# Behavioral Interventions Mystery Motivators Behavior Contracts Home-Notes Self-Monitoring Response-Cost Raffles Token Economies.

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Behavioral Interventions Mystery Motivators Behavior Contracts Home-Notes Self-Monitoring Response-Cost Raffles Token Economies

Mystery Motivators Who: single students, teams, or whole class What: provide random rewards for appropriate behavior Materials needed: –Mystery Motivator form—1 per week –Envelope –Small slips of paper –Invisible ink and developer pens –Rewards

Mystery Motivators (continued) How: –Step 1: Identify possible rewards –Step 2: Write 1 reward on paper, put in sealed envelope, and don’t tell student what it is! Keep envelope with Mystery Motivator form –Step 3: Define the behavior you want increased or decreased—be objective and specific –Step 4: Using invisible ink pen, write an “M” in the squares for reward days –Step 5: If student meets criteria, they get to color in square for that day with developer pen. If “M” appears, the envelope is opened and the reward given immediately –Step 6: If no “M,” congratulate student on their behavior and tell them that tomorrow could be a reward day

Mystery Motivators: Tips How many “M”s? –In the beginning, at least 2 or 3 per week –After student improves behavior, reduce to 1 or 2 per week –Important to occasionally place “M”s on squares back- to-back so students try every day Bonus square can be used for additional incentive –Write a number (1-5) with invisible ink pen –At end of week, student colors square and if student met the criteria that number of times that week, a bonus reward is given Comments are important! –Make comments positive

Mystery Motivators: What If? What if student doesn’t like that reward? –If student complains about reward, they lose that reward for the day What if student says they don’t want to do Mystery Motivator program? –OK, but tell student that they will lose a basic privilege (recess or break time) if they don’t display the target behavior. Tell them that when they are ready to participate, they can get the privilege back and work for a Mystery Motivator What if student tries to cheat by holding up the envelope to see what’s written on the paper? –Write very lightly and fold over the paper –Or you can suspend the program for one day for cheating What if student coloring in that day’s square “accidentally” colors part of next day’s square to see if there’s an “M”? –Make the “M” very small in the box –Or you can suspend the program for one day for trying to cheat What if using groups and one student chronically fails or sets other members up to lose? –Make that student a one-member team

Other ways to use Mystery Motivators Student can earn stickers or points for good behavior –Once 10 stickers are earned, student earns mystery motivator

Behavior Contracts Who: individual students What: placing contingencies for reinforcement into written document that is agreed to and signed by the student and teacher Materials needed: –Contract –Rewards

Behavior Contracts (continued) How: –Step 1: Identify specific behavior –Step 2: Collect baseline data –Step 3: Meet with student to share data and discuss what behavior you would like to see instead –Step 4: complete a “Behavior Contract” together Description of desired behavior, including amount Time frame Number of times student should exhibit behavior – have student choose & start small Agree on reward student will earn if contract is fulfilled Set a date for reviewing (and possibly revising) the contract Sign the contract –Step 5: student makes tally each time they succeed –Step 6: Deliver reward ASAP after contract met

Behavior Contracts: Tips Keep contract between you and the student Make initial contract short-term Don’t worry if student doesn’t record behavior accurately Tell student that “penalty clause” may be used Tell student that contract may need to be renegotiated

Behavior Contracts: What If? What if the student works hard at first but then loses motivation? –Reward payoff may be too delayed. Cut time period in half. What if student never really starts? –The required behavior may not be defined or explained clearly enough, or too much of the required behavior may be expected initially –Discuss expectations thoroughly with student. If necessary, model and role-play the target behavior –Try reducing the behavior requirement for a week and increase once student meets smaller goal What if the student is actively refusing to participate in contracting? –Tell student you want to work together and that you value their input –If possible, invite adult who is important to the student to participate in negotiation

Home Notes Materials Needed: –Posted classroom rules –Introductory letter to parents –School-Home note Student brings home note everyday and receives a reward at home for good behavior at school

Self-Monitoring Who: individual students What: student monitors own behavior and progress toward goal Materials needed: –Recording sheet or index cards – 1 per week –Rewards (optional)

Self-Monitoring How: –Step 1: Identify and describe specific behavior –Step 2: Collect baseline data by having student tally how many times they engage in the inappropriate behavior during given time period –Step 3: Meet with student to discuss data –Step 4: Have student set a goal for the next tally period –Step 5: Repeat Steps 2-4 until the number of times the behavior occurs becomes acceptable

Self-Monitoring: Tips Always provide social praise for appropriate behaviors You may need to prompt the student to record the behavior To make the change permanent, tie self- monitoring to some type of contingency in the beginning and fade out contingency over time –Example: index card + daily reward Should not be so intrusive that student becomes embarrassed

Self-Monitoring: What If? What if student refuses to self- monitor? –Offer a reward for using the program –If still refuses, a classroom privilege like recess can be linked to program use What if student cheats in recording their behavior? –Tell student that you may also be recording their behavior—if your totals don’t closely match, then reward will be missed or privilege will be lost

Response-Cost Raffles Materials Needed: –Reinforcement Menus –Raffle tickets –Raffle prizes Collect Baseline Data: –Frequency of disruptive behaviors

Response-Cost Raffles Each student starts the day with 5 raffle tickets When a student is disruptive, take 1 ticket At end of day, collect students’ remaining tickets and hold a raffle –Raffle can be done daily or weekly

Token Economy Who: individual students, whole class What: points are awarded for appropriate behaviors and points can later be exchanged for reinforcing objects or activities Materials needed: –“Classroom bank” (e.g., laminated sheet with students’ names, designated area of chalkboard, dry-erase board) –Clipboard with paper –Rewards

Token Economy How: –Step 1: Identify specific behavior(s) –Step 2: Identify items, activities, or privileges for which points can be exchanged –Step 3: Decide how many points can be earned for each target behavior –Step 4: Decide the “cost” of each reward –Step 5: Create a “classroom bank” to keep track of points –Step 6: Decide on a system for giving points (clipboard) –Step 7: Explain procedures to students –Step 8: When student exhibits target behavior, always give praise along with points –Step 9: Frequently allow students to “buy” reward

Token Economy: Tips At beginning, points and praise should be given after each occurrence but once behavior has been acquired, reduce to intermittent reinforcement (e.g., every 4 th time) Maintain high rates of praise for appropriate behavior Make adjustments as necessary Don’t price reinforcers too low or too high Periodically change and update the rewards You can include the “cost” of inappropriate behaviors (e.g., subtract the number of points that student would earn if they had exhibited the appropriate behavior)

References Jensen, W.R., Rhode, G., & Reavis, H.K. (2000). Tough kid tool box. Sopris West. Jones, V.F., & Jones, L.S. (1995). Comprehensive classroom management: Creating positive learning environments for all students. 4 th edition. Prentice Hall. Winebrenner, S.,& Espenland, P. (1996). Teaching kids with learning difficulties in the regular classroom: Strategies and techniques every teacher can use to challenge and motivate struggling students. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing. Rathvon, N. (1999). Effective school interventions: Strategies for enhancing academic achievement and social competence. NY, Guilford Press.

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