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Matching PLATEAU and JOURNEY with Your Annual Brome Control Program Jim Crosby.

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Presentation on theme: "Matching PLATEAU and JOURNEY with Your Annual Brome Control Program Jim Crosby."— Presentation transcript:

1 Matching PLATEAU and JOURNEY with Your Annual Brome Control Program Jim Crosby

2 Management Program Fuel Breaks Green strips Restoration –Release –Re-vegetating After Fire Restoration

3 Important Bromes Phenology & Implications Avg of 1722 seeds/ft 2 Seed bank capable to renew population for 2 to 3 years without density reduction Herbicides aid establishment of desirable species by limiting brome population - Must have at least a 3 year control plan, utilize IPM

4 Important Bromes Phenology & Implications Utilizes native plant interspace = need residual herbicide Can germinate from 2-2.5” – need rain to incorporate herbicide Rocky, South facing slopes easily invaded hard to restore

5 Invasive annual grass Lifecycle Winter annual TILLERING DORMANT July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

6 Cheatgrass Lifecycle Spring germination possible Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Tillering

7 Mechanical Cultivation / disking – favors annuals –Damages perennial root systems –Relocates seeds, extending survival W/Herbicide –Disking followed by Plateau pre-emergence –Disking followed by Journey post-emergence –Rate/environment will determine longevity of control

8 Mechanical Mowing –Clipped 12x in one season, still produced a seedhead –Reduces cheatgrass height / potential flame length W/Herbicide –Promotes duff layer breakdown –Utilize constant mowing or mowing/raking to prepare for herbicide treatment

9 Cultural Fire –Theory: Three consecutive burns can reduce populations Reduce desirable species Difficulty carrying fire 3 rd year Results =~ 50% control –Fall burn typically promotes annuals / fire loving –Brush fire typically destroys cheatgrass seed W/Herbicide –Use fire to remove duff layer –Allow ~2wks for carbon to blow off –Apply PLATEAU or JOURNEY

10 Cultural Competitive plant species –Consider use of non-native, non-invasive grass Bluebunch Wheatgrass Poor Competitor Crested Wheatgrass Competes well Sandberg’s bluegrass Needle&thread

11 Cultural Grazing –Spring grazing / non-selective Reduces seed production (does not stop seed production) Remove animals to allow natives to recover –Goats: browse everything, including brush –Sheep & Horses: browse close to ground –Cattle: Pull off leaves –Allow 2-5 days for digestive track to clear W/Herbicide –Aid in reduction of thatch –Heavily graze spring followed by PLATEAU late summer or fall, pre-emeregence to cheatgrass germination

12 Chemical Options Chemical Control Glyphosate 16 oz/acre 5 to 20 oz/acre 2 to 8 oz/acre

13 JOURNEY ® 2.25 gal PLATEAU ® + Glyphosate 2lb gal 4lb gal Rate per acreEquivalent rate per acre 32oz 12oz + 16oz 26.6oz 10oz oz 21.3oz 8oz oz 16oz 6oz + 8oz 10.6oz 4oz + 5.3oz 5.3oz 2oz + 2.6oz /

14 Chemical DORMANT GLYPHOSATE MATURE EARLY TILLERING

15 Pre-emergence Optimum events Spray Rain / herbicide incorporation Germination/herbicide uptake Bromus death

16 Pre-emergence Undesirable event sequence Rain Brome germination Additional brome growth / some brome control Rain / herbicide incorporation Root growth out of treated zone Herbicide application RESULT = only 30% to 70% control when treat at growth stage

17 Chemical Control Timing to Cheat SelectivityResidualThatch complications Glyphosate 16 oz/A After emergence Not selective No residual No 5 to 20 oz/A Prior or After emergence Greatest Selectivity prior to emergence Soil residual Not Post applied 2 to 8 oz/A Prior to emergence Most Selective Soil residual Yes

18 LIGHT LITTER LAYER

19 HEAVY LITTER LAYER

20 Unable to remove duff

21 Downy brome control Fall Application % Downy brome control PLATEAU oz/A Application: Nov 3, 1999 Rating date: May 3, 2000 All treatments + 1qt MSO

22 Conservation Targets and Goals Fuel Breaks Green strips Restoration –Release –Re-vegetating After Fire Restoration

23 Create Fuel break to protect life / property How close to subdivision(s)? –Ignition sources –spread What disturbances are promoting cheatgrass? Cheatgrass duff layer? Desirable species remaining?

24 Fire Modeling: Creating fire breaks–rate of fire spread Rate of spread (m/min) at 50% slope and two wind speeds and 5% fine fuel moisture comparing Plateau treatment to a non-treated area. Data collected and analyzed by Synergy Resource Solutions, Inc. Rate of Spread (m/min) 6 min mile 10 min mile 40 min mile 6 mile/hr wind 12 mile/hr wind

25 Fire Modeling: Creating fire breaks – flame length Data collected and analyzed by Synergy Resource Solutions, Inc. 6 mile/hr wind 12 mile/hr wind Flame Length (m) Hand tools Cannot be contained from head fire Flame lenghth (m) at 50% slope and two wind speeds and 5% fine fuel moisture comparing Plateau treatment to a non-treated area.

26 Fuel break Operation order –Assess area for annual grass –Complete disturbance Remove brush Disking other –Apply Plateau or Journey –Seed area if needed for soil stabilization and annual brome competition

27 Conservation Targets and Goals Fuel Breaks Green strips Restoration –Release –Re-vegetating After Fire Restoration

28 Green strip Operation order –Assess area for annual brome –Prepare seed bed Thatch removal –Prescribed burn –Over grazing –Mowing/racking –other –Apply Plateau or Journey –Seed area

29 Conservation Targets and Goals Fuel Breaks Green strips Restoration –Release –Re-vegetating After Fire Restoration

30 Release of rangeland from annual brome Over grazed? Season of grazing? –Can season be changed? Dense mat of cheatgrass thatch? Desirables species present? How close to Ag production fields

31 #1 Release of rangeland from annual brome Most likely operation to succeed Most cost effective Immediate benefits –Reduce fire risk –Habitat recovery Determine cause of significant brome increase Adjust operations to reduce factors contributing to brome increase Apply Plateau

32 Thatch Established Planting Prior to cheat emergence Light thatch Prior to cheat emergence Medium thatch Post to cheat emergence Light thatch Post to cheat emergence Medium thatch Heavy thatch Remove thatch / fire, grazing, mowing w/raking

33 Release of Rangeland from Annual Brome Important considerations –Desired plant tolerance –Application rate (gallons/acre) –Application equipment –Shadow effect of brush –Long-term program Follow-up treatment in natural interspace ecosystem Biological control/ responsible grazing Promotion of desirable species to out compete re- invasion

34 Conservation Targets and Goals Fuel Breaks Green strips Restoration –Release –Re-vegetating After Fire Restoration

35 Restoration - Revegetation Operation order –Prepare seed bed Thatch removal –Prescribed burn –Over grazing –Mowing/racking –Other –Apply Plateau or Journey –Seed area same season

36 Conservation Targets and Goals Fuel Breaks Green strips Restoration –Release –Re-vegetating After Fire Restoration

37 Number of past fires? Cheatgrass seed population? Desirable species recovery expected? Seed mix species? Planting method/timing?

38 Prepared seed bed New Planting Prior to cheat emergence Prior to planting Prior to cheat emergence After Planting Post to cheat emergence Prior to planting Post to cheat emergence After Planting After desired seedling emergence

39 After Fire Restoration WITH PLATEAU Wildfire May-August –Allow carbon residue to dissipate (~2wks) –Apply Plateau (or Journey) after late July up to germination of brome –Seed at the desired time WITH JOURNEY Wildfire May-August –Allow carbon residue to dissipate (~2wks) –Apply Journey after brome germinate, up to early tiller –Seed after herbicide application

40 Important Points for Success: Long-term management plan –Monitor results –Utilize competitive plant species –Manage to give desirable species the advantage –Consider thatch complications –Spray herbicide prior to planting!


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