Presentation on theme: "Lesson 16.3: No End in Sight Today’s Essential Question: What were some of the critical events of the war in 1862?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lesson 16.3: No End in SightToday’s Essential Question: What were some of the critical events of the war in 1862?
2 Vocabulary critical – very important; changes things cavalry – soldiers on horsebackcasualties – people killed or wounded in battleinvade – enter like an enemy
3 Check for Understanding What are we going to do today?What does it mean to describe an event as critical?
4 Calvary refers to soldiers on horseback. What are cavalry?Calvary refers to soldiers on horseback.
5 Casualties are people who are killed or wounded in battle. What are casualties?Casualties are people who are killed or wounded in battle.
6 What does it mean to invade? To invade is to go into a place with hostile intent, like an enemy would.
7 What We Already KnowRobert E. Lee had resigned from the Union army and had offered his services to the Confederacy.
8 What We Already KnowThe Confederate victory at the Battle of Bull Run made many in the North doubt whether the war could be won.
9 What We Already KnowThe union strategy called for a coastal blockade and capture of the Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in two.
10 Union Victories in the West In 1862, Union general Ulysses S. Grant captured two Confederate river forts in Tennessee.
11 Union Victories in the West Both forts were commanded by Confederate general Lloyd Tilghman.These were Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River.
12 Union Victories in the West Capturing Fort Henry was important because such a victory would open up a river highway into the heart of the South allowing Union gunboats and supplies to travel on the river as far as northern Alabama.
13 Union Victories in the West A week later, Union troops captured Tennessee’s capital, Nashville.
14 The Battle of ShilohAs Confederate troops retreated into Mississippi, Grant followed.The two sides met in April 1862 near Shiloh Church in Tennessee.
15 The Battle of ShilohThe Battle of Shiloh turned out to be the bloodiest battle the Civil War had yet seen.
16 The Battle of ShilohThe number of dead and wounded Union soldiers was more than 13,000.The Confederates lost nearly 11,000 out of 41,000 soldiers.
17 The Battle of ShilohUnion Congressmen were shocked by the casualties at Shiloh and demanded Grant’s removal.
18 The Battle of ShilohUnion Congressmen were shocked by the casualties at Shiloh and demanded Grant’s removal.Lincoln replied, “I can’t spare this man – he fights.”
27 18. Why were Union victories in the West and the fall of New Orleans significant to the Union cause? These victories established a tighter naval blockade of the Confederate coast.The Union was now closer to capturing the Confederate capital at Charleston.They helped the Union gain foreign support from Britain and France.They meant the North was nearer its goal of cutting the Confederacy in two.
28 Lee Claims Victories in the East In 1862, in the East, after many delays, Union General George McClellan finally made his move to capture Richmond.Soon, McClellan’s Army of the Potomac was within a few miles of the Confederate capital.
29 Lee Claims Victories in the East In June 1862, Robert E. Lee took command of the Army of Northern Virginia and began to turn things around.
30 Lee Claims Victories in the East Lee sent Jeb Stuart and his cavalry to spy on McClellan’s army and to find out its size.Stuart rode around the entire Union army in just a few days and reported its size back to Lee.
31 Lee Claims Victories in the East Lee attacked McClellan’s forces, and for about a week in July the two sides fought a series of clashes known as the Seven Days’ Battles.
32 Lee Claims Victories in the East After Confederate troops won a second victory at Bull Run against McClellan six weeks later, the Union army retreated to Washington, D.C.
33 Lee Invades the NorthIn September 1862, Lee crossed the Potomac to invade Maryland.He decided to carry the war to the North for several reasons.First of all, he hoped that a victory would force Lincoln to talk peace.
34 Lee Invades the NorthSecond, the invasion would give Virginia farmers a break from the war during harvest season.
35 Lee Invades the NorthLee’s third reason was based on the Confederacy’s need for foreign assistance.
36 Lee Invades the NorthBy 1862, the English textile industry was beginning to suffer from a lack of Southern cotton.
37 Lee Invades the NorthPeople in Britain and France were starting to lean toward supporting the Confederacy, but their political leaders were not yet convinced the Confederacy could win independence.
38 Lee Invades the NorthLee hoped that a successful invasion of the North might persuade European governments to side with the South.
40 What was the result of the Seven Days’ Battles? Union forces scored their first victory against Lee.Confederates turned back the Union effort to take Richmond.Ulysses Grant replaced McClellan.Fort Donelson and Fort Henry fell.
41 19. Why did Lee decide to invade the North? Victory on Union soil might force Lincoln to talk peace.Winning battles on Union soil would bring him personal glory.A successful invasion might convince Europe to side with the South.Moving the fighting into Maryland would give Virginia farmers a rest during the harvest season.Choose all that are true!
42 Bloody AntietamJust as Lee was beginning his invasion of the North, a Union soldier found a copy of his battle plans wrapped around a bundle of cigars.
43 Bloody AntietamGeneral McClellan now knew Lee’s campaign plans, and he launched an attack of his own against Lee’s army.
44 Bloody AntietamThe Battle of Antietam, Maryland in September 1862 was the bloodiest day in all of American history.Almost 25,000 soldiers were killed or wounded.
45 Bloody AntietamLee lost about one-third of his fighting force, and he withdrew to Virginia.
46 Bloody AntietamMcClellan did not follow, missing a chance to finish off the wounded Southern army.President Lincoln was so angry that he fired McClellan.
48 20. What were the results of the Battle of Antietam? Lincoln was urged to remove Grant from command.Several high-ranking officers were killed on both sides.It was the bloodiest single day in all of American history.Lee lost nearly one-third of his fighting force.Lincoln fired McClellan for being too cautious.Cavalry commander Jeb Stuart rode around the entire Union army.Lee retreated from Maryland.Choose all that are true!
49 Why did Lee retreat after the Battle of Antietam? He had exhausted his supplies and needed to return to Virginia.President Davis ordered him to return to defend Richmond from Grant’s attacks.His men had lost their former confidence in his leadership.The defeat had cost him about one-third of his fighting force.