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The War of Northern Aggression

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1 The War of Northern Aggression

2 Lincoln’s name didn’t appear on the ballot in many southern states
December 20, 1860: South Carolina unanimously voted for secession followed by Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas (deep South) Confederacy established on February 4, 1861, inaugurated reluctant Jeff Davis

3 Fort Sumter: Charleston Harbor, SC
Lincoln’s Pledge: “hold, occupy, and possess” federal property April 12, 1861: Confederate Shore batteries bombarded the fort to prevent provisional resupply Lincoln calls for 75,000 militia to put down the insurrection April 1861: Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, Tennessee (upper South) joined the CSA

4 War Mobilization Raising armies: 2 million Union; 800,000 Confederate
Equipping the Troops: arming, clothing, feeding Confederacy impressed provisions and slave labor Southerners, according to a Georgia congressman, would "give up their sons, husbands, brothers…, and often without murmuring, to the army; but let one of their negroes be taken, and what a howl you will hear" Ohio Volunteers Union Conscription Substitution or Commutation ($300) Financing the War Union: 21% wartime revenue from taxes; bond sales; printed paper money (legal tender) Confederacy: printed paper money (not legal tender); 5% revenue from taxes Inflation: 80% price increase in the North; 9000% increase in CSA

5 Securing Union Borders
DC bordered by slave states Virginia and Maryland Lincoln sent troops to MD and suspended habeas corpus Armed Union sympathizers in KY Border States: MD, DE, KY, MO, WVA


7 Opposing Advantages UNION
22 million people to the South’s 9 million (including 3 million slaves) 90% of the US industrial capacity 2/3 of the nation’s railroad track CONFEDERACY Fighting for independence, home field advantage Vast land mass in which Union had to maintain supply lines and occupy territory Slaves freed whites to fight Defensive, short supply transport At the start of the war, the value of all manufactured goods produced in all the Confederate states added up to less than one-fourth of those produced in New York State alone. Opposing Advantages

8 Weapons Developments Submarine
Repeating rifle replaced smoothbore musket Gatling Gun (predecessor to machine gun) Strategic Changes: Trenches Cavalry relegated to reconnaissance Weapons Developments

9 Anaconda Plan Grand Union Strategy
Union blockade of southern coast and occupation of Mississippi River Lacked adequate ships and men to ever be implemented “Forward to Richmond!” (100 miles south of DC) Anaconda Plan

10 Bull Run (Manassas Junction)
Confederates encamped 25 mi from DC Amateur Armies Union General McDowell defeated Picnicking DC socialites McDowell out; McClellan in Bull Run (Manassas Junction)

11 Antietam (Sharpsburg)
McClellan’s peninsula plan: attack Richmond from the rear Lee given command of Army of Northern VA; goes on the offensive McClellan called back to DC; Union routed again at Bull Run September 17, 1862: single bloodiest day of the war (24,000) Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation Antietam (Sharpsburg)

12 Fredericksburg McClellan had “the shows;” Burnside replaced him
122,000 Union against 78,500 Rebs; Union lost 12,600 and CSA lost 5,300 Lee: “It is well that war is so terrible – we should grow fond of it.” By December 1862 the war in the East was a stalemate Fredericksburg

13 Ambrose Burnside (What is named after him?)
Stonewall Jackson “He sits there like a stone wall!” Robert E. Lee opponent of secession, courteous, genteel, fierce William T. Sherman “I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the city of Savannah.” George B. McClellan "You may find those who will go faster than I, Mr. President; but it is very doubtful if you will find many who will go further."

14 Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing)
: Grant stabilized MO & KY, moved south to TN Attacked by Rebels at Shiloh Church 77,000 fought; 23,000 killed or wounded New Orleans taken by naval attack Union controlled most of the Mississippi River Ulysses S. Grant West Point grad, heavy drinker, failed farmer and businessman and one of the Union’s best leaders In two days at Shiloh on the banks of the Tennessee River, more Americans fell than in all previous American wars combined. Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing)

15 North: began with 40 warships; by 1865 had largest navy in the world
Southern coastline: 3,500 miles Cruisers: blockade runners Ironclads: Merrimac became the Virginia, battled with Union Monitor CSS Manassas, 1861 The Naval War

16 Confiscation to Emancipation
I hear old John Brown knocking on the lid of his coffin and shouting ‘Let me out! :et me out!’ The Doom of Slavery is at hand.” Henry Stanton, 1861 “I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists.” Lincoln, 1861 Confiscation to Emancipation

17 Confiscation to Emancipation
African Americans constituted less than one percent of the northern population, yet by the war’s end made up ten percent of the Union Army. A total of 180,000 black men, more than 85% of those eligible, enlisted. Secession meets protection of property rights Contraband: enemy property liable to seizure August 1861: Confiscation Act authorized seizure of property used to aid rebellion (only applied to slaves working for the Confederate army) July 1862: 2nd Confiscation Act, authorized seizure of all rebel property, slaves joining Union “forever free,” blacks can be enlisted “free every slave – slay every traitor – burn every Rebel mansion, is these things be necessary to preserve this temple of freedom” – Thaddeus Stevens “to fight against slaveholders without fighting against slavery, is but a half-hearted business” – Frederick Douglass Confiscation to Emancipation

18 “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving other alone, I would also do that.” – Abraham Lincoln

19 1863: a Turning Point Spring:
Hooker crushed at Chancellorsville even though outnumbered rebs 2:1; South lost Stonewall Jackson to friendly fire Grant unable to take Vicksburg 1863: a Turning Point

20 Gettysburg Summer 1863: Lee, under criticism, pursued Union army north to PA In Gettysburg, rebs foraging for shoes meet Union cavalry July 1-3, 90,000 Union against Lee’s 75,000; 50,000 total casualties Grant took Vicksburg Union secured Chattanooga

21 Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us, that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion, that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

22 The War’s Economic Impact
North South Clothing manufacturing plummeted War industry benefitted Railroads boomed (Pacific RR Act) Raised protective tariffs National banking system; greenbacks Homestead Act: 160- acre land grants Morrill Land Grant Act: public land sale proceeds funded universities Contractor corruption and graft Inflation; wages lagged behind prices Shattered economy Destroyed railroads Cotton production plunged Food shortages Food impressed by CSA gov’t Half of the soldiers left units by 1864 to help families Trading food for cotton with northerners The War’s Economic Impact

23 During the Battle of Antietam, Clara Barton tended the wounded so close to the fighting that a bullet went through her sleeve and killed a man she was treating. United States Sanitary Commission Nursing Corps: 3,200 women served both sides Barton founded American Red Cross in 1881 Brazen departure from “proper sphere” For every soldier killed, 2 died of disease (gangrene, tetanus, typhoid, malaria, dysentery) Andersonville, GA CSA prison camp 3, 000/month (32,000 total) died by August 1864 The war did not bring progress on political or economic equality; men saw compelling reasons to abolish slavery, not to grant women’s suffrage

24 The Union March to Victory
September 1864 Sherman took Atlanta March across GA into SC, “that hell hole of secession” 62,000 men, cavalry, and thousands of former slaves; 60 mi wide front moved 10 mi/day and forced the Confederacy’s collapse The Union March to Victory

25 Sherman: “make war so terrible… that generations would pass before they could appeal to it again”
Ruins of the Gallego Flour Mills, Richmond, Virginia, 1865 Alexander Gardner 400 miles of ruin, $100 million of property damage “War is cruelty and you cannot refine it. Those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out.” – William Tecumseh Sherman

26 Charleston RR Station after Sherman

27 Matthew Brady: The Ruins of Richmond

28 April 13 Lee surrendered; Grant paroled his men; no one cheered
April 3, 1865 Union troops raised stars and stripes over the Confederate capital, Richmond April 13 Lee surrendered; Grant paroled his men; no one cheered April 14 Grant declined attending the theater with the Lincolns Appomattox Courthouse, east of Lynchburg More than three million men fought in the war. Two percent of the population—more than 620,000—died in it.

29 Lincoln’s box at Ford’s Theater
Assassinated on April 14, Died on April 15 John Wilkes Booth fled; captured within two weeks by Union troops

30 Execution of conspirators
Mary Surratt, Lewis Paine, David Herold, and George Atzerodt on July 7, 1865

31 John Wilkes Booth unemployed, pro-Confederate actor


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