Polysemy=poly + semy prefixation Poly: many e.g. polygamy, polyglot (multilingual) polysyllable polygon (pentagon)
Words: When first coined: monosemic Development: same symbol, many senses
Meaning of “take” take 带 ( 去 ), 携带 She went out of the room, taking the flowers with her. 她带着花走出了房间。 拿, 取, 抓 Who has taken my pen? 谁把我的钢笔拿走了 ? 需要 ; 花费 The flight took two hours. 这一飞行花了两小时。 学习 ; 教 She plans to take a course in mathematics. 她打算学习数学课程。 取得, 接受, 容纳 John takes second place in the race. 约翰获得赛跑亚军。 买下 ; 租用
We're taking a house in Devon for a month. 我们打算在德文郡租间房子住一个月。 吃, 喝, 服 Will you take a cup of tea? 你要喝一杯茶吗 ? 乘车, 上船 Because it was wet, he took a taxi. 因为天下雨, 所以他搭乘了出租车。 测定, 量 ; 拍 The nurse took the patient's temperature. 护士为病人量了体温。 vi. 产生预期效果 The dye took immediately. 马上着色了。 vt. & vi. 上钩 The fish is taking. 鱼要上钩了。 n. 捕获量 ; 收入额 Take has lagged behind the increased outgo. 收入赶不上增加的支出。 电影镜头 We had a talk between takes. 在拍摄镜头的间隙, 我们谈了一次话。
Diachronic approach Synchronic approach Approaches to Polysemy
Diachronic approach in a historical perspective growth, development of the same word. Monosemic polysemous derived One meaning (primary meaning)
screen 屏风, 帘, 纱窗 The picture on this screen is a good artistic work. 这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。 掩护物 They hid behind the screen of bushes. 他们躲在灌木丛后。 屏幕 You can see him on the TV screen quite often. 你可以经常从电视屏幕上见到他。 银幕 ; 荧光屏 She first appeared on the screen ten years ago. 十年前, 她第一次出现在银幕上。
Why little to do with the first meaning? How are the later senses obtained? Extension: 江, 河 长江, 黄河 Narrowing: Analogy: face of the clock Transfer: neck
Old words die out: Obsolete, disappear New words are added Existing words change their meaning Derived meaning all come from the first one.
Primary meaning replaced by new meanings E.g. Maid 1.Female servant especially in a large house 2. (old use) a woman or a girl who is not married
Have a guess! 1.They are regarded by all good wives far and near as perfect barometers. 2. Robin Hood and his merry men hated the rich and loved and protected the poor.
Synchronic Approach Various meanings same word In a historical period
Basic meaning (central meaning) Secondary meanings (not in importance)
Face The front of the head The expression of the countenance A surface of a thing The side or surface that is marked, as of a clock, playing card, domino, etc. The appearance; outward aspect; resemblance Dignity; self-respect; prestige, as in lose/save face The topography (of an area) The functional and striking surface (of a tool, golf club, etc.) (colloq) effrontery; audacity What is shown by the language of a document, without explanation and addition (Mining) the end of a tunnel, drift, etc. where work is being done. (typography) the type surface on which a letter is cut
cache [kæ ʃ ] n. 藏物处 Police discovered a cache of weapons in the room. 警方在房间里发现了一批隐藏的武器。 藏匿的珍宝 高速缓冲存储器
Processes of Development Radiation Concatenation
Radiation—Wheels Independent ， can be traced back to the original meaning.
Neck That part of man or animal joining the head to the body That part of the garment The neck of an animal used as food, e.g. neck of lamb A narrow part between the head and body or base of any object The narrowest part of anything: bottle, land, strait or channel
Concatenation— Chains Meaning shift Chains missing
Candidate White-robed Office seeker in white gowns A person who seeks an office a person proposed for a place, award, etc.
Radiation and Concatenation Closely related Different stages R before C