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Grant’s Success Transferred to the East Tennessee theater after Vicksburg Confederates had driven the Union from Chickamauga Creek to Chattanooga where.

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Presentation on theme: "Grant’s Success Transferred to the East Tennessee theater after Vicksburg Confederates had driven the Union from Chickamauga Creek to Chattanooga where."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Grant’s Success Transferred to the East Tennessee theater after Vicksburg Confederates had driven the Union from Chickamauga Creek to Chattanooga where they were under siege Grant’s victories at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge liberate Chattanooga, and Grant is rewarded

3  After Union victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, and Grant’s success at Chattanooga President Lincoln appointed General Grant as the Commanding General of all Union troops.  Grant commanded the Army of the Potomac in the East and was instructed by Lincoln to force General Lee to surrender.  Grant appointed his 2nd in command General William T. Sherman to head up the Army of the West.  It is here that Lincoln, Grant and Sherman devise a new strategy of “total war” or bring the civilian population into the war, destroy the South and free the slaves.

4 Grant vs Lee Graduate from West Point, 1843 Served in the Mexican War Shoe salesman before the War Successful in Western Theater Appointed by Lincoln in 1864 to command all Union forces The Butcher Unconditional Surrender Grant Supported “total war” concept Graduate from West Point, 1843 Served in the Mexican War Shoe salesman before the War Successful in Western Theater Appointed by Lincoln in 1864 to command all Union forces The Butcher Unconditional Surrender Grant Supported “total war” concept Graduate from West Point, 1829 Served in the Mexican War Arrested John Brown Lincoln asked Lee to head up the Union Army Refused because of loyalty to Virginia. Defeated Union in battles from 1861 to 1863 in the Eastern theater Excellent in military strategy Graduate from West Point, 1829 Served in the Mexican War Arrested John Brown Lincoln asked Lee to head up the Union Army Refused because of loyalty to Virginia. Defeated Union in battles from 1861 to 1863 in the Eastern theater Excellent in military strategy

5 Opposition to Lincoln War Democrats supported Lincoln, but the Peace Democrats and “Copperheads” did not Copperheads had most of their support in southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois Clement L. Vallandigham stirred up trouble, criticizing the “wicked and cruel” war. Convicted in a military tribunal even though civilian courts in Ohio were open Flees to Canada after being banished to a military prison

6 Election of 1864 Republicans join with War Democrats to form the Union party Andrew Johnson of Tennessee selected to be Lincoln’s vice-presidential running mate Democrats nominate George McClellan As Election Day neared, a series of Union victories at Mobile, Atlanta, and in the Shenandoah Valley ensure Lincoln’s victory Bolstered by the “bayonet vote” Lincoln wins in the Electoral College

7 William T. Sherman  Tactic of war where the Union marched through the South and destroyed all resources the civilian population needed to survive.  Goal  Goal: To make war as horrible and destructive as possible to force your enemy to surrender.  Total war brings the civilian population into the war to demoralize the enemy and force them to surrender.  It is “in your face warfare” or you (South) started this war and until you surrender, we will destroy the you.  Tactic of war where the Union marched through the South and destroyed all resources the civilian population needed to survive.  Goal  Goal: To make war as horrible and destructive as possible to force your enemy to surrender.  Total war brings the civilian population into the war to demoralize the enemy and force them to surrender.  It is “in your face warfare” or you (South) started this war and until you surrender, we will destroy the you.

8 William T. Sherman  Grant’s right hand general.  Fought with Grant in the West.  Most noted for this saying; “War is hell and the worse you make it the sooner it will be over.”  Put in charge of the Army of the West after Lincoln appoints Grant as head of all Union troops.  Responsible for the March to the Sea and using “total war” in destroying the South. William T. Sherman

9 Sherman’s March through Georgia to the Sea, 1864

10 Total War 1

11 Total War 3

12 Total War 2

13 Picture: Richmond

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16 Theater/Battles 1864

17 Grant’s new strategy Wilderness Campaign- Grant pushes toward Richmond with 100,000 men (loses about half of these) Called “Grant the Butcher” by critics However, Lee was losing one out of every five soldiers, while Grant lost 1 of 10 By taking the defensive position, Lee turned the war in the east into a war of attrition Grant knew he could trade two of his men for one of Lee’s and still win

18 Letter Grant to Lee 5 PM, April 7, 1865….. To: General R. E. Lee, Commanding CSA The results of the last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia in this struggle. I feel that it is so, and regard it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any further effusion (spilling) of blood by asking of you the surrender of that portion of the Confederate States army known as the Army of Northern Virginia…… Very respectfully, your obedient servant, U.S. Grant

19 Letter Grant to Lee April 7, 1865 To: General U.S. Grant: General: I have received your note of this date. Though not entertaining the opinion you express of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia, I reciprocate your desire to avoid useless effusion of blood, and therefore, before considering your proposition, ask the terms you will offer on condition of its surrender. Commanding General of CSA, R. E. Lee

20 Letter Grant to Lee April 8, 1865…. To: General R. E. Lee, Commanding CSA Your note of last evening just received. In reply would say that there is but one condition I would insist upon---namely, that the men and officers surrendered shall be disqualified for taking up arms against the Government of the United States……..I will meet you at any point agreeable to you, for the purpose of arranging definitely the terms upon which the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia will be received. General U.S. Grant, Commanding Officer, USA

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22 Picture: South surrendering

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25 Document: Lincoln’s death

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27 On July 7, 1865 a large crowd gathered in the courtyard of the Washington Arsenal. An unexpectedly large number of people wanted to witness the multiple hanging, so many that it became necessary to issue tickets. Mary Surratt, Paine, Herold, and Atzerodt were all found guilty in a military trial and sentenced to be hanged.

28 Remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War. Lincoln chose him as his VP to help with the South’s Reconstruction. Was a democrat, southern and unpopular with Congress Was the wrong man at the wrong time to be president…. John Picture background info

29 Chart: Total Deaths Iraq 2,900 Persian 300

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31 Horrors of War 2

32 Horrors of War 1

33 Horrors of War 3

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36 “slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the United States “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” Congress enforce The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. 14th 13th: Slavery Abolished

37 Impact on Future Conflicts Expanding battlefield due to new technology. Defense is favored. –fortification. Beginnings of trend toward dispersal and increased “individual” combat. Shift to Total War –Whole government had to be removed for success. –Civil and military “targets”. Sherman’s March to the Sea. –Emancipation Proclamation.


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