Presentation on theme: "Secession and Military Stalemate. Election of 1860 New Jersey split Original 13 colonies controlled less than 50% of vote Lincoln did not have a mandate."— Presentation transcript:
Secession and Military Stalemate
Election of 1860 New Jersey split Original 13 colonies controlled less than 50% of vote Lincoln did not have a mandate.
I. Secession Crisis Lower South secedes Buchanan declares secession illegal ◦But claimed federal gov’t lacked authority South Carolina demands surrender of Sumter Buchanan refused support for supply ships Demands Congress compromise
Crittenden Compromise Prior Compromises had worked… ◦1787-Constitution-3/5 ◦1821-Missouri slave/Maine free ◦1850-Territories/Calif Free/Fugitive Slave KY Senator Crittenden ◦Constitut. Amend to protect slavery where it existed (accepted) ◦Extension of MO compromise line to Calif Border (Rejected by Rep/Lincoln)
1974 DBQ Crittenden Proposal Which documents show Lincoln’s culpability? Are there other Repub. that would support Crittenden? Are there others who support Lincoln? Steps: 1)Paste doc. 2) Write inference 3) Note necess. Background info.
Possible Theses: 1974 DBQ The last resort compromise, Crittenden’s proposal was rejected primarily because of the influence of the President-elect Lincoln. The culpability of President Lincoln for the rejection of the Crittenden Proposal is negligible because he was not yet president, Southerners and Democrats were not committed to compromise, and ultimately the Republican Party rejected the proposal.
Lincoln’s 1861 Inaugural I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.
Lincoln: March 1861 In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow- countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend it."
II. Upper South Chooses Sides South must return to Union or face war April 1861:Lincoln sends ship to resupply Fort Sumter ◦Confederate forces open fire ◦Union defenders surrendered Lincoln calls for an army ◦Republican and No. Democrats support the cause: state gov’t send troops
Whites in Middle & Border Must Choose Secondary Sources: Infer divisions
Upper South Chooses Sides 8 States: NC, TN, AR, MO, KY, VA, DE, MD 2/3 of whites lived there ¾ of manufacturing from South occurred there ½ the food of the South produced there Upper South had many of the best military men Geographically strategic
III. Setting War Objectives Union ◦Hold areas where few Whites held slaves ◦Secure railway fr. Wash. To Ohio River Valley ◦Control of Missouri and Mississippi Riv. ◦Mobilize German Union sympathizers ◦Use milit & political persuasion to hold border states Confederacy ◦Estab. Government in Richmond ◦Estab Consitut.- protect slavery ◦Renounce expansion ◦Re-inforce White superiority ◦Defend borders of south
Devising Strategies Union thrusts toward Richmond ◦Divide Confederacy ◦General McDowell +30k men ◦Bull Run ◦No “picnic” ◦McClellen replaces McDowell Jackson heads to Wash. Lee Moves North ◦Humiliate Lincoln ◦Lee joins Jackson ◦2 nd Battle of Bull Run ◦Antietam Sept 1862 Single bloodiest day 4800 dead/3000
War in the Mississippi Valley Attack from North Attack from South Heavy casualties Union secured crucial transport routes Battle of Shiloh
Lincoln’s foreshadow of War A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other. (Lincoln-1858)