Presentation on theme: "15 CHAPTER D YNAMIC P OWER P OINT ™ S LIDES BY S OLINA L INDAHL Cartels, Oligopolies, and Monopolistic Competition."— Presentation transcript:
15 CHAPTER D YNAMIC P OWER P OINT ™ S LIDES BY S OLINA L INDAHL Cartels, Oligopolies, and Monopolistic Competition
CHAPTER OUTLINE Oligopolies Cartels Game Theory Monopolistic Competition The Economics of Advertising For applications, click herehere To Video To Video
Some good blogs and other sites to get the juices flowing: Food for Thought….
SEE THE INVISIBLE HAND “Our neck is stretched over the fence and OPEC has a knife” U.S. President Jimmy Carter, 1979
B ACK TO Oligopoly and Monopolistic Competition An oligopoly is a market that is dominated by a small number of firms. (Cola) Monopolistic competition is a market with a large number of firms selling similar but not identical products. (Restaurants)
B ACK TO The Landscape of Firms Monopoly Competition Monopolistic Competition Oligopoly More CompetitionLess Competition (less price control)(more price control) YOU ARE HERE
B ACK TO Studying Oligopoly Behavior Is complicated- because it’s not a single firm considering its costs and pricing in a vacuum (like competitive firms and monopolies) The profits of a large firm depend heavily on the actions taken by other large firms. Strategic Decision-Making Strategic Decision-Making = decision making in situations that are interactive. Poker, Chess
B ACK TO Studying Strategic Decision-Making We’ll introduce Game Theory as a way of predicting outcomes in strategic situations like oligopolies.
B ACK TO Cartels Some oligopoly firms are competitive with each other, some are cooperative with each other. We’ll focus on the cooperative ones (since all firms would rather not compete!) Cartel A Cartel = a group of suppliers that tries to act as if they were a monopoly. The goal of these suppliers? To coordinate in order to reduce supply, raise prices, and increase profits.
SEE THE INVISIBLE HAND Mariachi Plaza is a sort of day-labor center for musicians, and the mariachis will quickly gather around passers-by, a horde of them jostling to get their business card into the hand of the would-be customer. Now, roughly 200 mariachis have joined the United Mariachi Organization of Los Angeles, a group that formed to set a minimum price in the plaza.
B ACK TO OPEC Cartel OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) limits production for each member nation- to raise oil prices and profits- a cartel.
B ACK TO Cartels and Profit Maximization PcPc D MC = ACS QcQc QcQc PcPc D QmQm PmPm Profit MR Q PP A Cartel Tries to Move a Market from “Competition” towards “As if Controlled by a Monopolist” Q CompetitionAs if Controlled by a Monopolist
B ACK TO Cartels and Cheating Reality? Few cartels effectively control the market price, and most tend to collapse over time. Reasons why cartels collapse: 1.Cheating by cartel members. 2.New entrants and demand response. 3.Government prosecution.
B ACK TO Cheating on the OPEC Cartel Every country in OPEC can earn more by cheating than by keeping to their allotment. So, everyone cheats, and the cartel collapses! Don’t let me down : Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez and Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud at an OPEC summit
B ACK TO Cheating on the OPEC Cartel Cheating is also profitable when other members do not keep their promise to reduce production. A single cartel member does not have significant monopoly power. So reducing production does not raise the world price enough to make up for its lost sales.
B ACK TO The Incentive to Cheat As a single seller, you alone bear the gains (green) and losses (red) from lowering price. But if there are four firms, the losses are split- each firm bears ¼ the loss.
B ACK TO The Cheating Dilemma A payoff matrix can show us the incentive to cheat: Example: assume the world oil market is dominated by two large countries, Saudi Arabia and Russia. Each country has two choices or strategies: Cooperate by reducing output and acting like a monopolist. Cheat and expand production.
B ACK TO The Cheating Dilemma If both countries cooperate, they each earn $400. If one cheats while the other doesn’t, the cheater earns $500 and the non-cheater earns $200. If they both cheat, they each earn $300. Russia’s Strategies CooperateCheat Saudi Arabia’s Strategies Cooperate ($400, $400)($200, $500) Cheat ($500, $200)($300, $300)
If Sundance keeps quiet, what’s the best choice (highest payoff) for Butch: keep quiet or testify? (Butch’s payoffs are on the left) a)Keep quiet b)Testify
B ACK TO The Cheating Dilemma Dominant Strategy A Dominant Strategy is a strategy that has a higher payoff than any other strategy no matter what the other player does. The dominant strategy for Saudi Arabia? Cheat. If Russia cooperates? Best to cheat. Cheating pays $500 while cooperating pays $400. If Russia cheats? Also best to cheat. Cheating pays $300 while cooperating pays $200. Russia’s Strategies CooperateCheat Saudi Arabia’s Strategies Cooperate ($400, $400)($200, $500) Cheat ($500, $200)($300, $300)
what is Butch's “dominant strategy”? What is Sundance's? a)Butch's dominant strategy is to testify; Sundance's dominant strategy is to testify. b)Butch has no dominant strategy; Sundance's dominant strategy is to keep quiet. c)Butch's dominant strategy is to testify; Sundance's dominant strategy is to keep quiet. d)Butch's dominant strategy is testify; Sundance has no dominant strategy.
B ACK TO The Cheating Dilemma The dominant strategy for Russia? You decide… If Saudi Arabia cooperates? Cheat. Cheating pays $500 while cooperating pays $400. If Saudi Arabia cheats? Cheat. Cheating pays $300 while cooperating pays $200. No matter what the other player does, each player is better off cheating. Russia’s Strategies CooperateCheat Saudi Arabia’s Strategies Cooperate ($400, $400)($200, $500) Cheat ($500, $200)($300, $300)
B ACK TO The Prisoner’s Dilemma Prisoner’s Dilemma The Prisoner’s Dilemma describes situations where the pursuit of individual interest leads to a group outcome that is in the interest of no one. The equilibrium outcome: both firms cheat on the agreement. Each firm’s strategy is based on its own self- interest, but the outcome is in the interest of neither firm. Cooperation would give both firms a bigger payoff.
B ACK TO New Entrants and Demand Response Break Down Cartels Cheating is not the only reason for cartels to fail. The high prices of a cartel attract new entrants. Supply will increase and push down the price. Consumers will favor the new firms with lower prices. More substitutes will be available in the long run.
B ACK TO How to Sustain a Cartel Possess access to natural resources that are difficult to duplicate can avoid this problem of new entrants. E.g. Oil, diamonds, nutmeg Is the diamond cartel forever?
B ACK TO How to Sustain a Cartel Control access to some key input that can’t be easily duplicated E.g. the NBA buyer’s cartel uses a salary cap is enforced by kicking out teams that don’t comply. No substitutes exist for the NBA league. Who wins and who loses under this structure? Home of the Indiana Pacers
Do you support the idea of salary caps for sports teams in general? a)Yes b)No
In game theory, the strategy that has a higher payoff than any other strategy, no matter what the other player does, is also known as the a)superior strategy. b)Nash equilibrium. c)dominant strategy. d)best possible outcome.
Bill and Ted are assigned to do a group project. Ted does excellent work. Bill struggles. Suppose that each of the students can choose two levels of work: work hard or take it easy. They will get the same group grade and therefore they have the same payoff for each strategy combination. a)Ted does not have a dominant strategy. b)Ted's dominant strategy is to Work Hard. c)Ted's dominant strategy is to Take It Easy. d)both are dominant strategies for Ted. B ACK TO
Most cartels are illegal in the United States since the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. Antitrust Laws Antitrust Laws give the government the power to regulate or prohibit business practices that may be anti- competitive. empowers the government to prosecute and punish collusive behavior. Government Prosecution and Regulation
Watch the international Lysine cartel discuss their conspiracy to raise prices by clicking below. ( 3:23 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E21YYoxRs5g&feature=play er_embedded B ACK TO To next Video To next Video
B ACK TO Government-Supported Cartels Surprisingly, governments do not always prosecute cartels, and often they support cartels. In the U.S.: many cartels are supported by the government, including milk. In many poor nations, governments regularly enrich themselves through cartels. The most successful cartels operate with the explicit support of (and enforcement by) the government.
SEE THE INVISIBLE HAND Think-pair-share: What are the effects of cartels on a nation? How do you think economic growth and cartel prevalence are related? Why?
B ACK TO Summary: Successful Cartels Cartels are more likely to be stable and successful if they can prevent new entrants through: Control of natural resources or Control of access to some key input that can’t be easily duplicated Weak enforcement of antitrust laws (or lack of laws) Achieving government support
B ACK TO Oligopolies Cartels may be tough to keep together… BUT oligopoly can still maintain prices (and profits) that are higher than competitive firms.
B ACK TO The Incentive and Ability to Raise Price in Oligopoly A firm in oligopoly who reduces quantity by the amount Q 0 – Q 1 increases the market price to P 1 (which is greater than MC.) The increase in price increases the profits of the firm that cuts output (the green area),as well as increasing the profits of the other firms in the industry.
B ACK TO Oligopoly Pricing Can we be more specific? Economists have developed many models of oligopolistic pricing. A lot depends on factors specific to the industry; We leave further discussion for intermediate and advanced microeconomics studies. Let’s turn now to a different form of market structure, monopolistic competition.
B ACK TO Monopolistic Competition Monopolistic Competition is a market structure that’s a little like monopoly and a little like competition. Specifically: many competitors products are similar but not identical downward-sloping demand curve each firm earns zero profit Restaurants: Monopolistic Competitors
B ACK TO Monopolistic Competition and Profit Maximization Same profit maximizing rule as competitive and monopoly firms: produce where MR = MC AC Profit Demand MR Q Quantity Price MC P But…. This profit will attract new entrants.
B ACK TO Zero Profit in the Long Run If firms are earning economic profits, new firms will want to enter the industry. This will reduce the demand curve facing each individual producer. In the long run, each supplier will earn normal profits, and price will equal ATC.
B ACK TO Monopolistic Competition and Profit Maximization Entrance of new firms reduces demand for existing firms… Until profits erode to zero in the Long Run (Economic profits, remember!) AC Demand Profit MR Q Quantity Price MC P Q LR P
B ACK TO Comparing Monopolistic Competition with Competition Firms in both industries produce where P = AC and earn zero profits. However, firms under monopolistic competition charge prices above marginal cost, they produce a smaller quantity, and Q * is not at minimum average cost.
B ACK TO The Economics of Advertising Oligopolies and Monopolistically Competitive Firms advertise…. Is advertising good or bad? It’s Complicated. (There are different types of advertising)
B ACK TO Types of Advertising “Informative” Advertising: price, quality and availability information
B ACK TO Types of Advertising Advertising as Signaling “If they’re spending so much $$$ on advertising for this product, they must expect it to be profitable and around a long time. Must be good.”
B ACK TO Types of Advertising Advertising as Part of the Product: Even if NO information is given, does “Branding” make the product more enjoyable? Tasters enjoy the cola more if it’s labeled as “Coke”…
Click below for a peek at some of the funniest Superbowl commercials of the past several years. You decide: did they do more than entertain? (8:00 minutes) B ACK TO http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=caZTCDTif_I
SEE THE INVISIBLE HAND In your opinion, is advertising “worth it” for society? a)Yes b)No