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Science Career option after XII

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1 Science Career option after XII


3 Various courses under science stream
Aeronautical Engineer Aerospace Engineer Biomedical Engineer Chemical Engineer Dentist Electrical Engineer Engineer Prosthetic & Orthotic Engineer

4 Salary: 1.22 Lakh to 14.6 Lakhs per annum
Aeronautical Engineer : Engineers work as part of a team that maintains the aircrafts and ensures high level of technical precision. Main thrust of the engineering profession lies in design, development, maintenance & teaching of aeronautics. Salary: 1.22 Lakh to 14.6 Lakhs per annum Std XII Stream: Science Mandatory Subjects: Maths, Physics Career Interest: Mechanical, Scientific

5 Job Profile Aircraft engineers in civil aviation normally specialize in aeronautical mechanical or electronic engineering. Mechanical engineers service and overhaul engines and airframes. Aeronautical electronic engineers specialize in the maintenance of instruments, electrical and electronic equipment, navigation, radar and radio communication. Flight engineers make pre-flight inspections and are responsible for the efficient performance of the aircraft during the flight. They diagnose and deal with any system failures, manage repairs, report any defects to maintenance and later check that they have been dealt with. They may also be responsible for refueling.

6 Engineers carry out routine maintenance on the ground during aircraft overhauling at airports
They respond to reports from air crew of any difficulties experienced during flights, repairing and making corrections. They also do maintenance and overhaul of aircraft in hangers and workshops when an aircraft is due for its regular inspection and checks. They complete worksheets for checks done and these are certified by themselves if they are licensed to do so, or by a qualified supervisor.

7 Skills required Strong sense of responsibility
Ability to work speedily with accuracy - since aircrafts have to be serviced in a short time Normal colour vision Manual, technical and mechanical aptitude Ability to work as members of a team Physical fitness & good head for heights Video Clip on Aeronautical Engineer

8 Employment Opportunities
Employment is available with Air India, Pawan Hans, Helicopter Corporation of India and flying clubs, private airlines and government owned air service. Besides airlines, aeronautical engineers get employment in organisations such as Hindustan Aeronautical Ltd, Defence Research and Development Laboratories, National Aeronautical Lab, Aeronautical Development Establishment, Civil Aviation Department and other places. An increase in research and development facilities within the country offers challenging prospects to aeronautical professionals in fields such as missile development, civil and military aircraft manufacture etc.

9 Recruiting Companies Aeronautical Development Establishment Air India
Civil Aviation Department Defence Research and Development Laboratories Helicopter Corporation of India Hindustan Aeronautical Ltd (HAL) National Aeronautical Lab (NAL) Pawan Hans

10 Earnings Details Engineers in government organizations, such as HAL, NAL are paid official scales while those in the private sector are paid according to the scales decided by the management of the company. Airline professionals get fringe benefits of free travel for self and family as well.


12 Where to study? Prestigious Institutes in India
Offering Undergraduate Courses Indian Institute of technology ,Madras PEC University of technology Offering Postgraduate Courses Offering Other Courses Delhi Institute of Aeronautical Studies Indian Institute of Aeronautical Engineering Institute of Aviation Technology School of Aeronautics

13 Following are the details for under graduate/post graduate courses :
This course is offered by the Indian Institute of Technology in Chennai, Mumbai, Kanpur and Kharagpur and also by PEC University of Technology (formerly Punjab Engineering College)Chandigarh. Admission to the Aeronautical Engineering course in IIT is through the Joint Entrance Examination (Main), weightage to Board exams and IIT Advanced. PEC University of Technology Chandigarh. offers BE Aeronautical Engg. This is a deemed university and will admit students for this course through the JEE Main .  Weightage will be given to Board results. Madras Institute of Technology (affiliated to Anna University), Course - BTech (3 years) Eligibility - BSc (10+2+3) with one main and two ancillary subjects from Maths, Physics, Chemistry with 70% aggregate in one attempt (50% for SC/ST). Age : Below 22 years (25 years for SC/ST).

14 Career as Aerospace Engineer
Manufacturing of aircrafts for commercial or military use is a highly technical field. Tremendous amount of Research and Development function precedes production of an aircraft. Space research and study has offered challenges and have continued to intrigue students to pursue relevant branches of engineering and other related subjects. Aerospace engineering is the study of the complexities of materials and structures put to use under atmospheric stress. The Research & Development department of an aircraft manufacturer includes a variety of highly trained engineers, scientists and technicians specializing in areas such as aerospace, aeronautics, electronics, computer science, robotics, bio medicine, acoustics, chemistry, physics and meteorology. Manufacturers of parachutes, skydiving equipments are others who fall in the manufacturing segment. Std XII Stream: Science Mandatory Subject: Physics Career Interest: Mechanical, Scientific

15 Job Profile Aerospace engineering encompasses the fields of aeronautical and astronautical (spacecraft) engineering. Aerospace engineers work as a team in designing, assembling and testing air crafts and space crafts. Aerospace engineers may be required to work on the designing of complete air crafts or may specialise in special areas of the industry such as missile guidance systems, propulsion, and guidance control systems. Aeronautical engineers work specifically with aircraft systems while astronautical engineers specialise in space craft systems. Aerospace engineers learn and apply the knowledge of aerodynamics, propulsion, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, flight mechanics, and structural analysis.

16 They are also involved in cost analysis, operations research and may be required to update their work through research, conduct reliability studies, and assess maintenance functions. Aerospace engineers who work on the designing of space crafts work with numerical and technical details using theoretical engineering principles with engineers who are experts in aerodynamics, astrodynamics and structural engineering. They study the impact of atmospheric stress and how loads and weights behave under different atmospheric conditions. Computational Fluid Dynamics Engineers (CFD) use sophisticated high speed computers to develop models used in the study of fluid dynamics. They use simulations to study the behavior of elements around objects.

17 Manufacturing involves the development of individual components for aircraft and spacecraft manufacture and this involves coordination with the design team. Aerospace engineers (materials) assess the materials used for manufacture of aircrafts /spacecrafts. Quality control assessments are carried out by engineers. Marketing and sales function is also carried out by aerospace engineers. There job entails liaison work with the technical team and clients for ensuring production specifications as well as ensuring that the product performs as planned.

18 Skills required Above average intelligence
Excellent academic background Responsible attitude Ability to put in long work hours and days at crucial assignments Good analytical ability Scientific acumen Physical stamina Ability to undertake challenging assignments

19 Employment Opportunities
Aircraft manufacturers, defence services, government research organisations, manufacturers of equipment used by space scientists, skydiving equipment and parachute manufacturers etc. Earnings 1.4 Lakh to Lakhs per annum (Salary data sourced from Recruiting Companies Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd National Aerospace Laboratories

20 How do I get there? Aerospace engineering requires, at the Class XII level, a good performance in Mathematics, Physics, English and proficiency in Mechanical Drawing and Computers. This must be followed by a degree in Aeronautical engineering /Aerospace engineering. In India, people entering manufacturing sector (Hindustan Aeronautical Ltd and National Aeronautical Ltd) are postgraduates in the areas relevant to the manufacturing industry. NASA recommends a degree in a variety of disciplines, including biomedical engineering, ceramic engineering, chemistry, industrial engineering, materials engineering, metallurgy, optical engineering, and oceanography. Aerospace engineers generally specialize at the master's level in these areas and also do a PhD before being taken in by NASA.

21 Where to study? Prestigious Institutes in India
IIT Madras Institute of University of Madras Technology Institutes offering Aerospace Engineering courses Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Institute of Aeronautical Engineering Hindustan College of Engineering Madras Institute of Technology Mohammed Sathak Engineering College Punjab Engineering College University of Madras

22 Career as Biomedical Engineer
Biomedical engineers integrate the knowledge of biology and medicine to analyze and devise solutions for improving healthcare in terms of effectiveness and quality. Std XII Stream: Science Mandatory Subjects: Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics Career Interest: Mechanical, Scientific

23 Job Profile Designing of systems and products to substitute damaged body parts such as artificial organs or devices using knowledge of science and engineering. Design machines for diagnostic purposes. This is an area of specialization called Bio-instrumentation which applies principles of electronics and measurement for the development of devices for use in diagnosis and treatment of disease. Computers are very vital in this specialty. They work extensively with biological scientists, physicians and surgeons, chemists to interpret and research the aspects of biological systems which can be replicated or facilitated through engineering innovations.

24 Biomedical researchers encompasses broad areas of study -
Mechanical, chemical, electrical engineering, anatomy, physiology, and the knowledge of computers to create mathematical models that simulate physiological systems. They apply biomechanics to medical problems. Artificial kidney, heart and hip are examples.

25 They select living tissue and materials for implant purposes in the human body.
They are responsible for the installation, maintenance and repair of biomedical facilities From time to time they evaluate the safety and efficiency and effectiveness of biomedical equipment Train personnel who will be using the equipment

26 Skills required Analytical skills Scientific acumen Networking
Communication skills Listening skills Employment Opportunities Biomedical manufacturing Industries Healthcare  and medical facilities Consultancies Government medical organizations Research organizations.

27 Top Recruiting Companies
Wipro GE Medical System BPL Healthcare P.K.Morgan (India) Pvt.Ltd. Medtronics- Medico Health Care System Clarity Medical Pvt. Ltd. B.Braun Medical (India) Ltd. Siemens Philips Electronics Ltd.- Medical Division

28 Where to study? Prestigious Institutes in India
HBFITES ( HBF IT Education Services ) HBFITES ( HBF IT Education Services ) is available at the following branches Bangalore Hyderabad Contact details of HBFITES ( HBF IT Education Services ), Richmond Road, Bangalore Address: HRS Chambers, 3rd Floor 91,, Richmond Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, India Website:

29 Career as Chemical Engineer
Chemical engineers work out economically efficient, safe and environmentally friendly methods for production of chemicals on a large scale. Equipment for the processing of chemicals and related products such as plastic, pharmaceuticals, detergents, foodstuff etc. are also designed and maintained by chemical engineers. Std XII Stream: Science Mandatory Subjects: Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics Career Interest: Mechanical, Scientific

30 Job Profile Apply  knowledge of chemistry, biology and physics to the industrial production and use of chemicals and related products Carry out research to develop new and better manufacturing processes Design equipment.  Plan, manage, and troubleshoot the running of an installation.

31 Conduct tests to monitor the efficiency and safety of the production processes
Develop safety standards for workers in the industry Evaluate the installed equipment to follow safety regulations and environmental guidelines Project costs of production to the management

32 Develop methods to carry out complex chemical processes.
Chemical engineers work in the energy, food, clothing, petroleum, healthcare, biotechnology etc. sectors Specialize in nano-materials, polymerization, oxidation etc.

33 Skills required Analytical and deductive reasoning skills
Problem solving skills Interpersonal skills Ability to work under harsh conditions and deal with harmful materials Good maths acumen Good communication skills Team player

34 Employment Opportunities
Chemicals manufacturing industries Petroleum industry Food industry Electronics industry Rubber industry Textiles industry Paper & Pulp industry Aerospace industry Plastic Industry Cement industry Public Sector units Fertilizer industry

35 Recruiting Companies Top Recruiting Companies
Millicon Consultant Engineers Pvt. Ltd Shell Balmer Lawrie And Co. Ltd. Ambuja Cement GEA Ecoflex India Pvt Ltd

36 How do I get there?

37 Entry to graduate courses
Since 2013 the IIT JEE and AIEEE entrance examinations have been replaced  by the new Joint Entrance Exam (JEE Main)to be conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). Apart from being the first stage exam for entry into the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the JEE (Main) will be conducted for entry to National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and centrally-funded engineering colleges deemed universities and all technology institutions which have been approved by AICTE will select students based on JEE Main. The weight age  to Board examinations will be as per the discretion of institutions. The varsities would have the freedom to chose appropriate weight ages for performance in Class XII Boards and the main exam normalized on percentile basis. Students aspiring to join engineering programs under these universities would not have to appear for the advance test as has been proposed for the IIT’s.

38 **Degree in Engineering other than Chemical Engineering or Civil Engineering/ Degree in Technology including Chemical Technology/Degree in Science with Chemistry, Physics or Mathematics as one of the subjects/Diploma in Engineering other than Civil Engineering/Degree in Pharmacy *** Work Experience in any of the following : Design and fabrication of chemical plant and equipment./ Production and quality control in chemical or process industries, Research and development in chemical or process industries, Management or technical sales in chemical industry, Chemical Engineering education. ****Diploma of Amice from the Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers This is recognized as equivalent to a degree and further M. Tech can be pursued.

39 Where to study? Prestigious Institutes
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Annamalai University Indian Institutes of Technology Chaudhary Devi Lal University National Institutes of Technology

40 Career as Dentist Dentistry is concerned with prevention and treatment of all health problems affecting the mouth, teeth, gums and other hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. General dentists' job involves prevention and repair of infected teeth through cleaning and filling and makes referrals for any special condition. The specialists in this profession are orthodontists, periodontists, oral surgeons,pedodontists,prosthodontists and endodontists. Salary: 63 Thousand to 6.6 Lakhs per annum Std XII Stream: Science Mandatory Subject: Biology Career Interest: Mechanical, Scientific

41 Job Profile Orthodontists correct irregularities in the teeth through the period of growth. They correct this by putting braces or other such devices. Periodontists treat diseases of the gum and tissues which support teeth. They carry out oral implants. Oral surgeons are trained to conduct surgery for treating fractures, correcting facial deformities, conducting complicated extractions, and treating abnormal growth in the mouth and jaws such as tumors. Pedodontists specialize in children's dental treatment and care. Prosthodontists are specialists who make artificial dentures according to specifications for the client. Endodontists treat the inner structure of the tooth and are specialists for treating nerve inflammation  and  carry out root canal treatment

42 Skills required Manual dexterity and precision
Good judgment and aesthetic ability Good communication skills and manners Scientific acumen Good eyesight Composed and patient attitude Video Clip on Dentist

43 Employment Opportunities
Dental departments in hospitals, nursing homes, dental clinics and health departments as well as teaching departments in dental colleges. In Research and Advisory functions of a pharmaceutical and other companies producing oral care products and medicines like toothpaste, mouth wash, gum care products, etc. Self-employment is also a promising avenue. One can start his/her own individual practice. Many dentists prefer to be in private practice, as it provides the best financial prospects as well as greater independence. Private practitioners work either alone, often setting up a clinic on their own premises, or in partnership with colleagues, sharing resources and overheads. In dentistry one can also take up work as a Dental Hygienist, Dental assistant or as a Dental consultant to models and film artists.


45 Recruiting Companies Defense Dental Centers Multi-speciality Hospitals
Dental specialists clinics Government Dental Departments Public Sector undertakings dental facilities.

46 Bachelor of Dentistry *CBSE through All India Pre-Medical/Pre-Dental Entrance Test (2014)  admits students to MBBS/BDS  courses for “Seats Under 15% All India Quota” and also for “Seats under the Control of Participating States/Universities/Institutions.” Students from Andhra Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir do not partake in the All India scheme of AIPMT but are eligible for AFMC. Eligibility: Age 17 years relax able by 5 years for SC/ST/OBC students (on or before 31st December of the year of admission to the 1st year M.B.B.S. /B.D.S. course).

47 Eligibility for students under participating States/Universities/Institutions and AFMC: Age17 years on or before Dec 31. The Overseas Citizens of India (OCI) are eligible.. The upper age limit for candidates applying for the seats in the control of participating States/Universities/Institutions is subject to rules and regulations of the individual university/state/institution in question.

48 Where to study? Institutes in India
Dental Council of India is responsible for Dental Education in India. All Government and Private  dental colleges approved by the council are listed by them.

49 Career as Electrical Engineer
Electrical engineers are involved in the manufacturing of electrical equipment such as power generation equipment, electric motors, radar and navigation systems, communication systems, electrical systems of automobiles, ships and aircrafts. Std XII Stream: Science Mandatory Subjects: Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics Career Interest: Mechanical, Scientific

50 Job Profile Design, manufacture and operate power plants, industrial machinery, electrical motors, ignition systems for automobiles, aircrafts, space crafts and all kinds of engines. Research and design improved ways for using electrical power Compute detailed calculations for the manufacture, construction and installation of electrical equipment as per specifications.

51 Work with project managers on the budget and timeline for completion of a project.
Direct the manufacturing process to meet guidelines. Attend to operational issues and trouble shoot problems in the operation of electrical equipments. Specialize in power generation, transmission and distribution, communications, electrical equipment manufacturing or in a subdivision of these.

52 Skills required Analytical thinking
Ability to apply their knowledge to specific tasks Good project management skills High end Computing Teamwork Responsible outlook Problem solving Interest in updating knowledge to meet job requirements Mathematical skill Communication skill Detail oriented

53 Employment Opportunities
Electric power generating installations Electricity transmission and distribution organizations Navigational equipment manufacturing industries Aerospace manufacture industry Automobile Industry Architecture and construction firms Engineering services Government electrical works department Armed forces Indian Railways Hospitals Airports Authority of India

54 Recruiting Companies Siemens Technology Services Railways
Reliance Power HPPCL RITES Schneider Electric Micron Electric Halonix

55 How do I get there?

56 Joint Entrance Exam (JEE Main) is  conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE for entry into the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and centrally-funded engineering colleges deemed universities and all technology institutions which have been approved by AICTE  select students based on JEE Main. The weightage  to Board examinations is given as per the discretion of institutions and the main exam is normalized on percentile basis. The advanced test is only needed  for entry to the IIT’s.

57 Where to study? Prestigious Institutes in India
Indian Institutes of Technology Indian Railway Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineers National Institutes of Technology

58 Career as Engineer Engineers specialize in different branches of engineering e.g. mechanical, electrical, electronics, chemical, biomedical etc. They work in designing, planning large structures, maintenance, production, or testing of machines and equipment used in different sectors. Many engineers study management where their engineering background facilitates the marketing process and installation planning of engineering goods. Std XII Stream: Science Mandatory Subjects: Mathematics, Physics Career Interest: Mechanical, Scientific

59 Job Profile Civil Engineers  are concerned with planning, investigation, survey, design, supervision, and all work connected with construction . They specialize in structural engineering, water management engineering, highway engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, or environmental engineering Mechanical Engineers design, operate and maintain machines, components, machine tools, manufacturing systems and processes, components of  thermal power stations, solar energy, air conditioning and refrigeration and industrial engineering. They are involved in both the fundamental and applied aspects of these areas

60 Electrical Engineers are concerned with the generation, distribution, use of electrical power, control and instrumentation. They work with equipment that produces and distributes electricity such as generators, transmission lines, transformers, lighting and wiring in buildings. They design electric motors, machinery and ignition systems which are required by automobiles, aircrafts and all kinds of motorized vehicles and equipments Aerospace Engineers  work in aeronautical and spacecraft engineering. They design, analyze, construct, develop, test and manufacture commercial and military aircrafts, missiles, and spacecrafts

61 Agricultural Engineers design and develop farm implements and machineries, and equipments used during production, processing, transportation and storage of agricultural commodities. Field engineers deal with irrigation, drainage and land resource planning and execution. Service engineers are engaged in sale servicing, repairing and installation of farm machinery Automobile Engineers are concerned with the design, development, repair and manufacture of automobiles. They may also specialize in automobile design

62 Biomedical Engineers are scientists who using the principles of engineering and life sciences conduct research on the biological aspects of human and animal life. The products biomedical engineers have invented have revolutionized the field of medicine. Some examples are the artificial heart and other artificial organs, prosthetics (artificial limbs), use of lasers in surgery, cryosurgery, ultrasonic's and the use of computers in diagnosis Ceramic Engineers deal with inorganic and non-metallic materials used in industrial applications. They carry out research, design machinery and processing methods and develop new ceramic materials and products

63 Chemical Engineers combine principles of chemistry and engineering to solve problems in the production of chemicals. Chemical engineers are concerned with designing, supervision, construction, installation and operation of equipment, plants and works in which substances undergo physical and chemical changes. The chemical technologists deal with the development and operation of processes for production purposes Computer Engineers design, manufacture, and maintain computer hardware and computer based information and control systems Environmental Engineers use knowledge from several disciplines to protect the quality of the human environment - its air , water and land. This field embraces a wide field, from the ocean depths where marine resources must be preserved to the depletion of ozone layers in the upper atmosphere which poses a threat to life on earth Electronic Engineers are concerned with electronic components, integrated circuits and microprocessors. They  design , fabricate, test, maintain and supervise  the manufacture of electronic equipments Energy Engineers are concerned with the use , production, distribution, conversion and conservation of energy

64 Industrial Engineers work in manufacturing or industrial production
Industrial Engineers work in manufacturing or industrial production. Choosing machinery and equipments, planning industrial layout, organization of assembly line , quality control, distribution and inventory control is devised by industrial engineers Instrumentation (Production) Engineers design, construct and maintain instruments and instrumentation units required for industrial processes Marine Engineers design, research, survey, install and maintain marine vessels of all types and sizes. The job of running, maintenance and repair of engine rooms of sailing vessels both merchant and navy is carried out by marine engineers. Marine engineers also work as shore engineers to install , maintain equipments used during loading and unloading of cargo and other dock machinery Metallurgical and Materials Engineers develop new types of metal alloys. Metallurgical engineers work in chemical, physical or mechanical metallurgy. Material engineers develop materials according to specifications and test and evaluate them

65 Mining Engineers are involved with the location, extraction, and preparation of minerals  used in manufacturing industries. They design underground and open pit mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations and devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants. They work with geologists, metallurgists, on reclamation projects as well as in projects related to water and air pollution      Telecommunication Engineers deal with communication systems e.g. cables, radio, satellite, communications, TV, Radar, navigational communications equipments, all types of information and transmission networks Microelectronics engineers are involved in the design, development, fabrication and testing of new electronic circuitry. Modern electronic circuits are built on printed circuit or hybrid boards carrying the latest in chip technology. Microelectronics engineers undertaking the logic design, often work together with software engineers who write the software. This process needs careful planning to decide which function will be achieved through the hardware Nuclear engineers conduct research on nuclear energy and radiation. They design , develop monitor, and operate nuclear power plants used to generate electricity. They may work on nuclear fuel cycle,- production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by nuclear energy- or on fusion energy. Nuclear engineers  specialize in the development of nuclear weapons or in industrial and medical uses of radioactive materials e.g. equipment to help diagnose and treat medical problems

66 Skills required Solid educational background
Strong problem solving abilities Strong communication skills Team player Ability to write reports Brilliant mathematical acumen Scientific aptitude Willingness to learn Leadership qualities

67 Employment Opportunities
Aerospace/Aeronautical Engineering – Hindustan Aeronautics Limited employs aerospace engineers. Employment in research and development is offered by the Defence Services DRDO for missile development, Indian Space Research Organization, government laboratories and organizations concerned with the aviation industry, i.e., Air India, Indian Air Lines etc. Agricultural Engineering – Central and State Government Departments of agriculture and agricultural engineering, agro industries, minor irrigation corporations, agricultural machinery manufacturing organizations, tea gardens, National Seeds Corporation, Food Corporation of India, National Dairy Development Board, Dairy and Food Industries, Nationalized Banks, Agricultural Financial Organizations, Agricultural Research Organizations, Agricultural universities and voluntary organizations employ agricultural engineers. Automobile Engineering – Automobile manufacturing industries, defense services offer employment.

68 Biomedical Engineering – Biomedical engineers are researchers and hence they work in laboratories to research, design and fabricate materials used in medical diagnosis and treatment. Ceramic Engineering – Glass, cement, electronic, ceramic, electrical industries employ ceramic engineers. Besides specific engineering opportunities ceramic engineers also work in research  in industries dealing with ceramic equipments and products. Chemical Engineering – The application of chemical engineering is in diverse industries – e.g. in industries manufacturing paints, dyes, varnishes, drugs, acids, petroleum, fertilizers, foods, dairy products. They may work in textile or plastic industry or even in glass or rubber industry. The application of this branch is extensive.

69 Civil Engineering – Civil engineers are employed in the public and private sectors in large numbers in all branches of design, construction, maintenance of roads, highways, bridges, dams, canals, docks, airports, housing  complexes and in environment management etc. Environmental Engineering – Environmental engineers are required by government and industry both to monitor and control ongoing pollution and to anticipate and deal with the likely impact on the environment of proposed new projects - whether it be the construction of a new dam, a hotel or an industrial unit. Environmental Engineers are employed with industries dealing with recycled products and waste management. Electrical Engineering – Electrical engineers find employment with organizations dealing with generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electrical energy. They work in the manufacturing industry, design electrical machinery and equipment, and oversee their operation. They are employed in high powered electrical generating stations, design and construction of power plants, and in industries manufacturing industrial machinery.

70 Electronic Engineering – Electronic engineers are employed in industries manufacturing electronic equipment, research and development, and in places where electronic equipments are extensively used, e.g. television and radio, aerospace industry, automobile industry, computer based industries. Marketing and sales jobs for electronic products are another option. Electronic engineers who specialize in biomedical equipment find employment with bioengineering industries. Energy Engineering – Energy engineers find opportunities in major industries and organizations concerned with research and development. Industrial Engineering – Industrial engineers find employment with production industries particularly where the concern is plant efficiency, cost effective operating methods  and quality control. Instrumentation/Production Engineering – The demand for instrumentation engineer comes from user industries such as steel, chemical, fertilizer, refineries, power industry etc. as well as from research and development organization, of defense, government and private sector.

71 Mechanical Engineering – Mechanical engineers are employed in almost every sector of the industry. Some of the largest areas of employment are machine tools, railway engineering, aerospace, the and power plants. automobile industry Metallurgical Engineering – Metallurgists are employed in research laboratories, industries and plants extracting and processing metals like iron and steel, nickel, tin, copper, zinc, aluminum and brass etc., in metallurgical industries like Foundries and rolling mills, in fabrication industries. Microelectronic Engineering – The main areas of work are in aerospace, including aircraft, satellites, space systems, guided weapons; computers, information technology, and telecommunications; consumer electronics, such as washing machines and microwave ovens; medical electronics for use in diagnosis, monitoring and care of patients; etc.

72 Nuclear Engineering – Nuclear engineers work primarily in research
Nuclear Engineering – Nuclear engineers work primarily in research. Nuclear engineers also find employment in nuclear power plants, defense and nuclear installations, with defense manufacturers, or with nuclear power equipment manufacturers. Mining engineering – Mining engineers are employed as engineers in mines, minerals development corporation and mining departments of the union and state governments. Telecommunication Engineering – Telecommunication engineers work with the defense services, in the broadcasting sector, electronic/mass communication sector, with the Government as well as with the manufacturing industry.

73 How do I get there?

74 *Entry to graduate courses: Beginning 2013 a Joint Entrance Exam (JEE Main) is conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). Apart from being the first stage exam for entry into the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the JEE (Main) is  conducted for entry to National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and centrally-funded engineering colleges deemed universities and all technology institutions approved by AICTE select students based on JEE Main. The weight age  to Board examinations is calculated as per the discretion of institutions. The varsities have the freedom to chose appropriate weight ages for performance in Class XII Boards and the main exam is normalized on percentile basis. ***Post graduate degree – Post-graduate courses with scholarship/assistantship, are open to students who have qualified in the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) or National Eligibility Test (NET of UGC). Graduate Engineers, Associate members of the Institute of Engineers, postgraduates in Physics/ Chemistry/ Math's/ Statistics/ Computer Applications can appear for GATE conducted by IITs and Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore jointly. Postgraduates can pursue research in research centers such as BARC, ISRO etc. Many graduate/postgraduate engineers opt for government service. Engineering Services Examination is conducted every year by the Union Public Service Commission for selecting candidates to serve with Government Departments and Public Sector units in Mechanical, Civil, Electrical, Electronics and Telecommunication branches.

75 Where to study?

76 Career as Prosthetic & Orthotic Engineer
Prosthetic and Orthotic Engineering is a medico-engineering profession which deals with physically disabled, crippled and orthopedically handicapped persons. Std XII Stream: Science Mandatory Subjects: Mathematics, Physics Career Interest: Mechanical, Scientific

77 Job Profile Close study of the patients requirements
An assessment of the muscles involved, flexibility, tone etc Preparation of blueprint, model or cast Carrying out trials on a specific device before finalization Making minor changes, adaptations of shape and size and fit Seeking approval by the doctor Prosthetic and orthotic technicians assist in the preparation of the devices Materials used for the device may vary - wood, leather, plastics, fiber glass, foam, fabric etc

78 Prosthetics   Involve themselves in the care of patients with full or partial loss of limbs.
They design devices such as artificial limbs and braces which are also called prostheses   Orthotic Technologists Work with patients with limb or spine related disabilities They study orthopedics, amputation surgery, post surgical prosthesis, applied mechanics and kinesthesiology Design and create custom made braces and other corrective devises known as outhouses

79 Skills required Helping attitude Patience Keen observation
Skill & precision to work with equipment Ability to take and follow instructions Numerical and scientific skill

80 Employment Opportunities
Orthopaedic centres Rehabilitation centres Multispeciality Hospitals Armed Forces Railways



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