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The Civil War: 1861 -- 1865 (Unit III, Segment 2 of 3)

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War: 1861 -- 1865 (Unit III, Segment 2 of 3)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War: (Unit III, Segment 2 of 3)

2 Essential Question Essential Question: –What factors led to the outbreak of the Civil War? Warm-Up Question: Warm-Up Question: –If the Union had more troops, industry, & transportation when the Civil War began, what should their war strategy be?

3 Secession of the Southern States Lincoln's election in 1860 brought the Southern states to the point of secession and Lincoln to a fateful question: Should he allow peaceful secession or should he coerce the rebels to stay in the Union?

4 First Inaugural Address “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have an oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to ‘preserve, protect, and defend it.” “I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature. ”

5 Secession in the South Lincoln ’ s election led to secession by 7 states in the Deep South but that did not necessarily mean “ civil war ” Two things had to happen first: –One last failed attempt to reconcile the North & South –The North had to use its military to protect the Union The failed Crittenden Compromise in 1860 Fort Sumter, South Carolina

6 SC seceded on Dec 20,1860 The entire Deep South seceded by Feb 1861 The Upper South did not view Lincoln ’ s election as a death sentence & did not secede immediately “ Lame duck ” Buchanan took no action to stop the South from seceding Some Northerners thought the U.S. would be better off if the South was allowed to peacefully secede

7 The Decision to Secede

8 Secession & the Formation of the Confederate States of America On Feb 4, 1861, the Confederate States of America were formed The CSA constitution resembled the U.S., but with 4 key changes: (1) it protected states ’ rights, (2) guaranteed slavery, (3) referenced God, & (4) prohibited protective tariffs Mississippi Senator Jefferson Davis was elected CSA president

9 The Start of the Civil War, 1861 When Lincoln was elected in 1860, 7 Southern states seceded from the Union & formed the Confederate States of America The Civil War began when Fort Sumter was fired upon by Confederate soldiers 4 more Southern states seceded in 1861 when Lincoln called for military volunteers to “ preserve the Union ”

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13 Fort Sumter Flag

14 The Civil War Soldier

15 Northern Advantages At the outbreak of the Civil War, the North had lots of advantages: –Larger population for troops –Greater industrial capacity –Huge edge in RR transportation Problem for the North: –Had to invade the South to win –Difficult to maintain enthusiasm & support for war over time

16 Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861

17 Southern Advantages Although outnumbered & less industrial, South had advantages: –President Davis knew that they did not have to “ win ” the war; the South only had to drag out the fight & make the North quit –Had the best military leaders –England & France appeared more willing to support the South Robert E. “ Stonewall ” J.E.B. Lee Jackson Stuart “ King Cotton ” diplomacy

18 Union Strategy The Union strategy during the war was called the Anaconda Plan: –Blockade the coast, seize the Mississippi River to divide the South, & take Richmond –Exploit South ’ s dependency on foreign trade & its inability to manufacture weapons –Relied on Northern advantages in population, industry, & military production

19 Blockade the Southern coast Take control of the Mississippi River Divide the West from South Take the CSA capital at Richmond Ulysses Grant in the West George McClellan was in charge of Army of the Potomac

20 Confederate Strategy The Confederate strategy during the war was an Offensive / Defense: –Protect Southern territory from “ Northern aggression ” but attack into Union territory when the opportunity presents itself –Get Britain & France to join their cause because of European dependency on “ King Cotton ” –Drag out the war as long as possible to make the North quit

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22 Political Leadership During the Civil War During the Civil War, President Lincoln used “ emergency powers ” to protect “ national security ” : Suspended habeas corpus (Laws requiring evidence before citizens can be jailed) Closed down newspapers that did not support the war During the Civil War, President Jefferson Davis had a difficult time: The CSA Constitution protected states’ rights so state governors could refuse to send him money or troops CSA currency inflated by 7,000% The national government in the USA & CSA relied on volunteer armies in the beginning, but soon needed conscription (draft) to supply their armies with troops

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24 New York City Draft Riots

25 Fighting the Civil War

26 Fighting the Civil War: From 1861 to mid-1863, the Confederate army was winning the Civil War: –Defensive strategy carried out by superior Southern generals like Robert E. Lee & “ Stonewall ” Jackson –Disagreements among military & political leaders in the North

27 Bull Run (Manassas), 1861: The 1 st battle of the Civil War; Stonewall Jackson kept the Union army from taking the CSA capital at Richmond

28 Shiloh, 1862 (USA) Seven Pines, 1862 (CSA) Seven Days, 1862 (CSA) 2 nd Bull Run, 1862 (CSA) New Orleans, 1862 (USA) From , the CSA had success in the East, but the USA had success in the West

29 Antietam, 1862: General Lee’s 1 st attempt to attack outside the CSA was halted by McClellan

30 Antietam, 1862 Even though the Battle of Antietam ended without a clear winner, it had important effects on the North: –The battle convinced Britain & France not to support the Confederacy in the war –The battle convinced Lincoln that the time was right to make the emancipation of slaves the new focus of the war for the North

31 Battle of Antietam “ Bloodiest Single Day of the War ” 23,000 casualties

32 Emancipation Proclamation After Antietam, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation: –This executive order freed all slaves in Confederate territories –It did not free slaves in the border states, however it gave the North a new reason fight –Inspired Southern slaves to escape which forced Southern whites to worry about their farms “ …all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom... ”

33 States Impacted by the Emancipation Proclamation

34 Escaped slaves in NC coming into Union lines Lincoln, “ The Great Emancipator ”

35 African-American Recruiting Poster

36 The Famous 54th Massachusetts

37 African Americans in Civil War battles

38 Fredericksburg, 1862 (CSA) Chancellorsville, 1863 The Confederates won, but Stonewall Jackson was killed; Lee said of Jackson: “ He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right arm ” After Antietam, the Confederates continued to win in the East

39 Conclusions: Despite being outnumbered & under-equipped, the CSA dominated the fighting in the East from due to better generals & a defensive strategy But, the Union Army was having success in the West under the leadership of Ulysses S. Grant By mid-1863, the weight of the Northern population & industrial capacity will begin to turn the tide of the war in favor of the Union

40 Fighting the Civil War: When the Civil War began, most expected the fighting to end quickly, but the war lasted until 1865 due to: –The commitment of the Union & Confederacy to “ total war ” –Excellent Southern generals like Robert E. Lee –Improved, industrial weaponry

41 New Weapons but Old Tactics New weapons: – Long-range artillery & the Gatling gun (1 st machine gun) – Cone-shaped bullets & grooved barrel rifles for more accuracy – Ironclad naval ships like the USS Monitor & CSS Virginia Old tactics such as massed formations & frontal assaults – Led to huge casualty rates

42 Dead on the Battlefield

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44 Fighting “ Total War ” The Civil War was the world ’ s 1 st “ total war ” in which the entire economy was devoted to winning: –North & South employed female workers to meet supply demands Women took gov’t jobs as bookkeepers, clerks & secretaries; A number of women also served as spies (Rose Greenhow, CSA) Women’s most prominent role was as nurses on the battlefield: distributing medical supplies, organizing hospitals, & offering comfort to wounded or dying soldiers Ex. Clara Barton future founder of the American Red Cross

45 The Tide of the War Turns in 1863 By 1863, the Confederacy was having difficulty sustaining the fight: –Attempts to lure Britain & France into the war had failed –The Union blockade, limited Southern manufacturing, & lack of grain fields left CSA soldiers ill- supplied –To pay for the war, the CSA printed money leading to massive inflation

46 Gettysburg, 1863: In July, Robert E Lee decided to take advantage of his victory at Chancellorsville & attack Northern soil to end the war quickly by crushing Union morale Gettysburg proved to be the turning point of the war; Lee was halted, the CSA never again attacked Union soil, & the Union army began winning the war Vicksburg, 1863: Grant cut off Southern access to Mississippi River & divided the South into two halves (considered the other “turning point” in the war); Grant was then promoted to lead the entire Union army

47 Gettysburg Address

48 The principles that our government were founded upon This Civil War is a test to see if these principles will last, because other republics have failed We need to make sure that the Union wins the Civil War in order to preserve our form of gov ’ t

49 Fighting the Civil War: Under Grant ’ s leadership, the Union army was more aggressive & committed to destroy the South ’ s will to fight: –Grant appointed William T. Sherman to lead the Southern campaign –Sherman destroyed everything of value to the South & emancipated slaves during his “ march to the sea ”

50 Sherman considered “ total war ” necessary to defeat the South The Battle of Atlanta was a huge victory for the Union because it took out a major Southern railroad terminus

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52 Lincoln ’ s 2nd Inaugural “ With malice towards none; with charity for all… let us strive to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation ’ s wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow; and his orphan – to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves, and with all nations. ” –After his speech Lincoln said, “ I am a tired man. Sometimes I think I am the tiredest man on earth. ”

53 Appomattox, 1865: Grant defeated Lee at Appomattox ending the Civil War

54 On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, ending the fighting of Civil War

55 Ford ’ s Theater (April 14, 1865)

56 The Assassin John Wilkes Booth

57 The Assassination

58 WANTED~~!!

59 “ Now He Belongs to the Ages! ” -- Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War

60 Funeral March

61 The Execution

62 Effects of the War Effects of the Civil War Effects of the Civil War: –620,000 troops were dead; More than any other U.S. war –The 13 th Amendment was ratified in 1865 ending slavery –The war forever ended the states ’ rights argument –The South was destroyed; A plan was needed to admit Southern states back into the Union

63 Conclusions The turning point of the war: 1863 –The Civil War began as a conflict “ to preserve the Union, ” but by 1863 it became a war for human liberty (Emancipation Proclamation was issued) –The South dominated the early campaigns of the war due, but by 1863 (Gettysburg & Vicksburg) the weight of Northern industry & population wore down the South

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