Presentation on theme: "Writing is like building. Before beginning to build a house, the workers usually have a plan before them and have prepared enough material before he writes."— Presentation transcript:
Writing is like building. Before beginning to build a house, the workers usually have a plan before them and have prepared enough material before he writes the first sentence of his composition. After we have written a topic sentence or a thesis statement, we should look at the list of facts again, eliminate those unnecessary or unimportant ones, rearrange them in a logical order, and write an outline. Now let ’ s look at the example on page 145. Organiz e the composition
Suppose the topic assigned is “ The School Library. ” A large number of useful books All kinds of dictionaries and reference books The reading-rooms spacious and quiet Newspapers and magazine The librarians patient and helpful Closed on Sundays and holidays A little crowded in the evening Students leave books on chairs to reserve seats Very few newspapers from abroad Students are not allowed to take schoolbags into the First Reading-Room Seniors would not be able to write their graduation papers without using the library Teachers go to the library frequently …
Among the possible theses are: 1)The library is a nice place to work in. 2)The library plays a very important part in a student ’ s life. 3)The work of the library needs improvement.
Once the thesis is formulated, certain facts on the list will become more important than others, while a few may seem irrelevant. After those suitable items are picked out, an outline like the following one may be prepared:
Topic: The School Library Thesis: The Library plays a very important part in a student’s life. Outline: I.A student has to borrow books from the library. A.He needs reference books for his elective courses. B.He may want to read novels, stories and plays. II.He read newspaper and magazines in the library. A.Many new magazines are on display in the First Reading- Room. B.There are newspapers from all provinces. C.Back numbers may be borrowed at the counter. III.He needs the library all the more in his junior and senior years. A.The library provides him with books for his research. B.He would not be able to write his graduation paper without using the library.
A.Types of outlines Thesis (controlling idea) I.Introduction II.Main idea A.Sub-idea B.Sub-idea –1.Supporting detail –2.Supporting detail –a.Fact 1 –b.Fact 2 III.Main idea A. Sub-idea B.Sub-idea –1.Supporting detail –2.Supporting detail –3.Supporting detail C. Sub-idea IV.Conclusion
There are two commonly used types of outlines: The topic outline and the sentence outline. 1)A topic outline A topic outline is brief and clear, and it gives an instant overview of the entire paper. All entries in a topic outline consist of nouns and their modifiers, or their equivalents, that is, gerund phraes or infinitive phrases.
A Topic Outline Thesis: Foreign trade is beneficial to and indispensable for all nations. I.Introduction: the foundation of foreign trade II.The necessity of visible trade A.Lack of certain commodities B.Insufficiency of particular items C.Comparative advantage in certain items D.Latest innovations and different styles of commodities E.The importance of a favorable balance of trade
III. The necessity of invisible trade — exchange of services between nations A.Transportation B.Insurance C.Tourism D.Technology IV.Conclusion: the purpose of foreign trade and the importance of the balance of payments
2)A sentence outline A sentence outline is provides a more detailed plan of the paper. The advantage of a sentence outline is that you can use them directly. The disadvantage is if you use them, the sentence structures are the same and will be boring.
A sentence outline Thesis: Foreign trade is beneficial to and indispensable for all nations. I.Introduction: the utilization of different economic resources and the development of different skills form the foundation of foreign trade. II. Trade in commodities (visible trade) is necessary between nations. A.No nation has all the commodities it needs. B.A nation may not have enough of certain commodities. C. A nation may sell certain commodities at a profit. D. Latest innovations and different styles of commodities may make foreign trade necessary. E.All nations strive to maintain a favorable balance of trade so as to be assured of the means to buy necessary goods.
III. Exchange of services between nations (invisible trade) is part of foreign trade. A.Nations vie in providing transportation for foreign trade. B.Prudent exporters purchase insurance for their cargoes. C.Tourism brings a nation huge profits. D.Technology is also exported and imported. IV.Conclusion: the purpose of foreign trade is to earn money for necessary imports and it is important to keep the balance of payments.
3) Rules for writing outlines (1)Avoid single subdivisions. If there is a major point marked “ I, ” there must be at least another marked “ II ” ; if there is an “ A, ” there must be a “ B, ” and so on. (2)Avoid mixing types. A topic outline is written in noun phrases, and a sentence outline in sentences. Do not mix these two types. (3)Use parallel structures for the headings of the same rank. Make sure subheads of the same rank are of equal importance and are related to the heading and arranged in logical order. (4)Use specific evidence that supports the topic sentence (5)Make sure the thesis is a complete declarative sentence in the affirmative; do not use a question, a phrase or a dependent clause.
Everyday Cheating Cheating is common in everyday life. For one thing, cheating at school is common. Many students will borrow a friend ’ s homework and copy it in their own handwriting. During a test, students will use a tiny sheet of answers stored in their pockets or sit near a friend to copy answers. People also cheat on the job. They take home office supplies such as tape, paper, or pens. Some people who are not closely supervised or who are out on the road may cheat an employer by taking dozens of breaks or using work time for personal chores. Finally, many people cheat when they deal with large businesses. For instance, few customers will report an incorrect bill in their favor. Visitors in a hotel may take home towels, and restaurant patrons may take home silverware. For many people, daily cheating is an acceptable way to behave.
Topic sentence: Cheating is common in everyday life I. At school a. Copying homework b. Cheating on tests II. At work a. Stealing office supplies b. Taking breaks and doing errands on company time III.With large businesses a. Not reporting error on bill b. Stealing towels and silverware IV. Conclusion: daily cheating acceptable for many people
Good-Bye Tony I have decided not to go out with Tony anymore. He said that he would be at my house by 8:30, but he did not arrive until 9:20. Then he told me that it was too late to go to the new Woody Allen movie I wanted to see and that we would go to a horror classic, The Night of the Living Dead, instead. I told him that I didn ’ t like gruesome movies, but he said that I could shut my eyes during the gory parts. After the movie, rather than suggesting a hamburger or a drink, he drove right out to a back road near Oakcrest High School and started necking with me. What Tony did a half hour later angered me most of all. He cut his finger on a pin I was wearing and said we had to go right home. He was afraid the scratch would get infected if he did not put a Band-Aid on it. When he dropped me off, I sad “ Good-bye, Tony, ” in a friendly enough way, but in my head I though, “ Good-bye forever, Tony. ”
A sentence outline Topic sentence: I ’ ve decided not to go out with Tony anymore. I. Tony arrived late for our date II. Tony took me to a chiller movie III. Tony didn ’ t take me for a snack afterward IV.Tony stopped necking because of a scratch V. Conclusion: I said in my mind “ Good-bye forever, Tony. ”
Exercises: Write an outline for each of the following topics. 1. education 2. computers
Education Thesis: Compared with the traditional education, the quality education is very different. I.Traditional education A.Paying much attention to the marks B.Reading only for exams II.Quality education A.Developing all-around B.Improving ability and practice III.Conclusion: Advocating the quality education
3.Computers Thesis: the importance of computers play an important part in our life. I.Introduction: the foundation and development of computers II.The advantages of computers A.At work 1.Looking up the information 2.Making work efficient B.Education 1.Preparing for the lessons 2.Managing the studies
C.In daily life 1.Sending s 2.Giving more news around the world 3.Communicating with different people on the internet III.The disadvantages of computers A.Doing Bad harm for our health 1.Eyes 2.Body disease
B.Distracting the youths from their studies 1.Playing games 2.Chatting C.Making people rely on computers IV. Conclusion: Making good use of computers