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Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Research on Gender and Cheating Started as a research project on plagiarism Searched the library,

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Presentation on theme: "Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Research on Gender and Cheating Started as a research project on plagiarism Searched the library,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Research on Gender and Cheating Started as a research project on plagiarism Searched the library, education and philosophy literature Searched for books and Web sites Found Lots!!!

2 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Revised Research Project Broadened into academic integrity, including plagiarism, and cheating, and honor codes etc. Focused on the aspect of Gender when one article resulted from a search.

3 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 The Starting Article Gender Differences in Cheating Attitudes and Classroom Cheating Behavior: A Meta- Analysis [1]. Bernard E. Jr. Whitley; Amanda Bichlmeier Nelson; Curtis J. Jones. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Nov 1999 p657 “Based on the differential socialization theory of gender differences in moral reasoning (e.g., Chodorow, 1989; Gilligan, 1982) we expected that, compared to women, men would report more favorable attitudes toward cheating and more cheating behavior. We conducted a meta-analysis that included 8 studies of gender differences in attitudes toward cheating, 34 studies of gender differences in cheating behavior, and 6 studies that investigated both attitudes and behavior.”

4 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 What do you think? Would you guess that the men you know cheat or plagiarize more than the women you know? Would you guess that the women you know are more likely to help another person succeed even if it means cheating to do it?

5 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Their Results “Attitudes Toward Cheating: The overall mean effect size for attitudes toward cheating was 0.35, Z = 27.34, p [less than].001, 95% CI = , [Q.sub.w](13) = , p [less than].001, indicating that men reported having more positive attitudes toward cheating than women. Cheating Behavior: The mean effect size for cheating behavior was 0.17, Z = 25.98, p [less than].001, 95% CI = , [Q.sub.w] (43) = , p [less than].001, indicating that men reported having cheated to a slightly greater degree than women.” ( Whitley et al 1999)

6 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Research Caveats “Although these findings are interesting, they should be considered to be tentative for two reasons. First, there was only a small number of effect sizes for business and economics courses, so effect size estimates may not be very accurate. Second, all the self-report effect sizes came from economics courses and all the observation method effect sizes came from business courses.” Whitley et al 1999)

7 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 More Discussion “Although our finding of very small gender differences in cheating behavior is not entirely consistent with the differential socialization theory of moral reasoning, the theory could be interpreted to predict that if men and women do not differ in the amount of cheating they exhibit, they may differ in the kind of cheating they engage in.” Whitley et al 1999)

8 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 More Discussion “Because women, the theory holds, have been socialized to take a caring orientation toward others whereas men have been socialized to be more individualistic, women may primarily cheat to help others, such as by allowing a friend to copy answers during an examination, whereas men may cheat primarily to help themselves, such as by using crib notes during an examination. However, both Klimek (1996) and Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and Armstead (1996) tested this hypothesis and found no gender difference in the frequency of the two types of cheating. In addition, Whitley and Kost (1999) found that women were no more likely than men to say that they would help another person cheat.” ( Whitley et al 1999)

9 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Search Revisions for Gender So then, intrigued by this article I… Added Gender, Men, Women to my research terms Added the Contemporary Women’s Issues database to my access tools list

10 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Search Results See handouts for full citations False results: Ten Things you Don’t Know about Women. article not on my topic at all! Research articles: Adolescent’s cognitions and attributions for academic cheating:a cross- national study. Great resource for my topic. Academic Debate about the article: Sexuality, textuality: The Cultural work of plagiarism.

11 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Article Summary: Is plagiarism itself a gender-based construct? Authorship limited only to solitary (male) originality, negates any female authorship which embraces a collaborative approach to research and writing. “Embedded in the discursive construction of plagiarism are metaphors of gender, weakness,collaboration,disease, adultery, rape, and property that communicate a fear of violating sexual as well as textual boundaries” (Howard 2000)

12 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Article Examples Gendering Plagiarism…Howard quoting Meltzer p 479…” The plagiarized text itself is a feminized object, that which is kidnapped and, Helen-like, forced into anothers camp…” Howard p 479 “The writings of Daniel Defoe and …asserting the rights of authors are inscribed with metaphores of paternity and the author as tiller.” Analagies to gender (Meltzer), male originality (Defoe) and rape Howard p 484… “Bower’s experience of discovering that another person was publishing his poetry was, Campbell says, an experience of ‘literary rape’.’’

13 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Responses to the Article November 2000 Prof: Plagiarism comes naturally to women January 2001 Comment & Response

14 Holly Heller-Ross - Women's Studies Forum- February 2004 Conclusion Any topic has aspects related to Women’s Studies Researching the authors of one article can lead you to others Following the bibliography in one article leads you to others Selecting additional search terms and access tools yields more specific results


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