have about sheltered instruction and/or SIOP, compare them to the new information, and develop a working vocabulary relating to second language acquisition.

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31 Please complete the self-assessment....

32 In this training, we will discuss in detail the following: -Introduction/Background on ELLs -Lesson Preparation -Building Background -Comprehensible Input -Strategies -Interaction -Practice and Application -Lesson Delivery -Review and Assessment

33 -Introduction -Lesson Preparation -Building Background

34 1. Content Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed with Students 3. Content Concepts Appropriate for Age and Educational Background 4. Supplemental Materials Used to a High Degree 5. Adaptation of Content to All Levels of Student Proficiency 6. Meaningful Activities That Integrate Lesson Concepts with Language Practice Opportunities 2. Language Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed with Students

35 KNOW YOUR STUDENTS’ NEEDS KNOW YOUR STUDENTS’ NEEDS. “... remember, that the first step in the instructional process is comprehensive and thoughtful lesson design.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008) KNOW YOUR STUDENTS’ NEEDS. “... remember, that the first step in the instructional process is comprehensive and thoughtful lesson design.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)

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38 LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE: In this section, you will write a content and language objective using the ELPS “cheat sheet”.

39 1. 1. Content Objectives Effective instruction requires that “concrete content objectives that identify what students should know and be able to do must guide teaching and learning.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008) What do we call the State standard for “what students should know”? The skills that the students should “be able to do” are part of the TEKS, and are referred to as... TEKS Student Expectations (SEs).

40 TEK 4.18 – Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. 4.18(A)(i) – STUDENTS ARE EXPECTED TO: create brief compositions that establish a central idea in a topic sentence

41  Written in a student-friendly format : Written in terms of what students will learn or do Stated simply, both orally AND in writing  Reflects “WHAT” the students need to know Must be tied to specific grade-level content standards (TEKS/SEs) Limit to one or two per lesson to reduce the complexity of the learning task (reflects something that can be taught and learned in a lesson or two) Content Objectives put the pieces of the lesson together – a succinct summarization.

42 1.Start with a specific TEK, 2.Focus on the goal of your lesson that covers that specific TEK, and 3.Write a statement in student-friendly language that expresses the overall goal of the lesson (remember it should be a measurable goal) Ask yourself what students should know and be able to do Ask yourself: Does this content objective clearly identify what students should know and be able to do? Will it help guide instruction and learning?

43  Written in a student-friendly format : Written in terms of what students will learn or do Stated simply, both orally AND in writing  Reflects “WHAT” the students need to know Must be tied to specific grade-level content standards (TEKS/SEs) Limit to one or two per lesson to reduce the complexity of the learning task (reflects something that can be taught and learned in a lesson or two) Content Objectives put the pieces of the lesson together – a succinct summarization.

44 “While carefully planning and delivering content objectives, Sheltered Instruction teachers “must also incorporate in their lesson plans activities that support students’ language development.” -Short (1999) ESL TEKS ELPS 2007

45  Revised ELPS were approved by the State Board of Education in the school year.  The ELPS are part of the state-required curriculum.  The ELPS outline the instruction school districts SHALL provide to ELLs in order for ELLs to have the full opportunity to learn English and succeed academically.  The ELPS are to be implemented as an integral part of the instruction in each foundation and enrichment subject of the TEKS.  Teachers teach BOTH, the content area TEKS and the ELPS, in instructing ELLs.

46  The ELPS define the English language proficiency levels of beginning, intermediate, advanced, and advanced high.  The proficiency levels are in regard to the 4 domains of language which are: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.  TELPAS measures the ELPS student expectations from the cross-curricular second language acquisition knowledge and skills and uses the ELPS proficiency level descriptors as assessment rubrics.  The ELPS may be found at tml

47 English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS)

48  Written in a student-friendly format : Written in terms of what students will learn or do Stated simply, both orally AND in writing  Reflects “HOW” the students will practice language during the lesson: Must be tied to specific proficiency level language standards (ELPS) Limit to one or two per lesson to reduce the complexity of the learning task “We learn primarily through language, and use language to express our understanding.” -Echevarria, Vogt & Short (2008)

49 1.Start with a specific domain that will fit with your lesson focus (listening, speaking, reading or writing) 2.Find an ELP that matches your focus domain and your lesson, and 3.Write a statement in student-friendly language that expresses the overall language goal of the lesson (remember, it should be measurable) Ask yourself what students should be able to do linguistically Ask yourself: Does this language objective clearly identify what students should be able to do linguistically? Will it help guide language instruction and learning?

50  When You finish your language objective. Please stand up.  As the music plays, you will move around the room. When the music stops, you will introduce yourself to the closest person to you. It must be someone with whom you’ve not spoken today.  You will share you content, language objective, content concepts and sentence stems. You will listen to the feedback offered by the other person. The other person will follow the same process.

51 “An objective is not the by-product of an activity, but the foundation of one.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008) “An objective is not the by-product of an activity, but the foundation of one.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)

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53 “An objective is not the by-product of an activity, but the foundation of one.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008) “An objective is not the by-product of an activity, but the foundation of one.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)

54 1. Content Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed with Students 3. Content Concepts Appropriate for Age and Educational Background 2. Language Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed with Students

55 REMEMBER THIS... You MUST know your students.

56  L1 literacy  L2 proficiency  Reading ability  Cultural and age appropriateness of the L2 materials  Difficulty level of the material to be read derson (1991) -Gun derson (1991)

57 Accommodate the lesson for language. You might provide the following:  Substantial background building,  Small group mini-lesson which precedes the whole class lesson,  Introduction and/or preview vocabulary that is critical to the lesson  Picture or book walks  Peer tutors in heterogeneously designed classes  Hands-on, experimental activities

58  Supplemental materials are important for students who do not have grade- level academic backgrounds and/or who have language and learning difficulties.  A variety of supplementary materials supports different learning styles and multiple intelligences.  Supplemental materials can bridge prior experiences with new learning.

59  Please refer to the handout for a list of examples....

60 “We must find ways to make the text and other resource materials accessible for all students, adapting them so that the content concepts are left intact.” -Short (1991) Several strategies that are recommended for students with reading difficulties also work well for ELLs. These methods can be used throughout the lesson.

61  Please refer to the handout for a list of examples....

62 “Students are more successful when they are able to make connections between what they know and what they are learning by relating classroom experiences to their own lives.” -Echevarria, Vogt & Short (2008 What students know. New information Meaningful activities...

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64 KNOW YOUR STUDENTS’ NEEDS KNOW YOUR STUDENTS’ NEEDS. “... remember, that the first step in the instructional process is comprehensive and thoughtful lesson design.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008) KNOW YOUR STUDENTS’ NEEDS. “... remember, that the first step in the instructional process is comprehensive and thoughtful lesson design.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)

65 LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE: In this section, you will read about the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and how they relate to language objectives.

66 -Introduction -Lesson Preparation -Building Background

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68 1. Concepts Explicitly Linked to Students’ Background Experiences 3. Key Vocabulary Emphasized 2. Links Explicitly Made between Past Learning and New Concepts

69 LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE: In this section, you will listen to a video clip to see demonstrations of the features of Building Background in action.

70 If you are one of those who thought you would see an automatic in the 911 “when pigs fly,” May we suggest you duck?

71 One of the challenges of teaching ELLs is that student in the same class vary in the amount of prior knowledge they possess related to a topic. Examples of ways to link past concepts to new learning are: Questioning strategies Charts/Reference Points KWL Quick writes/Graffiti writes

72 Many students do not automatically make connections between previous lessons and concepts to today’s lesson. Teachers must make connections explicitly. Explicitly preserve and refer to or integrate: Questioning strategies Word banks/Word walls Outlines Charts/Graphs Maps Graphic organizers

73 Subject Area Level 1 (K-2) (K-2) Level 2 (3-5) Level 3 (6-8) Level 4 (9-12) (9-12) TOTAL S Math Science History Gen. History US History W. History ELA TOTALS Terms drawn from National Standards Region XV ESC

74 Social Language BICS ELAMathScienceSocial Studies Guess Way Principle Take away Substract Individual

75 What words would an artist use to describe this photo? What words would a scientist use to describe this photo? What words would a mathematician use to describe this photo? If I were an artist, I would use the words…

76 Academic language has three key elements: ACADEMIC LANGUAGE Content words ( ex: key voc. assoc. with content) Process/Function words (ex: functional language, sequence words) Words and word parts that teach English structure (ex: root words and affixes, cognates)

77 Another useful source for teaching vocabulary is in a scheme designed by Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2002). They describe three Tiers of words: TIER ONE: common words, such as simple nouns, high-frequency words, and sight words. TIER TWO: words that students need to know for comprehending school texts and achieving academically, and they should be taught explicitly to ELLs and most native-speaking students. TIER THREE: uncommon words, found rarely in texts; teachers need spend little time on them.

78  Word sorts  Contextualizing Key Vocabulary  Personal Dictionaries  Word Wall  Concept Definition Map  Cloze Sentences  List-Group-Label  Word Generation  Word Study Books  Vocabulary Games  Word sorts  Contextualizing Key Vocabulary  Personal Dictionaries  Word Wall  Concept Definition Map  Cloze Sentences  List-Group-Label  Word Generation  Word Study Books  Vocabulary Games

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80 “Taking a few minutes to jump-start students’ schemata and past learning, to explicitly find out what they know or have experienced about a topic, and then explicitly linking their knowledge directly to the lesson’s objectives will result in greater understanding for ELLs “Taking a few minutes to jump-start students’ schemata and past learning, to explicitly find out what they know or have experienced about a topic, and then explicitly linking their knowledge directly to the lesson’s objectives will result in greater understanding for ELLs.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008) “Taking a few minutes to jump-start students’ schemata and past learning, to explicitly find out what they know or have experienced about a topic, and then explicitly linking their knowledge directly to the lesson’s objectives will result in greater understanding for ELLs.” -Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (2008)

81 LANGUAGE OBJECTIVE: In this section, you will listen to a video clip to see demonstrations of the features of Building Background in action.

82 -Introduction -Lesson Preparation -Building Background

83 END OF PART ONE


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