CIHE (Commission on Institutions of Higher Education) DL Best Practices “When examinations are employed … they take place in circumstances that include firm student identification.” (CIHE, 13)
CIHE (Commission on Institutions of Higher Education) DL Best Practices “The institution otherwise seeks to assure the integrity of student work.” (CIHE, 13)
Institutional Approaches to Academic Dishonesty Faculty Reporting “Grading Sanctions” “Admonition or Probation” “Suspension or Expulsion” (NWACC, 2006, 155)
Do no harm Fear of harming students’ careers “perceptions of complicated disciplinary processes,” “confronting and reporting student cheating” “These factors may lead faculty to ignore or side-step student cheating,” (Bertram Gallant and Drinan, 2006, p. 845)
Control, Identify, Monitor Proctoring Picture identification Signed confirmation Time limits These tactics are not negative, in and of themselves
Prevention and Student Ethical Responsibility Honor Codes Student and Faculty Responsibilities 10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela, 2004, 12-14)
10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela) Recognize and affirm academic integrity as a core institutional value. Foster a lifelong commitment to learning. Affirm the role of teacher as guide and mentor.
10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela) Help students understand the potential of the Internet--and how that potential can be lost if online resources are used for fraud, theft, and deception.
10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela) Encourage student responsibility for academic integrity. Clarify expectations for students. Develop fair and creative forms of assessment.
10 Principles of Academic Integrity for Faculty (McCabe & Pavela) Reduce opportunities to engage in academic dishonesty. Respond to academic dishonesty when it occurs. Help define and support campus-wide academic- integrity standards.
Practical Approaches to a Prevention- Based Approach
Writing Identifiable via searches Identifiable via style and consistency
Writing – The Challenge “Many websites provide written papers including http://www.schoolsucks.com and http://www.cheathouse.com.” (Lanier, 2006, 247) “AllFreeEssays.com … Asian Grade … School Sucks … TermPaperGenie…” (Weisbard, 2007)
Writing – Identifying via Searching most universities will have sizable amounts of plagiarism occurring in their subjects using electronic means to download text from the internet. (O’Connor, 2003)
Writing – Identifying via Searching It is suspected that this is the tip of the iceberg in that any copying from textbooks is, at this time, unable to be detected (O’Connor, 2003)
Writing – Identifying via Searching Services Turnitin.com Controversies Presumption of guilt Copyright of student papers
Writing – Identifying via Searching Other search options: Google Yahoo Ebscohost
Writing – Identifying via Style and Consistency “Inconsistent writing style” “Use of language” “Datedness” “Repetition” (University of Tasmania, 2006)
Writing – Identifying via Style and Consistency Use students regular writing as a benchmark for their formal writing Have students write as often as is practical and fair
Project-based Assessment “With project-based assessment, the dangers … are diminished the more individually the project is tailored to the resources used in the course, the student's individual interests, and the use of intermittent ‘checkpoints’” (Abbott, et. al., 2000)
Collaborative Assessment “These methods constitute very powerful means of developing generic skills required by employers such as oral and written communication skills, group management and the ability to evaluate written and oral presentations critically.” (Hargreaves, 1997)
Online Testing Conditions Time Attempts Randomization Proctoring (including off-site proctoring: NCTA – National College Testing Association - http://www.ncta-testing.org/cctc/)
Other Vary assessment methods Gear assessments to subject matter and discipline Individualize assessments
How does Blackboard CE (WebCT) Help Maintain Academic Integrity?
Blackboard CE (4.1) Presentations/Web pages Opportunity for creative assessment Opportunity for collaborative assessment Opportunity for experiential assessment Opportunity for project based assessment
References Abbott, Lynda, Siskovic, Holly, Nogues, Val, and Williams, Joanne G. “Learner Assessment in Multimedia Instruction: Considerations for the Instructional Designer.” 2000.. Betram Gallant, Tricia, and Drinan, Patrick. “Organizational Theory and Student Cheating: Explanation, Responses, and Strategies.” Journal of Higher Education. Vol. 77 Issue 5 (Sep/Oct 2006): 839-860
References CIHE (Commission on Institutions of Higher Education). Best Practices for Electronically Offered Degree and Certificate Programs. 13 Grijalva, Therese C., Nowell, Clifford, and Kerkvliet, Joe. “Academic Honesty and Online Courses.” College Student Journal. Vol. 40 Issue 1 (Mar 2006): 180-185 Hargreaves, D.J. “Student learning and assessment are inextricably linked.” European Journal of Engineering Education; Vol. 22 Issue 4 (Dec 1997): p401, 9p
References Kennedy, Kristen, Nowak, Sheri, Raghuraman, Renuka, Thomas, Jennifer, and Davis, Stephen F. “ACADEMIC DISHONESTY AND DISTANCE LEARNING: STUDENT AND FACULTY VIEWS.” College Student Journal. Vol. 34 Issue 2 (June 2000): 309, 6p Lanier, Mark M. “Academic Integrity and Distance Learning*.” Journal of Criminal Justice Education; Vol. 17 Issue 2, (Sep 2006): 244-261
References McCabe, Donald L., Trevino Linda Klebe. “What we know about cheating in college.” Change; Vol. 28 Issue 1 (Jan/Feb 1996): 28. McCabe, Donald L., Trevino Linda Klebe. “Ten [Updated] Principles of Academic Integrity: How Faculty Can Foster Student Honesty.” Change; Vol. 36 Issue 3 (May/June 2004): 12-14. NorthWest Arkansas Community College. “Academic Dishonesty.” NorthWest Arkansas Community College Catalog; 2006. 154-155
References O’Connor, Steve. “Cheating and electronic plagiarism – scope, consequences and detection.” CAVAL Staff Publications. 2003. CAVAL. May 2003..
References University of Tasmania. “How to identify academic dishonesty.” University of Tasmania Teaching and Learning Website. 2006. University of Tasmania. May, 10, 2006. Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. “STUDENT CHEATING, PLAGIARISM (AND OTHER QUESTIONABLE PRACTICES), THE INTERNET, AND OTHER ELECTRONIC RESOURCES.” Women's Studies Librarian's Website - University of Wisconsin System. 2007. UW System Women's Studies Librarian..
Contact Information Clint Brooks Director of Distance Learning NorthWest Arkansas Community College One College Drive Bentonville, AR 72704 firstname.lastname@example.org (479)619-4382