Presentation on theme: "Unit 8 Antarctica. Can you list the seven continents on the earth? Asia Europe Africa North America South America Oceania/Australia Antarctica."— Presentation transcript:
Antarctic Peninsula The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost extension of Antarctica, reaching beyond the Antarctic Circle toward South America. Shown here are Adélie penguins, which live much of their lives on the pack ice or in the waters adjoining the peninsula, returning to the land to breed.
Arctic Tundra 冻原 Tundra, or low- growing vegetation including shrubs, grasses, mosses, and herbs, covers the plains and coastal regions of the Arctic. Shown here is tundra in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska.
Text comprehension Task 1: Read the text in 10 minutes and summarize the main idea of each paragraph in one sentence.
Para 1: Covering a huge area and containing most of the world’s ice and snow, Antarctica is our planet’s largest and most spectacular natural phenomenon. Para 2: Antarctica was unknown to humans until 160 years ago, and even today man knows little about this continent. Para 3: The Arctic and Antarctica are very different in terms of geographic isolation, climate and life forms.
Para 4: As revealed by descriptions of those who have been there, the Antarctic seldom provides any of the three basic essentials to life. Para 5: Wind is as injurious to human health as cold, and is thus another reason why the southern continent remained undisturbed until recently. Para 6: The nature of the Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica is the main drawback to the discovery of this land mass.
Task 2: Read the text for the second time, and judge whether the statements on Page 137-138 are true or false.
Task 3: Read the text for the third time, and list the differences between the Antarctic and the Arctic (see the following table).
the Antarctic Vs the Arctic hemmed in by the populated landmasses of Europe, America and Asia in splendid isolation much coldervery cold Geographical location: Climate: Man: Plants: Animals: thousands of families, plants and animals no proper habitation just a handful of mosses and lichens simple one-celled creatures, wingless flies
Vocabulary exercises Try to guess the rough meanings of new words and expressions in text (p.132). You may rely on the context of the words, or, if still in a puzzle, turn to an English-English dictionary.
Language points 1. distinctive adj. having a quality or characteristic that makes sth. different and easily noticed 独特的 e.g. This beer has a very distinctive smell. This bird has several distinctive features. cf. distinguished adj. characterized by excellence 卓越的，杰出的 e.g. a distinguished guest/professor distinguished services 特殊的功劳，贡献 a distinguished career in medical science Tim Berners-Lee is distinguished for his creativity and selflessness.
2. Antarctic Ice Sheet The continent of Antarctica is covered almost completely by a massive ice sheet, which contains about 90 percent of the world’s ice. Permanent floating slabs of ice called ice shelves fringe nearly half of Antarctica’s coastline.
Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica Antarctica's Brunt Ice Shelf floats atop the Weddell Sea. The ice shelves of Antarctica are a major source of icebergs.
Iceberg grotto in Antarctica Two members of a British expedition, led by Robert F. Scott between 1910 and 1913, explored an iceberg grotto in Antarctica. Their ship Terra Nova can be seen in the distance.
3. radiate v. (1) to send out rays or waves 放射，辐射， 散发 e.g. Heat radiated from the stove. (2) to broadcast by radio or TV ( 通过无线电 或电视 ) 广播 e.g. radiate a programme (3) to manifest in a glowing manner 以强烈 特质显现，以容光焕发的样子显现 e.g. He radiates self-confidence and optimism. We all noticed the happiness that radiated from her eyes.
4. cover v. 1. Much of the country is covered by forest. 2. The strong wind covered everything with sand. 3. The survey covers all aspects of the business. 4. $100 should cover your expenses. 5. By sunset we had covered 30 miles. 6. The reserve covers an area of 1140 sq. kms. 7. I am covering for Jack while he is on holiday. 8. They’ve covered an old Rolling Stones number. 覆盖 撒上（一层尘土，液体等） 涉及 够付 行走一段路程 代替（某人工作或履行职责）； 翻唱 占（一片）面积
5. average (1) v. e.g. He ~s 5,000 Yuan a month this year. My family ~s 60 Yuan a month for gas. (2) n. on (an) average e.g. The ~ of my marks of this term is 80. The ice sheet is more than 7,000 feet thick on ~. (3) adj. e.g. What is the ~ annual rainfall in the Arctic? The car’s ~ speed today is 50 miles an hour.
6. spectacular adj. making a fine spectacle; attracting public attention 可公开展示的；景象可 观的，壮观的，引人入胜的 e.g. a ~ display of fireworks a spectacular achievement in science in a spectacular fashion spectacle n. (1) sth. taking place before the eyes, esp. sth. fine and remarkable 景象，光景 e.g. Viewed from the top of Mount Tai, the sunrise was indeed a spectacle.
(2) a regrettable public display, as of bad behavior 出洋相 make a spectacle of oneself 出洋相, 大大出丑 (cf. make a fool of oneself) e.g. He drank too much and made a spectacle of himself last night. (3) (plural) a pair of eyeglasses 眼镜 e.g. a pair of spectacles (4) viewpoints 见解，看法 look/see sth. through coloured/blue spectacles 戴着有色眼镜看 ; 抱着成见观察 see all things through rose-coloured spectacles 对一切事物持乐观态度 see things through your spectacles 与你看法相同
7. set eyes on : lay eyes on, see e.g. It was the most extraordinary thing I had ever set eyes on. Translate: 我还从未见过装潢如此精美的书呢。 I have never set eyes on a book with such magnificent binding. set foot on/in: go in, visit e.g. The invention of spaceships has made it possible for man to set foot on the moon. set foot out of: go out, leave e.g. Peter got measles, so his mother didn’t let him set foot out of the house.
8. tenure n. (1) the act, fact, or condition of holding something in one‘s possession, as real estate or an office; occupation 占有 （如不动产或职位），任期，保有期 e.g. his four–year tenure as President during one‘s tenure of office 在职期间 academic tenure 教员任期 joint tenure 共同占有，合伙 military tenure 由于服兵役获得的土地所有权 life tenure 终身任期 tenure of life 寿命 tenure of use 使用年限 When you rent a house here, you don’t have security of tenure. (2) the status of holding one‘s position on a permanent basis without periodic contract renewals 终身职位 e.g. a teacher granted tenure on our faculty
9. outweigh vt.: be greater in weight, value or importance than... 比 … 更重，更有价值， 更重要 e.g. This desk ~s that one. All in all, advantages ~ disadvantages. My love for our country ~s everything else. The good in him ~s the bad. The boxer ~ed his opponent by ten pounds.
10. contrast v. & n. (1) n. [U, C] comparison, difference 比较，对照 e.g. The contrast between the two brothers is remarkable. Contrast may make something appear more beautiful. The artists use comparison and contrast skillfully. There is a sharp contrast between his earlier and later works. He is an amusing contrast to John. His school record was a decided contrast to his brother’s. My new school was a welcome contrast to the one before.
in/by contrast: 与此相反 e.g. My brother is clever at maths; in contrast, my sister is stupid. form/present/be in (a) (sharp/vivid/striking) contrast to/with/against sb./sth. 与 … 构成对比 e.g. His white hair is in sharp contrast to his dark skin. In living conditions, Hong Kong is in sharp contrast with Sydney. Red berries present a vivid contrast against the snow. (2) vi. & vt. contrast finely with sth. 和... 对比起来更加鲜明 e.g. an essay that contrasts city and country life contrasted this computer with inferior models This white peak contrasts finely with the blue sky.
11. isolation n.: separation 分离，隔绝 e.g. an isolation hospital 隔离医院 an isolation booth 隔音室 in isolation: in separation e.g. fight in ~ 孤军作战 Robinson Crusoe lived in ~ for many years. isolate v. : separate, put or keep apart from others 使 隔离，使孤立，使隔绝 e.g. ~ oneself from all society 隐居 We should never ~ ourselves from the masses. When a person has an infectious disease, he is usually ~d. Several villages have been ~d by heavy snowfalls. An ~d patient is a person who is kept in an isolation ward.
12. incline v.: tend, be disposed 倾向, 愿意 incline to do sth. e.g. I ~ to believe his innocence. Older people ~ to slow down. The whole family ~s to consume rather than to save. incline to sth. 倾向于，偏于 … I ~ to your opinion on that matter. I ~ to tiredness in summer. incline sb. to do sth. 使倾向于 … His letter ~d me to believe that he doesn’t want to come. The argument ~s me to agree.
be inclined to do sth.: be likely to, tend to 倾向于，感到 想 … e.g. With his poor health, he is ~d to get tired. I am ~d to agree with you. Many language teachers are ~d to talk too much. be/feel inclined for sth. e.g. Do you feel ~ed for a cup of tea? inclination n.: mental leaning, liking or desire, disposition ，意向，爱好，倾向 against one's inclination 违反本意 follow one's own inclination 随心所欲 have/show/develop an inclination to do sth./for sth. 爱好, 欢喜 e.g. I have no inclination to be a doctor. The hikers developed an inclination to try and go on.
13. phrases of “time” at times: sometimes at all times: always at a time: each time behind the times: old-fashioned in your ideas, methods, etc. 跟不上时代 keep up/move with the times 跟上时代 for the time being: 暂时，眼下 It’s about/high time did sth. ( 口语化）现在 差不多是 …… 的时候了 e.g. It’s about time you cleaned your room!
14. by far : in a large amount or degree, to a greater extent 显得， … 得多（经常和比较级或最高级连用） (1) 和最高级连用： e.g. The new brand of chocolate is by far the best of its kind. The new seaport will by far be the most advanced coal wharf in this area. He is by far the best player in our team. That is by far the best choice. It is by far the best way to learn English. (2) 和比较级连用 : His work is better by far than that of any other. The old road is prettier, but it is by far the longer way. She is by far the better actress. This is by far the better of the two.
15. disrupt v.: to throw into confusion or disorder; to interrupt or hinder the progress 干扰，扰乱，打 断，妨碍 e.g. Protesters disrupted the candidate's speech. Our efforts in the garden were disrupted by an early frost. The war seemed likely to disrupt the state. The communication was disrupted by the storm. disruption n. e.g. a disruption of telephone service during the tempest The state was in disruption.
16. small wonder (that)...: no wonder that e.g. Young people like to follow the fashion; small wonder (that) my son asks me at all times to buy him some new clothes. He got up very late. Small wonder he was late for class. Complete sentences: He is ill,... It is raining,... The shop has closed,... He failed in the exam,...
17. drawback n. (1) sth. which makes progress less easy, disadvantage, inconvenience 障碍，不利 drawback to sth. e.g. His laziness is the ~ to his study. His being on his high horse （趾高气扬） is the ~ to his progress. (2) shortcoming 缺点 e.g. The ~ of this plan is that it costs too much. It is a good car. The only ~ is that it consumes a lot of petrol; that is to say, it is not an economical choice. (3) a refund or remittance, such as a discount on duties or taxes 退税 e.g. customs drawback 进口货物再出口时的关税退税 duty drawback 关税退税 excise drawback 消费税退税
Key phrases every other person/year/line… on earth set eyes on set foot in/on/out of let alone hem in in contrast in splendid isolation be inclined to do tend to do live in comfort at times as regards by far haul up in these conditions have an effect on small wonders (that)
Dictation The Antarctic is a continent of great size --- equal almost to Europe and Australia put together--- yet it has no permanent inhabitants. Only those who man weather stations and the bases from which parties of explorers set out live there. Some go only for one year, many for two, but never longer, unless the ship which is to bring them out cannot reach their base. In that event they must make the best of it and settle down to another year’s work. Of all this vast continent only about one per cent is exposed rock; all the rest is covered with snow and ice, which varies from a few feet to as much as two miles in depth. In all there are over five million square miles covered with ice, and this huge area has a tremendous cooling effect on the air which moves over it. It is true to say that the Antarctic controls the weather of the southern half of the world.
Suggested key to translation exercises 1. His love for his motherland outweighed anything else. Small wonder that he wasn’t inclined to go abroad. 2. Her love for money outweighs her love for anything else. No wonder that she marries a 70-year-old man. 3. I have never set eyes on the scenery of Guilin on TV, let alone set foot on it. 4. It is the best way of learning English by far. 5. By contrast, Mary is more diligent than her classmates. 6. In living standard, Hongkong is in sharp contrast with many places in mainland China. 7. For 10 years, he lived in isolation on this desolate island. 8. Xiao Li is inclined to object to others’ opinions. 9. Sometimes, to follow others is not injurious. 10. You said that he inclined to help others, but he doesn’t show inclination to help us now.