123 Go To Section: 4 5 Government at Work: The Bureaucracy C H A P T E R 15 Government at Work: The Bureaucracy SECTION 1 The Federal Bureaucracy SECTION 2 The Executive Office of the President SECTION 3 The Executive Departments SECTION 4 Independent Agencies SECTION 5 The Civil Service Chapter 15 2222 3333 4444 1111 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Chapter 15, Section 1 The Federal Bureaucracy S E C T I O N 1 The Federal Bureaucracy What is a bureaucracy? What are the major elements of the federal bureaucracy? How are groups within the federal bureaucracy named? What is the difference between a staff agency and a line agency? 2222 3333 4444 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Three features distinguish bureaucracies: What Is a Bureaucracy? Chapter 15, Section 1 2222 3333 4444 5555 Hierarchical authority. Bureaucracies are based on a pyramid structure with a chain of command running from top to bottom. Job specialization. Each bureaucrat, or person who works for the organization, has certain defined duties and responsibilities. Formalized rules. The bureaucracy does its work according to a set of established regulations and procedures.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Major Elements of the Federal Bureaucracy The federal bureaucracy is all of the agencies, people, and procedures through which the Federal Government operates. Chapter 15, Section 1 2222 3333 4444 5555 The Constitution makes reference to the federal bureaucracy by making the President the chief administrator of the Federal Government. In order to enact and enforce policy, Congress and the President have created an administration—the government’s many administrators and agencies. Article II anticipates two departments in particular, one for military and one for foreign affairs.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The Name Game Chapter 15, Section 1 2222 3333 4444 5555 The name department is reserved for agencies of the Cabinet rank. The term agency is often used to refer to any governmental body. Administration identify a major unit headed by a single administrator. The name commission is usually given to agencies charged with the regulation of business activities. Either corporation or authority is the title most often given to those agencies that conduct business-like activities.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Staff and Line Agencies Staff Agencies Staff agencies serve in a support capacity. They aid the chief executive and other administrators by offering advice and other assistance in the management of the organization. Chapter 15, Section 1 2222 3333 4444 5555 Line Agencies Line agencies perform tasks for which the organization exists. Congress and the President give the line agencies goals to accomplish, and staff agencies help the line agencies accomplish them.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Section 1 Review 1. All of the following are characteristics of bureaucracies EXCEPT (a) hierarchical authority. (b) formalized rules. (c) lack of formal organization. (d) job specialization. 2. Staff agencies are created to (a) act as congressional watchdogs on executive agencies. (b) aid other agencies in completing their goals. (c) serve as a check on the Supreme Court. (d) fulfill a specific task or function. Chapter 15, Section 1 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 2222 3333 4444 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The Executive Office of the President S E C T I O N 2 The Executive Office of the President What is the Executive Office of the President? What are the duties of the White House Office and the National Security Council? What are the additional agencies in the Executive Office of the President that assist the President? Chapter 15, Section 2 3333 4444 1111 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The Executive Office of the President Chapter 15, Section 2 3333 4444 1111 5555 The Executive Office of the President (the EOP) is an umbrella agency of separate agencies. The EOP serves as the President’s right arm, staffed by most of the President’s closest advisors and assistants. The EOP was established by Congress in 1939.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The White House Office and National Security Council Chapter 15, Section 2 3333 4444 1111 5555 The White House Office The White House Office is comprised of the President’s key personal and political staff. Staff positions in the White House Office include chief of staff, assistants to the President, press secretary, the counsel to the President, and the President’s physician. The National Security Council The National Security Council (NSC) acts to advise the President on all domestic, foreign, and military matters that relate to the nation’s security. Members include the Vice President and the secretaries of state and defense.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The West Wing of the White House Chapter 15, Section 2 3333 4444 1111 5555 The President’s closest advisors work in the West Wing of the White House, near the oval office.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Additional Agencies Office of Management and Budget (OMB) The OMB’s major task is the preparation of the federal budget (a very detailed estimate of receipts and expenditures, an anticipation of federal income and outgo, during the next (fiscal year is the 12- month period used by government and business for record keeping and budgeting)), which the President must submit to Congress. Office of National Drug Control Policy Established in 1989, this agency’s existence dramatizes the nation’s concern over drugs. Council of Economic Advisers The Council of Economic Advisers consists of three of the country’s leading economists, and acts as the President’s major source of information and advice on the nation’s economy. Chapter 15, Section 2 3333 4444 1111 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Other Units in the EOP The Office of Policy Development advises the Chief Executive on all matters relating to the nation’s domestic affairs-that is, all matters not directly connected to the realm of foreign affairs. The Council of Environmental Quality aids the President in environmental policy matters and in the writing of the annual “state of the environment” report to Congress. The Office of the Vice President houses the Vice President’s staff. The Office of the United States Trade Representative advises the chief executive in all matters of foreign trade. The Office of Science and Technology is the President’s major advisor in all scientific, engineering, and other technological matters relating to national policies and programs. The Office of Administration is the general housekeeping agency for all the other units in the Executive Office.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Section 2 Review 1. All of the following are correct about the Executive Office of the President (the EOP) EXCEPT that the EOP (a) is an umbrella agency consisting of several agencies. (b) serves as the right arm to the President. (c) acts as a body of equal power to the President. (d) aids the President in his execution of federal power. 2. The National Security Council serves as (a) the President’s advisory board on all matters of national security. (b) a watchdog commission for the Central Intelligence Agency. (c) the civilian command component of the military. (d) none of the above. Chapter 15, Section 2 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 3333 4444 1111 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Chapter 15, Section 3 The Executive Departments S E C T I O N 3 The Executive Departments What are the origins of the executive departments, and how did they develop? How are members of the Cabinet chosen? What role does the Cabinet play in the President’s decisions? 2222 4444 1111 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Executive Departments The executive departments, often called the Cabinet departments, are the traditional units of federal administration. Chapter 15, Section 3 2222 4444 1111 5555 Each department is headed by a secretary, except for the Department of Justice, whose work is directed by the attorney general. Each department is made up of a number of subunits, both staff and line. Today, the 15 executive departments vary a great deal in terms of visibility, size, and importance.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The Cabinet Chapter 15, Section 3 2222 4444 1111 5555 8. The Cabinet is an informal advisory body brought together by the President to serve his needs. 10.By tradition, the heads of the executive departments form the Cabinet. 9. The President appoints the head of each of the executive departments, which are then subject to Senate approval. 4.Cabinet members serve as both head of their respective departments and as advisors to the President.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The Departments Today Approximately 80% of the men and women who head the bureaus, divisions, and other major units within each of the executive departments are career people, not political appointees. Around 90% of all of the men and women who work as civilian employees of the Federal Government are stationed somewhere else outside the nation’s capital. Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed the first woman, Frances T. Perkins, secretary of labor from 1933 to 1945. President Clinton picked more women, more African Americans, and more Hispanics than any of his predecessors.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Section 3 Review 1. All heads of the executive departments are known as secretaries except for the (a) head of the Department of Justice—the attorney general. (b) head of the Department of Defense—the supreme general. (c) head of the Department of the Treasury—the treasurer. (d) chief of the Department of the Interior—the forest ranger. 2. Members of the Cabinet act as heads of their departments as well as (a) advisors to the President. (b) congressional liaisons. (c) heads of the branches of the armed forces. (d) none of the above. Chapter 15, Section 3 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 2222 4444 1111 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Independent Agencies S E C T I O N 4 Independent Agencies Why does the government create independent agencies? What are the characteristics of independent executive agencies and independent regulatory commissions? How are government corporations structured? Chapter 15, Section 4 2222 3333 1111 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Why Independent Agencies? Chapter 15, Section 4 2222 3333 1111 5555 The independent agencies are created by Congress and are part of the 15 Cabinet departments. Independent agencies have been formed for numerous reasons, including: being assigned a task or function that does not fit well within the existing departmental structure; protecting the agency’s purposes from the influence of both partisan and pressure politics; being created outside the departmental structure by accident.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The Independent Executive Agencies Examples of independent executive agencies include NASA, the General Services Administration, and the EPA. Some independent executive agencies are far from well-known, such as the Citizens’ Stamp Advisory Committee. Chapter 15, Section 4 2222 3333 1111 5555 The independent executive agencies include most of the independent agencies. The most important difference between the independent executive agencies and the 14 executive departments is that they simply do not have Cabinet status.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Independent Regulatory Commissions The independent regulatory commissions stand out among the independent agencies because they are largely beyond the reach of presidential direction and control. Term length of members and staggering of member appointments keep these commissions from falling under control of one party. Some examples are the Board of Governors, Federal Trade Commission and the Securities and Exchange Commission. The regulatory commissions are quasi-legislative bodies, which means they have the power to make rules and regulations. They also have quasi-judicial, which they exercise by deciding on disputes in those fields in which Congress has given them policing authority. Chapter 15, Section 4 2222 3333 1111 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The Government Corporations Government corporations are also within the executive branch and subject to the President’s direction and control. Government corporations were established by Congress to carry out certain business-like activities. There are now over 50 government corporations, including the U.S. Postal Service, Amtrak, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Chapter 15, Section 4 2222 3333 1111 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Section 4 Review 1. Independent agencies are formed for all of the following reasons EXCEPT (a) to create an agency immune from the system of checks and balances. (b) their function pertains to a peculiar or sensitive task. (c) their function does not fit within the structure of the executive departments. (d) keeping their function out of the influence of partisan or pressure politics. 2. The U.S. Postal Service is an example of (a) an independent regulatory commission. (b) a Cabinet department. (c) and independent executive agency. (d) a government corporation. Chapter 15, Section 4 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 2222 3333 1111 5555
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Chapter 15, Section 1 The Civil Service S E C T I O N 5 The Civil Service How did the civil service develop? What are the characteristics of the current civil service? What restrictions are placed on the political activity of members of the civil service? 2222 3333 4444 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Development of the Civil Service Chapter 15, Section 5 2222 4444 1111 3333 The use of patronage—the practice of giving government jobs to supporters and friends—was in use throughout most of the nineteenth century. The Pendleton Act, also known as the Civil Service Act of 1883, laid the foundation of the present federal civil service system, and set merit as the basis for hiring in most civil service positions. The civil service is that group of public employees who perform the administrative work of government, excluding the armed forces.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The Beginnings George Washington choose his federal officials by favoring the members of his own party, the Federalists. By the late 1820s, the number of federal employees had risen above 10,000. When Andrew Jackson became president in 1829, he dismissed over 200 presidential appointees and nearly 2,000 other officeholders. Jacksonian Democrats replaced them. Ever since, Andrew Jackson has been called the “father” of the spoils system-the practice of giving offices and other favors of government to political supporters and friends.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 The Civil Service Today Chapter 15, Section 5 3333 4444 1111 2222 The Office of Personnel Management is the central clearinghouse in the federal recruiting, examining, and hiring process. They also keep registers, lists of those applicants who pass its tests and are qualified for employment. The Merit Systems Protection Board enforces the merit principle in the federal bureaucracy. The Board is bipartisan, which means it includes members from both parties. Congress sets the pay and other job conditions for everyone who works for the Federal Government, except for postal employees.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Political Activities Chapter 15, Section 5 2222 4444 1111 3333 Several laws and a number of OPM regulations place restrictions on the political activities of federal civil servants: The Hatch Act of 1939 allows federal workers to vote in elections, but forbids them from taking part in partisan political activities. The Federal Employees Political Activities Act of 1993 relaxes many of the restrictions of the Hatch Act. It still forbids federal workers from: (1) running in partisan elections; (2) engaging in party work on government property or while on the job; (3) collecting political contributions from subordinates or the general public; or (4) using a government position to influence an election.
123 Go To Section: 4 5 Section 5 Review 1. The Pendleton Act established (a) that the Supreme Court would regulate personnel decisions. (b) that any U.S. citizen was guaranteed a civil service job. (c) merit as the basis for hiring and other personnel actions in the civil service. (d) the basis of the spoils system. 2. The function of the Office of Personnel Management is to (a) aid in the staffing of civil service positions through civil service tests and other means. (b) establish workplace safety standards. (c) regulate the hiring practices of private American companies. (d) ensure that political patronage continues to be the standard for employment in the civil service. Chapter 15, Section 5 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 2222 3333 1111 4444
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