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Election of 1828 By the Presidential Election of 1828, the National Republicans, who supported Quincy Adams, and the Democratic Republicans, who supported.

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Presentation on theme: "Election of 1828 By the Presidential Election of 1828, the National Republicans, who supported Quincy Adams, and the Democratic Republicans, who supported."— Presentation transcript:

1 Election of 1828 By the Presidential Election of 1828, the National Republicans, who supported Quincy Adams, and the Democratic Republicans, who supported Jackson were out for revenge after the Election of The Election of 1828 quickly turned to the two candidates slandering one another. Both Jackson and Jackson’s wife were accused of many false actions; however, Jackson was victorious in the end. Jackson’s victory was decisive but sectional. Jacksonians claimed a new era of democracy, the “era of the common man,” had begun. (Page 211)

2 John C. Calhoun (1820s) No sooner than Jackson had entered office in 1828, his vice president, John C. Calhoun, began to champion a controversial theory to his. Jackson supported the preservation of the Union; Calhoun supported Nullification/individual states’ rights. Tensions soon became so dramatic that Jackson chose Van Buren to succeed him in the White House, apparently ending Calhoun’s dreams of the presidency. Calhoun’s active years in government mainly pertained to the 1820s. (Page 219),_March_1849-crop.jpg/220px-John_C_Calhoun_by_Mathew_Brady,_March_1849-crop.jpg

3 Nullification Crisis (Late 1820s)
The Nullification Crisis was the period of time when Calhoun finished his position as Jackson’s Vice President. Jackson supported Nationalism and Calhoun supported individual states’ rights. Calhoun backed South Carolina’s decision to nullify the Tariff of Jackson passes Force Bill, threatening to use military action. Clay’s Compromise then “settles” the problem temporarily. Clay proposes that every year the Tariff would decrease. This compromise avoids physical battle between South Carolina and the United States. The Compromise also shows that no single states could stand up to the Federal Government alone. (Page 219)

4 Trail of Tears ( ) The Trail of Tears was the path that the Five Civilized Tribes of the East (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole) had to travel along in order to move west after the Indian Removal Act was passed by Jackson. The Trail of Tears clearly defined Indian’s status among Americans. The American Government ruled that there was no place for them in the nation through the passage of the Indian Removal Act. Also, many Indians died while traveling along the Trail of Tears- America did not care. (Page 223) Cherokee suffer on Trail of Tears

5 Nativism (Roughly ) Nativism was the attitude that developed and united native-born Americans as more and immigrants moved to the United States from countries such as Ireland and Germany. Native-born Americans were afraid that immigrants would out-breed, out-vote, and out-work native-born Americans. Out of the concerns that the country would fall to the hands of immigrants, parties, such as the American Party, came into existence. These radical parties’ members (i.e. Know-Nothings) believed that immigrants (& Catholics) should not be able to hold public office and should have to pass more complex tests for immigration rights (legal status) and the right to be able to vote. (Page 241)

6 Telegraph (1844) The Telegraph was a dramatic advance over traditional methods and a symbol of national progress and technological expertise. Before the telegraph, communication over long distances relied on direct, physical contact/mail. Invented by Samuel Morse, the telegraph improved communication immensely. Using Morse code, a person can send messages over an electrical cable long distances. Information was now available to most parts of the country; the information could be transmitted and received quickly. The telegraph improved overall efficiency in the United States; it provided for a revolutionary news experience. Newspapers could now receive information all over the United States rapidly and share it almost immediately. (Page 246)

7 Railroad (Beginning: 1820s-1830s)
The foundations for major railroad transportation systems were laid in the 1820s and 1830s. At first relatively small, railroads would quickly move to become the primary transportation system in the United States, Railroads emerged from many technological advances such as rails, steam-powered locomotives, and the development of trains as public carriers of passengers and freight. The first railroad company to begin actual operations was the Baltimore and Ohio, which opened a thirteen-mile stretch of track in In the United States, railroads would quickly advance to critical transportation systems, transporting people and goods all over the country. Railroads made these transportations much cheaper and more efficient. (Page 244)

8 “Cotton Kingdom” (Roughly 1820s-1860s)
By the 1830s, many farmers in the South were shifting their crop focus to cotton. Tobacco, what they had previously grown, was notoriously unstable and rapidly exhausted the land on which it grew. Short-staple cotton; however, was much more versatile versatile than long-staple cotton or any other previously grown crop. With the invention of the cotton gin, short-staple cotton production increased rapidly; it became a staple to southern farmers’ lives. The rapid growth of the textile industry also helped further progress the rapid production of cotton. By the 1850s, cotton had become essential to the southern economy. Cotton delivered much profit and became a dominant crop in the deep South; the southern United States became known as the “cotton kingdom.” Slaves were needed to pick this cotton in the South; the quick expansion of cotton, therefore, led to a rapid expansion of slavery in the southern United States. (Page 267)

9 Romanticism Pg Much of the nation was striving for a new form of liberation and the idea/era of romanticism was brought to America from Europe In literature, philosophy, art, politics and economics, Americans were committed to the liberation of spirit The peak of romanticism occurred between 1800 and 1850 in response to the Industrial Revolution and Age of Enlightenment

10 Transcendentalists Pg 291-293
One of the most outstanding expressions of the romantic impulse (1830’s) Came from group of New England writers and philosophers Embraced theory of the individual’s distinction of “reason” and “understanding” Strong connections between God man and nature Each individual should strive to transcend the limits of the intellect

11 “Civil Disobedience” Pg 302-303
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil disobedience in the early 1800’s occurred in many forms, the most common were religious reformations and civil dissent

12 William Lloyd Garrison
Pg 303, , 329 In 1830 William Lloyd Garrison emerged in the midst of slavery, and the collapse if anti-slavery, as an abolitionist Garrisons theory was, the opponents of slavery should not talk about the evil influence of slavery on white society, but rather the damage the system did to the blacks. His philosophy was so simple it was revolutionary Garrison attracted a large group of followers throughout the north Garrison founded the New England anti-slavery society in 1832

13 Rise of Feminism Pg In the 1830’s and 40’s women began to play a much larger role in society after the reform movements in the 1820’s and began to argue that women didn't have enough rights in America and should be entitled to the same as men The first two American feminists were Sarah and Angelina Grimek and argued that men and women were created equal Other feminists included Dorothea Dix, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Catherine Beecher, and Lucretia Mott In 1840 American female delegates arrived at a world antislavery convention in London, only to be turned away by the men in control

14 Abolitionism Pg Early opposition to slavery began in 1817 with the organization of the ACS or American Colonization Society, which proposed the gradual freeing of slaves, while their masters received compensation After the ACS had collapsed due to the impossibility of transporting the number of slaves, many more abolitionists began to rise in America whereas before those who opposed slavery were quiet and to themselves Black abolitionists started with David Walker, preceding the white abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, and others included Sojourner truth and Frederick Douglass

15 Frederick Douglass Pg 303-304
Know as the greatest black abolitionist of all and the most electrifying orator Douglass was born a slave in MD and escaped to Mass. In 1838 and became an outspoken leader of antislavery sentiment Douglass purchased his freedom in 1847 and founded an antislavery newspaper, “the North Star” in NY He was well known for his autobiography, “narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Douglass demanded freedom along with social and economic equality

16 Underground Railroad Pg 282,307
The underground railroad was a series of routes that slaves would travel at night led by “conductors” like Harriet Tubman The routes led north toward free states or Canada, places where slavery was non-existent It is believed that over 100,000 black slaves escaped through use of the railroad its height in 1860

17 Harriet Beecher Stowe Pg 301, 307-308, 329
Harriet Beecher Stowe was the author of the popular novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, in 1831 The novel illustrated the hardships slaves and slave families faced and attacked white southerners and their society In defense to this white southerners produced an intellectual defense of slavery using Prof. Thomas R. Dew Stowe’s novel still shows significance today and impacted society’s view on slavery tremendously during it’s time

18 58. Manifest Destiny Pg. 311 1840s-1860s
The Manifest Destiny idea was fueled by the growing pride in nationalism by Americans and the view of social perfection. Americans felt that they were “destined by God and history” to expand into new territories. By the 1840s, this idea of expansion was spreading throughout the country thanks to the penny press. Advocates of Manifest Destiny dreamed of a empire that included Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Pacific Islands. Not all Americans liked the idea of expansion. Led by Henry Clay, some Americans feared that this idea of expansion would refuel the argument of slavery. However, their voices and concerns couldn’t compete with the nationwide enthusiasm of expansion.

19 59. Texan Revolution Pg. 312 In the mid- 1830s, tension between the Americans living in Texas and the Mexican Government began. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became dictator of Mexico as instability increased in Mexico. He began to increase the power of the federal government, which took power away from the state governments. Americans saw this action by Santa Anna as a direct hit at them, and fighting broke out between the Americans and Mexicans in Americans later declared their independence from Mexico in Santa Anna led his Mexican Army into Texas and destroyed American garrisons at the Alamo and Goliad. By the end of 1836, Americans thought there revolution effort was over. However, General Sam Houston led a remaining American force in the Battle of San Jacinto, and defeated the Mexicans. Santa Anna was taken prisoner, and later signed a treaty that officially gave Texas their independence.

20 60. The Mexican-American War Pg. 318-320
After the Mexicans refused an offer by President Polk to buy the Mexican territory, Polk ordered General Taylor to move from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande. At first the Mexicans refused to fight, but after attacks by the Americans, the Mexicans responded and attacked an American unit at the Rio Grande. On May 13, 1846, Congress declared war. War didn’t come easy for the Americans. Polk had ordered Taylor to seize the city of Monterrey, then march into Mexico City and seize it to. Taylor succeeded in taking Monterrey, but he let the Mexican garrison escape without pursuit. Polk now feared that Taylor lacked the tactical skills to lead the attack on Mexico City. He also feared he would become a popular political figure. The Mexicans finally surrendered after Gen. Winfield Scott led an attack on Mexico City in which he seized the city. Nicholas Trist was sent to negotiate a peace treaty with the Mexicans which became know as the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In the treaty, Mexico ceded California and New Mexico to the U.S and recognized the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas. The U.S were to pay Mexico 15 million dollars and assume the financial claims new American citizens had against Mexico.

21 61. California Gold Rush Pg. 322-323
In 1848, a worker working in a sawmill found hints of gold at the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. As news of the discovery spread throughout the nation, hundreds of Americans traveled west to search for the gold. California migrants known as “Forty-Niners” abandoned their jobs, homes, and families to try their luck with the gold. Most of the migrants who came to California were white males. The gold rush also attracted some of the first Chinese migrants to the U.S. The gold rush created serious labor shortages in California with so many men leaving their jobs to go find gold. The gold rush was also helpful in the growth of California. Not all people profited from the gold, but instead of returning home, the stayed in California and increased the agriculture and urban populations. Cities like San Francisco, who had a population of 1,000 before the gold rush, now held over 50,000 people.

22 62. The Compromise of 1850 Pg. 323-324 September 1850
With sectional tension rising, Henry Clay presented a series of bills that he formed into one. The bill included: the admission of California as a free state, the formation of territorial governments in the rest of the lands acquired from Mexico (without restrictions on slavery), abolition of slavery, but not slavery itself, in D.C, a new and more effective fugitive slave law. Clays compromise sparked great controversy within the government. After six months of heated debating, a new group of leaders replaced the old “triumvirate “of Webster, Clay, and Calhoun. This group was able to produce a compromise, which the old leaders couldn’t do. One reason for this was the death of President Taylor. Taylor was replaced by Millard Fillmore, who supported the compromise, and used his power as president to persuade the northern Whigs into supporting the compromise. The leaders also succeeded because of their own strategies. Stephen A. Douglas proposed that the bill be split into separate bills. That way, representatives could support the ideas they liked and oppose the ones they didn’t. By mid- September, Congress passed of the components.

23 64. Transcontinental Railroad Pg. 326, 341
With many Americans moving west, many people began to push the idea of a transcontinental railroad. The problem with the railroad was where to place it, and more importantly, where to place the railroads eastern terminus. Northerners wanted it to be placed in Chicago, while Southerners wanted it in St. Louis, Memphis, or New Orleans. While preparing for the Civil War, Congress pushed for the completion the railroad. They created two federally funded corporations: the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the Central Pacific. The Union Pacific was to build westward from Omaha and the Central Pacific was to build eastward from California. The two railroads would meet in the middle, which they did at Promontory Point, Utah in 1869

24 63. Kansas-Nebraska Act Pg. 326-327
May 1854 In January 1854, Stephen A. Douglas proposed an bill that would organize a new territory known as Nebraska. Douglas knew that the south would oppose the new bill because it would open up the possibility of another free state. The new territory was north of the Missouri compromise line. To satisfy the southerners, Douglas presented a plan that would allow slavery to be determined by the territorial legislature. When southern Democrats asked for more, Douglas agreed to clause that repealed the Missouri Compromise. He also agreed to split the area into two separate territories- Kansas and Nebraska. Kansas was more likely to become a slave state, which would keep the ratio of slave to free states even. The South fully supported the new bill, but northern democrats only partially supported it.

25 65. Election of 1860 Pg 1860 Before the presidential election of 1860, the Democrats were divided between southerners who wanted slavery, and westerners who wanted popular sovereignty. At the Democratic convention, 8 delegates from lower southern states walked out. The remaining delegates couldn’t agree on a candidate and agreed to meet in Baltimore. In Baltimore, they nominated Stephen Douglas. Meanwhile, the delegates who had walked out of the convention met in Richmond and nominated John C. Breckinridge. Meanwhile, the republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln as their candidate. Lincoln was a favorable choice because his growing reputation for eloquence, his firm but moderate position on slavery. In the election, Lincoln won the presidency with the majority of electoral votes. However, he only won two-fifths of the popular vote. The election showed the southerners that their place in the Union was non-existent. Within weeks of Lincoln’s election, the process of disunion began.

26 Confederacy In 1861, the Confederacy seceded from the Union under President James Buchanan. South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas made up the Confederate States of America. Pg. 338

27 Emancipation Proclamation
January 1, 1863 The document that declared forever free the slaves inside the Confederacy. Does not apply to slaves in Union or border states. Clearly established that the war was being fought not only to preserve the Union, but to abolish slavery. Paved the way for the thirteenth amendment- which abolished slavery in all parts of the United States. This can be found on page 344

28 Robert E. Lee January 19, 1807 -October 12, 1870
Appointed by Jefferson Davis, the Confederate military leader/ political leader Opposed secession and had mixed feelings about slavery Remained a symbol for the “Lost Cause” of the Confederacy Left the U.S army to lead Confederate forces. Regarded as one of the best generals in American military history Brilliant military strategist Actually a good friend of Abraham Lincoln This can be found on page

29 Ulysses S. Grant April 27, 1822 - July 23, 1885
Only general Lincoln trusted to command Union Army. Believed in unrelenting combat and making enemy armies and territories the focus of military targets. Was willing to fight when most other generals held back Presided over some of the worst carnage of the Civil War This can be found on page

30 “States Rights” Argument
No specific date, but was very intense during early years of Civil War White southerners resisted all efforts to exert national authority, even those to win the war. Went against conscription and rejected Davis’ ability to impose martial law, and suspend habeas corpus. Some governors tried to keep their forces away from other Confederate forces. The national government permitted soldiers to seize food from farms, and the confederate government seized railroads and shipping The states were the ones who voted on the constitution and its laws. The states believed that if a law was unconstitutional, they did not have to follow it. This can be found on page 346

31 Anaconda Plan Late 1864 to Early 1865
It was a military strategy developed by General Winfield Scott It was a two-stage plan, which would consist of a Union naval blockade of the southern and Confederate ports, as well as taking over the Mississippi River, and “winding” its way to the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia through the Ohio River This plan would cut off trade routes on both land and river, and would split the Confederacy in two parts. The loss of trade for the Confederacy, which was mainly cotton, would deliver a crushing economic blow, and would possibly result in the Confederate surrender. This is referenced on page

32 Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862
McClellan’s 86 thousand vs. Lee’s 50 thousand. Staggering casualties on both sides Jackson’s troops arrived just as the Confederate line was about to break McClellan could have broken through the line with one more assault, instead he allowed Lee to flee into Virginia. Technically a Union victory, but McClellan had blown an opportunity to destroy the majority of the Confederate army. In November, Lincoln removed McClellan from command for good. This can be found on page 361

33 Battle of Vicksburg May 18-July 4, 1863
Ulysses Grant was driving on the well fortified and protected area on the Mississippi River. The city itself had good artillery cover near the river Grant moved men and supplies into the city, which was being bombarded. Grant then attacked from the rear of the city, and the battle lasted six weeks. The citizens of the city surrendered due to starvation This can be found on page 361

34 Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863
Lee moved his army into Pennsylvania, and encountered Meade’s army. Meade’s army established a well fortified position on the hills, south of the town. Lee ordered his famous “Pickett’s Charge” on Meade’s position. The Confederate army was mowed down over the mile they had to advance to get to the hill. Only 5,000 made it up the hill, and the remainder had to surrender or retreat. After the retreat, never again did the Confederate forces seriously threaten Northern territory. This can be found on page 363

35 Sherman’s March to the Sea
Late 1864 – 1865 Sherman left Atlanta, and living off the land, destroyed cities, supplies and farms that were critical to the survival of the Confederacy Sherman only wanted to deprive the Confederacy of war materials and railroad communications. He wanted to break the will of the Southerners, and to force them to surrender, by burning towns and plantations. He was virtually unopposed until Johnston’s small force (in North Carolina) caused Sherman to experience a brief delay. This can be found on page 365

36 Radical Republicans 1865 A political party that from the end of the civil war favored harsh punishment of the southern states. Pg 343, , 378

37 Appomattox Court House
April 1865 This is where the civil war came to a close. Northern troops cornered Confederate General Robert E. Lee here and he surrendered. Pg 367

38 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments 1865, 1868, 1870 13th- Outlawed slavery and indentured servitude. 14th- Gave all male citizens equal citizenship and protection under the law!! 15th- Universal male suffrage. Pg 345, , 378

39 Sharecropping 1865 A system in which freedmen would work on a plot of land (usually owned by a white southerner) in order to earn a portion of the crops they produce. This was a bad system though because the freedmen did not have their own supplies which would result in the freedman losing more money than they were making. Pg 382

40 Ku Klux Klan s A secret society founded in the south in order to control and terrorize newly freed slaves. Pg 388

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