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Dick & Carey Instructional Design Module Cheat Tool By Jesse Gentile TEST LEARNING USE TOOL.

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Presentation on theme: "Dick & Carey Instructional Design Module Cheat Tool By Jesse Gentile TEST LEARNING USE TOOL."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Dick & Carey Instructional Design Module Cheat Tool By Jesse Gentile TEST LEARNING USE TOOL

3 Evaluate your understanding of the Dick and Carey Model. Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Click on any part of the Dick and Carey model to test your knowledge of that step. RETURN TO HOME PAGE RETURN TO HOME PAGE

4 INCORRECT

5 CORRECT

6 Identify Instructional Goals SAMPLE QUESTION -Answer 1 -Answer 2 -Answer 3 -Answer 4

7 Instructional Analysis SAMPLE QUESTION -Answer 1 -Answer 2 -Answer 3 -Answer 4

8 Learner/Context Analysis SAMPLE QUESTION Answer 1 Answer 2 Answer 3 Answer 4

9 Instructional Materials SAMPLE QUESTION -Answer 1 -Answer 2 -Answer 3 -Answer 4

10 Formative Evaluation SAMPLE QUESTION -Answer 1 -Answer 2 -Answer 3 -Answer 4

11 Summative Evaluation SAMPLE QUESTION -Answer 1 -Answer 2 -Answer 3 -Answer 4

12 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 1.1 Step #1 is to figure out if you actually need instruction to solve the problem or limitations of your client. If instruction is needed, you need state what you want your learners to be able to do when they have completed your instruction. This will serve as your instructional goal. Instructional Goals can come from: a list of goals from a performance analysis from a needs assessment from practical experience with learning difficulties of students from the analysis of people who are doing a job from some other requirement for new instruction Non analysis based sources: SME, content outlines, trainers or admin Dick, Carey & Carey; 2006; pg 6 Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

13 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 1.2 Front End Analysis “it has long been accepted that careful analysis work is absolutely critical prior to initiating the design of instruction.” (2006, p17) Front end analysis is usually made up of: (1) Performance Analysis (2) Needs Assessment (3) Job analysis Conduct Performance Analysis Conduct Performance Analysis Choose Noninstructional Solutions Choose Noninstructional Solutions Conduct Needs Assessment as Required Conduct Needs Assessment as Required Conduct Job Analysis (in Some training Settings) Identify Goal 1 for initiating the Design of Instruction Is there a performance problem that can be solved by instruction? Identify Goal 2 for initiating the Design of Instruction Identify Goal 3 for initiating the Design of Instruction Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

14 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 1.3 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Performance analysis is done basically to discover a clients true problems as well as identify solutions. If done correctly you should be able to “clearly” describe the existing problem in terms of failure to achieve the results that an organization wanted. It also involves discovering how employees are performing versus how they are supposed to be performing. Causes of the problem should be turned up as well as some possible solutions. Performance Analysis Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

15 Application of the Robinson and Robinson (1995) Performance Relationship Map (Dick & Carey, 2006 p 21) Performance Analysis Question Performance Analysis Answer 1.What is the problem that was originally voiced? 2.Is the voiced problem related to a core organizational outcome? 3.Are there established operational goals for this outcome? 4.Is the operational goal being met? 5.Is there an operational need? 6.Have job performance standards been set for achieving the operational goal? 7.Are job performance standards being met? 8.Is there a job performance need? 9.Are there external factors outside the control of local management that are contributing to operational and job performance needs (e.g., government regulations, corporate hiring freeze, labor contract, corporation’s national contract with telephone service provider, and so forth)? 10.Are there internal factors within the control of local management that are contributing to job performance needs? 11.Are there solutions for the performance needs?

16 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS NEEDS ASSESSMENT Needs Assessment Concept MapSimple Diagram Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

17 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 1 Web- sites (1) (2) Needs Analysis/Assessment tools on Don Clarks awesome ISD website (3) DON CLARK’S WEBSITE (4) (5) The Ultimate Page on Ins. Design Models Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

18 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 1 Books Revise Instruction Revise Instruction How to Identify Your Organization's Training Needs: A Practical Guide to Needs Analysis by McConnell, John H. Available online from FSU’s netlibrary.

19 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Step #2: Once you have clearly figured out what the goal of your instruction is going to be, you need to break down that goal into very clear, concrete steps that the learner must perform if they were to accomplish the goal. Analysis refers to analyzing your main goal, breaking it down. What does a person actually DO, step by step, when performing this goal? TWO BASIC STEPS OF INSTRUCTIONAL ANALYSIS 1.) Classify your goal into one of four domains of learning. In other words, what KIND of information are you teaching with your instruction. A) Verbal informationB) Psychomotor Skills C) Intellectual SkillsD) Attitudes 2.) Make an organized flow chart type map of the exact steps or info that must be done by learn when accomplishing the overall (terminal) goal. 2.1 Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

20 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 2.2 “Goal analysis is the visual display of the specific steps the learner would do when performing the instructional goal. Each step is stated in a box as shown in the flow diagram below:” (p 44) Step 1 Step 1 Step 2 Step 2 Step 4 Step 4 Step 3 Step 3 Step 5 Step 5 “the statement [written in each box] of each step must include a verb that describes and observable behavior. Each step should have an observable outcome.” p45 When it comes to charting out psychomotor skills and intellectual skills your chart shows the steps the learner will perform. If the goal is to learn verbal information, your chart is basically going to list out the verbal information in organized clusters. Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

21 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 2.3 In the full page example to the right, look at how the top of the diagram has broken down the main goal into six main steps. Step two, has 3 sub-steps must be done to accomplish it: 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3. Several steps have subordinate skills. These are simpler skills the learner must have if they are going to be able to accomplish a step. (i.e. you must be able to add, before you can solve equations) The triangle represents some general verbal fact or knowledge the student must be able to state to accomplish sub-skill Lastly, there are “entry-behaviors,” behaviors the learner must be able to do before starting the lesson which won’t be taught. CLICK TO SEE ALL THE MAIN PARTS OF A GOAL ANALYSIS IN ONE SCREEN Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

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23 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS “The SME approach [to instructional] tends to stress knowing, whereas the instructional design approach stresses doing.” p40 The “Conduct Instructional Analysis” step which we are now describing is depicted as a parallel activity to the “Analyze Learners and Contexts” step… the elements of that step can be completed simultaneously with goal analysis…” p45 Have a subject matter expert perform the goal for you, so you can watch them and document each step they take in completing the goal. If you are the SME, have someone else watch you. Have two SME’s explain how they would accomplish the terminal goal step by step. 2 Tips Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

24 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 3.1 #3 At the same time you are figuring out exactly what steps learners will take to perform your instructional goal, you must spend time figuring out the characteristics of your learners and the places they will be learning or working in. YOU MUST ANALYZE THREE THINGS: (1) Who are your learners (known as target population or target audience) and what are they like? - age, grade, job, experience, job position, - whether they can do entry behaviors, attitudes toward what you are trying to teach them, - their motivation levels, learning style preferences - learners attitudes towards management or administrators (2) What environment will the learners perform their new skills in? - Will managers support the new skills? - Physical aspects (tools, timing, equipment) of the work environment. - Social aspects. Are learners working alone or in teams? Field or desk work? Pioneers? (3) The place where learners will be learning your instruction. - Does it meet your teaching needs? - Can you make it mirror the workplaces so new skills transfer over easily? Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

25 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 2 Books Task Analysis Methods For Instructional Design. Recommended by Dick and Carey. Available online at Library.net 1999 copyright. Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

26 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 2 Web (1) Software to help do task analysis. (2) Task Analysis examples at George Mason University. Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

27 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 3.1 #3 At the same time you are figuring out exactly what steps learners will take to perform your instructional goal, you must spend time figuring out the characteristics of your learners and the places they will be learning or working in. YOU MUST ANALYZE THREE THINGS: (1) Who are your learners (known as target population or target audience) and what are they like? - age, grade, job, experience, job position, - whether they can do entry behaviors, attitudes toward what you are trying to teach them, - their motivation levels, learning style preferences - learners attitudes towards management or administrators (2) What environment will the learners perform their new skills in? - Will managers support the new skills? - Physical aspects (tools, timing, equipment) of the work environment. - Social aspects. Are learners working alone or in teams? Field or desk work? Pioneers? - What will prevent training from being used? Do they lack necessary items to perform? (3) The place where learners will be learning your instruction. - Does it meet your teaching needs? - Can you make it mirror the workplaces so new skills transfer over easily? Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

28 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 3.1 How do you collect all this data about learners? How do you “analyze them?” Make “site visits” to where they work. (a) interview learners (b) interview management (c) observe learners while they work (d) give learners surveys or questionnaires (e) have the learners take a pre-test to see if they have entry behaviors or sub skills necessary to accomplish your instructional goal. Write up these results in a learner analysis report. TABLES in Dick and Carey’s 2006 BOOK ARE VERY INFORMATIVE HERE. SEE PAGES IF POSSIBLE.

29 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS 3 Tips If you really want your learners to carry their new knowledge into the workplace, then your learning context (where students learn) must mirror your performance context (the work place) as closely as possible.

30 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS #4 At this point you are finished with the analysis phases of instructional design. The next step in the Dick and Carey instructional design model is to write a list of objectives for your goal based on all this information you have gathered. What is an objective? According to Dick and Carey, a performance objective is a detailed description of what students will be able to do when they complete a unit of instruction. It is also referred to as a behavioral objective or an instructional objective. Essentially at this point, you are taking each of the goal step boxes from your flow chart and making them into a certain type of verbal format (click more). These clearly written objectives will help you in your next steps to do things like select or develop the right instructional materials, as well as help you evaluate whether or not your instruction has been successful. Write one or more objectives for each skill listed in your instructional analysis, including your entry behaviors.

31 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS According to Mager (1997), there are three main parts of a well written performance objective: (1) Performance (2) Conditions (3) Criterion

32 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS #5 Once you know what actual behaviors look like for each step of your instructional goal, you must take the time to come up with some way to test learners on each of those steps to find out if they understood or did them correctly. Robert Mager states in his book Making Instruction Work, " If it’s worth teaching, it’s worth finding out whether the instruction was successful. (pg. 83). If you think of objectives as describing where you are going, the assessment items are the means by which you find out whether you got there. (FROM:.itma.vt.edu/modules/spring03/instrdes/lesson7.htm) Why are test items are created now, and not after you develop your instruction? Your assessment items must come right from your objectives. The performance you test in each assessment item should match the performance in the objective. They should not be based on what you think are fun test questions or what you did in your activity. If you‘ve written worthwhile objectives, you already know what content to test for. Then it’s just a matter of creating good test items that measure the acquisition of the skills, knowledge, or attitudes you are looking for. (FROM:.itma.vt.edu/modules/spring03/instrdes/lesson7.htm)

33 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS These kinds of tests are known as CRITERION REFERENCED or OBEJECTIVE REFERENCED test. Your test measures learners based on criteria or objectives. FOUR TYPES OF TESTS YOU SHOULD DESIGN AND USE (1) ENTRY BEHAVIOR or PRE-REQUISIT TESTS – does this learner have the basic entry skills to be able to handle my instructional materials? (2) PRETESTS – How much of this material does the learner already know? Do they even need this instruction? Should they skip ahead? (3) PRACTICE TESTS – Gives learners a chance to rehears new knowledge and skills during learning so they can see what they are really picking up and what they need to go back and review. (4) POST TEST – This is the final test of what learners learned. It can be used to give course credit. They can also be used to alert the instructor about areas of instruction that are not working for some reason. (All the learners miss the same test items) Give Entry/Pre-tests here. Give practice test during instruction. Give post-test when done. INSTRUCTION IS GOING ON HERE

34 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Test TypeDesigner’s DecisionObjectives Usually Tested Entry behaviors test Are target learners ready to enter instruction? Do learners possess the required prerequisite skills? Prerequisite skills or those skills below the dotted line in the instructional analysis pretest Have learners previously mastered the enabling skills? Which skills have they previously mastered? How can I most effectively develop this instruction> Terminal objectives Main steps from the goal analysis Practice tests Are students “getting it”? What errors and misconnects do they have? Is the instruction pace correct? Knowledge and skills for a subset of objectives within the goal. Scope typically at the lesson rather than at the unit level. Posttests Achieve the terminal objective? Have learners mastered the intended info,skills and attitudes? Where should instruct. be revised? The terminal objective Main steps and their subordinate skills. Dick and Carey, 2006, p

35 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS So, what types of test items can a person create? - COMPLETION - SHORT ANSWER - MATCHING - MULTIPLE CHOICE - ESSAY - PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - LIVE PERFORMANCE CLICK FOR A CHART SHORING WHICH TEMS ITME TYPES GO BEST WITH WHICH OBJECTIVES TYPES. KEY: You must note carefully the behavior described by the verb in each objective. If the verb is to match, to list, to select, or describe, then you must provide a test item that allows a student to match, list select or describe.

36 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Writing Test Items You should write an assessment item for each objective whose accomplishment you want to measure. Mager provides these steps to follow when writing a criterion assessment item: (1) Read the objective and determine what it wants someone to be able to do (i.e., identify the performance). (2) Draft a test item that asks students to exhibit that performance. (3) Read the objective again and note the conditions under which the performing should occur (i.e., tools and equipment provided, people present, key environmental conditions). (4) Write those conditions into your item. (5) For conditions you cannot provide, describe approximations that are as close to the objective as you can imagine. (6) If you feel you must have more than one item to test an objective, it should be because (a) the range of possible conditions is so great that one performance won’t tell you that the student can perform under the entire range of conditions, or (b) the performance could be correct by chance. Be sure that each item calls for the performance stated in the objective, under the conditions called for. If you follow these steps and still find yourself having trouble drafting an assessment item, it is almost always be because the objective isn’t clear enough to provide the necessary guidance. FROM:

37 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Criteria for Writing Test Items Dick and Carey list several criteria that you should consider when writing test items: - Goal-Centered Criteria: Test questions should be built directly from performance objectives. One per objective. - Learner-Centered Criteria: Test Items must be learner appropriate. The vocabulary should be right for the students age. Items should be culturally sensitive. - Context-Centered Criteria: test items should match the real world environment and scenario and equipment as closely as possible. - Assessment-Centered Criteria: Test items should be printed, formatted, and visually clear. FROM:

38 Types of Test Items TYPE OF BEHAVIOR SHORT MULTIPLE- PRODUCT LIVE STATED IN OBJECTIVE COMPLETION ANSWER MATCHING CHOICE ESSAY DEVELOP PERFORMANCE State/name XX Define XXXX Identify XXXX Discriminate XXX Select XXX Locate XXX Evaluate/Judge XXX Solve XXXXXX Discuss XX Develop XXX Construct XXX Generate XXX Operate/Perform X Choose (attitude) X Dick & Carey, 2006, p155

39 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Build your activities from, and base them on your assessment items and objectives. Do not base assessment items on activities. Don’t just pick the KINDS of test questions you ask off the top of your head. Make sure the KIND of test question appropriate matched the VERB in the objective it is testing.

40 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS

41 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Revise Your Instruction Throughout the Design Process Notice the dotted lines along the top of the chart starts at the far right item labeled “Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation.” The simple idea here is that the evaluation done before finally publishing your instructional material will provide you with lots of data to use in going back to each or particular steps of the whole process and modifying your instructional product. For example, if you discover that after giving the lessons to several sample students, that the instructional materials you chose were hard to see according to many students, you would go back select some different materials that were easier to see.

42 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Revise Instruction Revise Instruction #6 Now that you have a goal that has been analyzed, broken down into steps, each step described by a performance objective and each objective give a test question it is time to think about creating a type of lesson plan to actually teach your objectives! So far we have looked at WHAT to teach. Now we will decide HOW to teach it. BASIC STEPS IN CREATING AN INSTRUCTIOANL STRATEGY (1) Decide what order you want to teach the content (2) in and how you want to cluster certain topics during your instruction.

43 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Revise Instruction Revise Instruction UNDER CONSTRUCTION

44 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS #8 Now that you have your instructional materials developed, it makes good sense to test run them with some learners so that you can discover any changes or weaknesses that need to be revised before you officially start using the materials. Formative Evaluation: trying out your materials with an intention to revise, reFORM, fix, update, improve those materials based on what your users share with you. The goal is to use what you find out to go back and revise materials. This is why there is a dotted line from the tan box back to other boxes. You may need to go back to any of these other steps. FORMATIVE EVAL CAN HELP YOU DISCOVER: attitudes toward the content, interests in the content, and learners’ experience with the medium in design phase, [what will] reduce expensive mistakes and improve user friendliness in production phase, [how to] restructure the products for different settings in implementation phase (Tessmer, 1993).

45 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Dick and Carey focus on three phases of formative evaluation. However, Tessmer identifies four distinct phases: Expert Review - Experts review a rough version of the instruction with or without the evaluator present to determine its strengths and weaknesses. They can be content experts, technical experts, designers, or instructors. One-to-One - One learner at a time reviews the instruction with the evaluator. The evaluator observes the learner using the instruction, notes the learner � s comments, and questions the learner during and after the instruction. Small Group - The evaluator tries out the unfinished instruction with a group of learners and records their performance and comments. Field Test - The evaluator observes the instruction being tried out in a realistic environment with a group of learners. Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

46 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Martin Tessmer, 1993, suggested this order for formative evaluation, moving from left to right in the graphic and making revisions along the way.

47 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Having the evaluation focus on your instructional strategy will help it keep in focus. Ask these five questions about your instructional strategy in your evaluation: (1) Are the materials appropriate for the type of learning outcome? (2) Do the materials include adequate instruction on the subordinate skills, and are these skills sequenced and clustered logically? (3) Are the materials clear and readily understood by members of the target group? (4) What is the motivational value of my materials? Do learners find the materials relevant to their needs and interests? (5) Can the materials be managed efficiently in the manner they are mediated?

48 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Revise Instruction Revise Instruction "Planning and conducting formative evaluation" by Martin Tessmer (1993)

49 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Revise Instruction Revise Instruction Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS (2) FORMATIVE EVAL: WHAT, WHY, WHEN, HOW? (3) DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTING FORMATIVE EVALUATION BY BARRY WILLIAMS

50 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS “Other studies have demonstrated that simply trying out materials with a single learner and revising the materials on the basis of that data can make a significant difference in the effectiveness of materials.”p278 Many believe that formative evaluation is the key to instructional success. It doesn’t matter how good you are as a designer, you don’t know if it works until you try it out. Sadly, in many cases this step is skipped to save money. Revise Instruction Revise Instruction

51 Assess Needs To Identify Goal Assess Needs To Identify Goal Conduct Instructional Analysis. Conduct Instructional Analysis. Analyze Learners & Contexts Analyze Learners & Contexts Write Performance Objectives Write Performance Objectives Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop Instructional Strategy Develop & Select Instructional Materials Develop & Select Instructional Materials Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation Design & Conduct Summative Evaluation MORE WEB SITES TIPS BOOKS Revise Instruction Revise Instruction


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