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1862 McClellan plans flanking maneuver with Army of the Potomac at Centreville Confederate commander Joseph E. Johnston spoiled the attack by retreating.

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Presentation on theme: "1862 McClellan plans flanking maneuver with Army of the Potomac at Centreville Confederate commander Joseph E. Johnston spoiled the attack by retreating."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1862 McClellan plans flanking maneuver with Army of the Potomac at Centreville Confederate commander Joseph E. Johnston spoiled the attack by retreating 40 miles south to Culpeper Made Confederates in better position to protect Richmond in every direction McClellan’s mistakes in war tactics and inaccurate exaggerations involving the Confederate Army made the Republicans suspicious of his loyalty to the Union especially with his political status being democratic March 11 th, Lincoln relieves McClellan as commander in chief

3 McClellan takes on head of campaigning army Wants to transport the Potomac Army down the Chesapeake Bay to the peninsula formed by the James and York River and capture fort Monroe This would make McClellan’s army base close to Richmond and convenient to get to with only two rivers to cross Lincoln did not like this because: It made Washington unprotected against attack from west to south Made Richmond more of the focus rather than the Southern Army

4 Late march, General Irvin McDowell sent 35,000 men south to assist McClellan in an attack on confederate defenses guarding the lower peninsula. There was 25,000 men in Shenandoah valley under Nathaniel Banks and 8,000 in West Virginia under John C. Fremont. McClellan: Left few regiments in Washington than had promised and nearly all of them were new recruits Counted Fremont’s and Bank’s troops among the men he left behind to protect Washington This angered Lincoln and concerned him more about the Capital’s safety

5 Lincoln’s fears lead him to send one of Bank’s divisions to Manassas which is close to Washington. Believed Bank’s had more than enough men to tolerate Stonewall Jackson’s defenses March 23 rd Jackson uses talented tactics to defeat an army that was twice as large as Kernstown. Losses came from Jackson having more men than previously thought

6 McClellan and supporters believed the Republicans did not want McClellan to succeed due to his Democratic status April, McClellan had 70,000 men against 17,000 confederates near Yorktown Instead of attacking, McClellan settled for a siege McClellan overestimates number of enemy troops holding the Yorktown defenses Confederate Commander, General John B. Magruder paraded around McClellan’s forces and shifted artillery around to give the impression that he had more men than McClellan.

7 Lincoln becomes humiliated and Disappointed that McClellan could not battle the Yorktown defense before Johnston got most of his army to the peninsula April 9 th Lincoln warns McClellan by saying “ it is indispensable to you that you strike a blow…I have never written you, or spoken to you, in a greater kindness of feeling than now, nor with a fuller purpose to sustain you….but you must act.” McClellan’s only action was to inch forward with his siege Meanwhile Johnston brought 40,000 more men to the peninsula.

8 May, McClellan got his siege guns into position May 3 rd Johnston evacuates and went back toward Richmond May 5 th Several Union divisions attacked the Confederates retreating by Williamsburg Confederates withdrew Rain came for a month which made sickness a major cause of death and made roads, bridges, and land complicated to travel on This resulted in little fighting

9 Confederates retreat led to the evacuation at Norfolk This opened up the James River to Union warships Confederate government prepared to evacuate the capital Union navy suffered a major defeat at Drewry’s Bluff The “Monitor’s” guns could not be lifted high enough to hit the confederate artillery on the bluff 100 Ft above Other Union boats were severely damaged Richmond could only be taken by McClellan’s men now

10 May 20 th Johnston creates a defensive line five miles from the city 60,000 Confederates against 100,000 Union men McClellan estimated Johnston’s army at 150,000 and demanded reinforcements before his attack Lincoln promised him 40,000 from McDowell who could march towards Fredericksburg to assist McClellan and still be between the Confederates and Washington Stonewall upset the federal campaign against Richmond

11 Jackson withdraws up the valley Late April, Jackson recruited new troops and was assisted by General Richard Ewelil’s division Jackson marched all his troops eastward across Blue Ridge, put them on trains near Charlottesville, and took them back west to Staunton ( supply base threatened by part of Fremont’s army) May 8 th, Jackson drove two of Fremont’s brigades northward after a sharp encounter in the mountains west of Staunton

12 Rebel Guerrillas kept Fremont off balance Jackson turned east again and found that another division of Banks’s joined McDowell’s for the expected meet with McClellan Jackson immediately attacked the union division to prevent further progress for them Banks retreated down valley turnpike Jackson went east to meet up with Ewell’s division and marched to Front Royal to overwhelm the Union garrison Jackson’s cavalry under Turner Ashby prevented Union cavalry from getting close enough to knowing what Jackson was doing Rebel infantry marched so fast and far in the Campaign that they became known as “Jackson’s foot cavalry.”

13 Jackson’s Cavalry became weak and slow May 25 th, Jackson’s army attacked Banks at Winchester Banks left northward toward the Potomac Jackson’s army captured, wounded, and killed 3,000 of the Union men Seized wagons, supplies, medicine, guns, and horses

14 Jackson was believed to be marching on Washington with 40,000 men Lincoln suspends McDowell’s movement towards Richmond and orders him to send 20,000 men to Strasburg to destroy Jackson’s force Orders Fremont to send 15,000 men from the Alleghenies to the valley turnpike at Harrisonburg Banks was ordered to reorganize and cross the Potomac to stop Jackson from the north

15 Lincolns plan fails due to his generals moving too slowly and not coordinating their movements The Confederates burned the bridges and secured the last one standing with their men (Port Republic) Shield’s men put up a fight against Jackson at Port Republic which left Jackson’s men tired and bruised which stopped him from attacking Fremont’s army as planned

16 Stonewall Jackson becomes one of the most vital leaders for the Confederates in the war His valley campaign is still studied at military schools to learn about small armies using geography and mobility to succeed against larger armies Period of one month Jackson’s army of 17,00 men marched 350 miles and fought and won 4 battles against 3 separate armies Competing armies were twice the size of Jackson’s

17 McDowell finally joined with McClellan’s forces in March, May, and June Three other armies stayed in Shenandoah Valley to defend against any other of Jackson’s feared attacks McClellan believed that if McDowell would have joined his forces in May, they would have captured Richmond within a week For the Confederates, Jackson’s campaign accomplished what Lee and Davis had hoped it would Also gave a line of victories in Virginia that gave the confederates an up rise over the union in level of confidence

18 Armies on the peninsula were fighting 6 miles from Richmond McClellan’s troops were divided by the Chickahominy Orders did not get around to Southern army so attack on McClellan during storm was not possible Sumner came with men and artillery to assist Union Confederates had no success on an attempted assault the next day either

19 Confederates were driven back to their starting point at the road between Seven pines and fair oaks ( battle is called by both names) Battle was uncoordinated and bloody – no strategic consequences just an impact on commanders Most wounded soldiers and dead soldiers would sink in the muddy, swamp – like, land McClellan states his sightings of mangled corpses around the battlefield saying “ victory has no charms for me when purchased at such a cost.” McClellan did not understand the purpose of soldiers which was to fight, or die.

20 Due to Johnston’s wounding during the battle, Robert E. Lee takes his place South was not excited about Lee due to his lack of achievements McClellan described Lee as cautious and weak A southern officer states “ his name might be Audacity. He will take more chances, and take them quicker than any other general in this country.”

21 Lee named his command Army of Northern Virginia Planned offensive tactics against McClellan’s larger numbers June 12 th, he sent J.E.B. Stuart on a cavalry reconnaissance to find McClellan’s Position Stuart succeeds and also rode around McClellan’s army of 100,000for 3 days with his 1,200 men and destroyed supplies and other union cavalry McClellan’s right flank was determined unprotected and vulnerable

22 McClellan moves south of the Chickahominy Fitz-John Porter’s corps of 30,000 was left on the north bank Lee decides to attack Lee took the risk of the 70,000 Federals south of the Chickahominy taking the 25,000 confederates in front of them He took the risk knowing McClellan’s faults as a leader Third week of June Jackson moved his men in secrecy to a point north of Richmond to assist Lee

23 McClellan complains to Lincoln that he needs more men and dislikes the lack of reinforcement he receives yet he was given a total of 35,000 men used for reinforcements since that April June 20 th, McClellan had 100,000 troops whereas Jackson and Lee combined had fewer than 90,000 McClellan delays battle claiming the South’s 90,000 is actually 200,000 June 25 th, McClellan finally begins an offense

24 Next day Lee launches an attack across the Chickahominy Jackson effective foot cavalry never made it to the battlefield on June 26 th A.E Hill became impatient and forced an attack that afternoon Greatly attacked by federals in hiding Jackson heard shots but did not go to his aid Lee gave vague orders and his march to Mechanicsville was complicated due to the burning of bridges and falling of trees on the bad roads Days of Battle became known as Seven Days Battle

25 Jackson’s drive was lessened due to fatigue McClellan decided to move his base to the James River for more security Sends a dispatch to Secretary of War Stanton revealing his feelings of the battle “ I have lost this battle because my force was too small…the government must not and cannot hold me responsible for the results… I have seen too many dead and wounded comrades to feel otherwise than that this government has not sustained this army…if I save this army now, I tell you plainly that I owe no thanks to you or to any other persons in Washington. You have done your best to sacrifice this army.”

26 July 1 st, Lee sends infantry to attack the Union across Malvern Hill Confederate General Daniel H. Hill says the battle was “not war - it was murder.” Union artillery and cannons destroyed Lee’s men and was best used during this battle than in any other battle of the war Malvern Hill was last battle of Seven Days Battle Union loss only one battle – Gaines’ Hill Confederates suffered 20,000 casualties compared to the Union’s 16,500 Seven Days Battle gave Lee a name for himself

27 McClellan’s failure near Richmond caused conflict between the Democrats and Lincoln Democrats call Lincoln out for not sustaining McClellan, Republicans call Lincoln out for keeping him in command Lincoln arranges to have a 3 year volunteers and 300,000 men on July 2 nd to fight for God and Country 300,000 were slow to come forward August 4 th, Secretary of War Scranton gave quotas to the states demanding men to fight and if they failed to meet their quotas there would be militia drafts in that state Many drafted men paid for subsitutes

28 Lincoln names John Pope commander of new Army of Virginia Pope was against McClellan and won the support of radical Republicans Pope became greatly hated in South due to his ideas of taking over “Hard War” came about when civilians and counties were being devastated by armies Waging war became a controversial topic Lincoln makes accusations that the War was changing into a “hard war” to destroy “slave power”

29 July 11 th, Lincoln names Halleck from the West general in chief of all the armies Called “old brains” Lincoln hoped that Halleck would plan new bold offensives but it failed Halleck was no good Halleck was put to work to translate civilian directives into military language for generals

30 Lincoln and Halleck decided to take the Army of the Potomac out from the Peninsula and send them to Pope up North McClellan disliked this Jackson defeats Banks on Cedar Mountain Lee drove federals back across the Rappahannock but did not make an attack Lee splits his army making Jackson’s foot cavalry go more than fifty miles to fall on a large Union supply depot at Manassas and seized all Union supplies and burned the rest Considered one of the greatest marches of the war

31 August 28 th Jackson attacks Pope’s Army and the Union had to fight off twice their numbers Half of Union army was bruised by Jackson’s corps and other half stayed idle August 30 th, Jackson and Pope fight again but Jackson’s needs help due to lack of ammunition Longstreet makes a counter attack on Union that forces the Union men back more than a mile Union stand on Henry House Hill halted the confederates

32 Lee sends Jackson’s weakened men to march around Pope’s right in a rainstorm September 1 st, they run into two Union divisions who clashes in the rainstorm Pope pulls the army back to the Washington defenses Union army suffers another embarrassing defeat by Manassas McClellan refused to send one of his corps out to assist Pope as soon he could which was ordered by Halleck Lincoln describes his behavior as “unpardonable”

33 McClellan became resented for his desire for Pope to be defeated Lincoln retained him in command of the Army of the Potomac which included the Army of the Virginia Pope was given an unimportant command in the Midwest Lincoln viewed as he had no choice due to the fact that the army was demoralized and on edge of mutiny Lincoln knew McClellan was the only man who could reorganize and restore the army’s morale

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