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AMERICAN HISTORY.  Generals warned Lincoln that people were still green (not ready to fight).  Lincoln said the South was green also and that army must.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN HISTORY.  Generals warned Lincoln that people were still green (not ready to fight).  Lincoln said the South was green also and that army must."— Presentation transcript:


2  Generals warned Lincoln that people were still green (not ready to fight).  Lincoln said the South was green also and that army must attack  July 16, 1861—General McDowell’s 35,000 man Union army marches into VA  22,000 Confederates waited for them at Manassas Junction, VA by a stream called Bull Run  It took the Union 2.5 days to march 25 miles from Washington, DC to VA  This allowed 11,000 more Confederates to join in  ***Bull Run Battlefield is now a national park. There are 384 battlefields designated as national historic sites***

3  FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN  Both sides has careful plans for battle but inexperienced troops couldn’t care out the plans  It became a chaotic free-for-all  By late afternoon, the Union troops began to fall back  Confederate INFANTRY (foot soldiers) forced the Union troops to drop everything and retreat.

4  Casualties (killed, wounded, MIA)—South— 2,000; North—2,900  If the south had pursued the north, they might have destroyed the Union army. Instead they stayed on the battlefield not sure what to do.  Hopes for a short war faded  Lincoln replaced General McDowell with General George McClellan  His first task was to get 100,000 individuals to function as a real army

5  TACTICS AND TECHNOLOGY  Instruction was based on wars conducted by Napoleon  Muskets—1840s-range of 250 yds and accurate to about 80 yds; projectile was a ball; 25 seconds to load  1850s-accurate to 500 yds; projectile was a bullet; fire about 10 times per minute  Artillery-cannon balls were replaced by shells that exploded upon impact or above the target spreading shrapnel  Some historian call the Civil War the last old-time war and the first modern war

6  NEW DEVICES OF WAR  Balloons were used to direct artillery fire  Camouflage used to disguise tents and guns  Limited use of machine guns, wire entanglements, flame throwers, stink bombs  Telegraphs allowed generals to communicate quickly with government leaders  Railroads were used to move large numbers of troops

7  One of the most successful new weapons was the Union’s IRONCLADS (armored gunboats)  3 inch metal plate made ship almost immune to Confederate cannon fire  GRANT MOVES SOUTH  February 1862—Gen. Grant led 7 gunboats and 15,000 troops up the Tennessee River  The captured Fort Henry, KY and Fort Donelson  Grant demanded unconditional surrender  This made him famous and a Union hero

8  THE BATTLE OF SHILOH  April 6, 1862—Confederate soldiers surprise Union soldiers at Shiloh Church outside Pittsburg Landing, TN  Union soldiers wanted to retreat but instead Grant attacked at daybreak  By 2:30 pm Confederate army was in retreat  Casualties—Union 13,000; Confederacy 10,000  Grant: “The only way to save the Union is complete conquest”

9  THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER CAMPAIGN  April 24, 1862--Union forces under Admiral David Farragut attacked forts surrounding New Orleans  They slipped past the forts under cover of darkness  Lead ship sustained heavy damage  April 25 th —City of New Orleans surrenders  General Grant would be needed to take other towns upriver

10  General McClellan has a plan to move down the Potomac River and attack Richmond from the east because the defenses were weaker  However, McClellan seemed reluctant to move, Lincoln lost patience  THE PENINSULA CAMPAIGN  McClellan encountered confederates outside Yorktown, VA (near Richmond)  He waited a month before attacking  Confederate troops retreated to Richmond and didn’t offer resistance

11  McClellan’s delay allowed Confederates to get more troops  May 31—Confederates attack—heavy casualties on both sides by no real victor  Robert E. Lee takes over Army of Northern Virginia  Lee and Stonewall Jackson’s Confederates joined forces and attacked McClellan in late June 1862 in 5 separate battles. McClellan won 4 of 5 but retreated

12  THE SECOND BATTLE OF BULL RUN  General John Pope started a new union army near Washington  Lincoln ordered McClellan to renew his attack on Lee to trap him between the two union armies. McClellan did nothing.  Lincoln ordered McClellan to withdraw and join Pope’s troops  August 29 th —Lee lures Pope’s troops into battle at Manassas and defeated Pope  Lincoln put McClellan back in command despite protests from his cabinet

13  Union morale low after several defeats  Lee suggested to Pres. Jefferson Davis that this would be a good time to enter Maryland  Davis agreed  Sept. 1862—Lee’s army crossed the Potomac into western MD with McClellan’s army in pursuit  A union soldier found a copy of Lee’s marching order lost by a careless soldier  McClellan informed Lincoln  Lincoln responded “Destroy the rebel army, if possible”

14  THE BATTLE OF ANTIETAM  McClellan caught Lee near Sharpsburg, MD  Union outnumbered Lee’s army 70,000-40,000  McClellan waited 16 hours before attacking  Sept. 17, 1862—battle waged  The bloodiest single-day battle in Civil War and US History  Combined casualties numbered 23,000  Lee lost 1/3 of his army  McClellan had 25,000 troops in reserve but did not use them

15  McClellan had a chance to follow Lincoln’s order to “destroy the rebel army” but did not.  Lincoln relieved McClellan of his command for good.  THE BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG  McClellan was replaced by Ambrose Burnside  Dec. 13, 1862—Burnside ordered his troops to charge Lee’s army 14 times  Only darkness and pleas to stop ended the slaughter.  Union army lost nearly 13,000 men—more than twice the confederate losses

16 UUpon learning of the results, Lincoln said, “If there is a worse place then Hell, I am in it.” TTHE END

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