Presentation on theme: "10 How to Cheat. What is Cheating? In your groups, briefly consider the question: “What is cheating?” Consider all kinds of games (not just digital)."— Presentation transcript:
What is Cheating? In your groups, briefly consider the question: “What is cheating?” Consider all kinds of games (not just digital).
What is Cheating? “to break the rules intentionally” “to gain advantage through lying” “to defeat someone through tricky” “to deprive somebody of something by deceit” cheating seems straightforward: crossing the line beyond fair play perhaps not so clear cut magic circle and lusory attitude…
Magic Circle play = an interlude from ordinary life magic circle = the context or frame of the game a temporary ‘space’ created by the players e.g. football match: 90 mins, 100x65 metre pitch in this magic circle different rules apply e.g. dashing about shouting, kicking inflated animal skin
Lusory Attitude entering magic circle = adopting an attitude or mind-set players willingly adopt the arbitrary, inefficient rules this allows everyone to play the game e.g. the rules of boxing more efficient to use bare fists or an iron bar
Contract adopting lusory attitude = unspoken contract everyone agrees to abide by the rules this agreement maintains the magic circle without it, the game won’t work Any Questions?
Five Player Types Salen and Zimmerman’s 5 player types standard player dedicated player unsportsmanlike player cheat spoilsport
The Standard Player respects the rules adheres to the magic circle possesses a lusory attitude
The Dedicated Player hardcore gamer respects the rules very keen to become an expert, to practice, to win e.g. Blackjack Standard player: win some/lose some, have a bit of fun dedicated player: counts card, tries systems, aims to win has a deeper investment in lusory attitude takes game too seriously? difference is contextual and comparative e.g. Solitaire, Freecell, Minesweeper
The Unsportsmanlike Player even stronger desire to win won’t break operational rules will break implicit (unwritten) rules e.g. muttering wicket-keeper no rule against this, but unsporting even keener to win than the dedicated player enters magic circle rejects the spirit of the lusory attitude: inefficiencies winning is more important than fun thus, not (quite) a cheater
The Cheat breaks rules (operational and implicit) in order to win e.g. hide-and-seek, Monopoly, board games cheat pretends to be honest thus cheating doesn’t destroy the game (magic circle) the cheat has some lusory attitude the cheat still wants to win
The Spoilsport doesn’t acknowledge magic circle ignores rules and winning e.g. Twister player, chess player spoilsport breaks magic circle: “shatters the play-world” contract broken, the meanings of magic circle are lost
Summary 5 player types: standard dedicated unsportsmanlike cheat spoilsport S&Z: boundaries between types are blurred continuum: acceptance of magic circle & lusory attitude Any Questions
Exercise: Are You A Cheat? What type of player are you? Where on this continuum do you come? Are you always the same type of player, or does it depend on the game? Or who you’re playing with? Have you been each of these types of player at different times, or is there a type of play you’ve not tried? Try to think of an example of each type of play from your own experience (either yourself or someone you’ve played with).
How to Cheat what about cheating in digital games? same as cheating in traditional games? S&Z: types of digital cheating: cheating hacking cheat codes guides & walkthroughs workarounds degenerate strategies
Cheating breaking the rules e.g. Sissyfight 2000: backstory, objective, 2 cheats
Hacking breaking the code hacks available online e.g. Counter-Strike: backstory, objective, cheats: wall-hack, speed- hack, aim-bot
Cheat Codes included by game designers for testing or for players e.g. DOOM II: key combinations: weapons, health, invisible, invulnerable, et al. e.g. Civilization II: cheat menu: additional units, cash, tech, destroy civilization, et al…
Guides & Walkthroughs step-by-step instructions official or amateur e.g. Tomb Raider: backstory, objective, cheat is this cheating? violates spirit of game? implicit rules?
Workarounds creative use of unanticipated game elements e.g. Deus Ex: backstory, objective, cheat a workaround a cheat?
Degenerate Strategies e.g. Pac-man: http://www.thepcmanwebsite.com/media/pacman_flash/ backstory, objective, cheat a ‘degenerative strategy’: not intended by game designers a cheat? Any Questions
Exercise: Do Digital Gamers Cheat? Consider each of the different kinds of digital game ‘cheating’ in turn, and think of an example: cheating hacking cheat codes guides & walkthroughs workarounds degenerate strategies Are these all examples of cheating? Why are they cheating (or not)?
A New Philosophy of Cheating can rule-breaking enhance play? Bernard DeKoven, The Well-Played Game (1978) we should change our attitude toward game rules players should assume authority over the rules
Players or Designers? should feel free to break the rules or rather, don’t break but expand the magic circle play with frame as well as within it players as game ‘designers’? this already happens: different types of player (or play) ‘cheating’ is a way to play a game For more, see Module Website Any Questions
The Essay: Titles Module Handbook, p. 11: objective: explore a topic in greater depth 10 titles can design own title, but must be approved (in writing)
The Essay: Brief Brief: 1500 words (+/-10%) worth 50% Harvard word-processed numbered pages word count no plastic pages name, student number, module number on cover Deadline: 12.30pm, Friday 27.04.07 (Week 11) Submission: B1/12 (SAE for feedback)
The Essay: Advice answer the question (don’t waffle) read some books/articles fulfil the Assessment Criteria…
The Essay: Assessment Criteria Module Handbook, p. 13: Reading & Research Writing Skills Academic Skills Any Questions?
The Essay: Support several forms: Upgrade (p. 14): for anyone, for all study skills Dyslexia/Learning Difficulties Support: firstname.lastname@example.org International Centre for English Language Studies (ICELS): for English second language: personal tutor/me Any Questions? Next Week: FG/14
Further Reading Cheating: Salen and Zimmerman (2004, pp. 266-85); Suits (1990, Ch4); Consalvo (2005a); Consalvo (2005b). New Philosophy: DeKoven (1978, Ch2,3,5).