Presentation on theme: "What Schools Need to Know to Recognize and Respond to the Trafficking of Students HUMAN TRAFFICKING."— Presentation transcript:
What Schools Need to Know to Recognize and Respond to the Trafficking of Students HUMAN TRAFFICKING
Joshua Bailey Co-Founder and CEO The Gray Haven Project Christina Dukes Federal Liaison National Center for Homeless Education Your Presenters
The Gray Haven Project The Gray Haven Project provides comprehensive care for victims of human trafficking The Gray Haven Project: – Operates a non-residential drop-in center in Richmond – Operates a long-term safe house for female trafficking victims – Provides technical assistance and consults with non-profits, government agencies, law enforcement, and others on issues related to trafficking
NCHE NCHE operates the U.S. Department of Education’s technical assistance center for the federal Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) Program NCHE has: – A comprehensive website: – A toll-free helpline: or – A listserv: – Free resources:
Today’s Goals Gain a greater understanding of the issue of human trafficking, including – Federal law and definitions – Traffickers and their tactics – Victims and their needs Learn how schools can respond to signs of trafficking among its students Know where to go for more information
Why Trafficking? Human trafficking is the world’s second most profitable criminal enterprise, sharing this position with the illegal arms trade, second only to the illegal drug trade Of the many factors that may increase a young person’s vulnerability to sex trafficking, homelessness is widely considered to be the most direct contributor Schools are beginning to see signs of trafficking among students and are in a unique position to contribute to preventing and ending the trafficking of our nation’s children and youth
Sex trafficking in the USA hits close to home September trafficking-in-the-usa/ /
Man charged with sex trafficking high school girls September trafficking-high-school-girls
What is Trafficking?
True or False? For an activity to be considered trafficking, the victim must have been transported across county or state lines. What do you think?
Federal Law and Definitions Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) – Sex Trafficking: The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act – Commercial Sex Act: Any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any person
Federal Law and Definitions – Severe Forms of Trafficking : Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age Movement across a geographical boundary is not needed for an activity to be considered trafficking
Forms of Sex Trafficking Prostitution Pornography Stripping Escort services “Massage”
The Venues Online (social networking, Backpage, Craigslist) Strip clubs Residential or commercial brothels On the street via pimp- or gang-based prostitution Fake massage or nail parlors Truck stops
True or False? It is estimated that 1/3 (33%) of youth victims of trafficking are runaway, thrownaway, or homeless youth What do you think?
The Numbers Some caveats… Criminal element Definitional issues Methodological issues
The Numbers An estimated 100,000 children are traded for sex in the United States each year The Polaris Project human-trafficking/overview
The Numbers The number of 10- to 17-year olds involved in commercial sexual exploitation in the United States each year likely exceeds 250,000, with 60% of these victims being runaway, thrownaway or homeless youth Congressional testimony Ernie Allen, President National Center for Missing and Exploited Children pdf/allen pdf
The Numbers As many as one third of teen runaway or thrownaway youth will become involved in prostitution within 48 hours of leaving home. Congressional testimony Ernie Allen, President National Center for Missing and Exploited Children pdf/allen pdf
50%... The percentage of minors engaging in commercial sex for a place to stay Covenant House chments/Covenant-House-trafficking-study.pdf
…affects a diverse group of people Trafficking in Virginia
75% of victims were trafficked for sex Trafficking in Virginia: One Organization’s Lens
50% were U.S. citizens 50% were foreign born Trafficking in Virginia: One Organization’s Lens
Over 80% of victims entered a trafficking situation between ages 15 to 25 Trafficking in Virginia: One Organization’s Lens
True or False? Trafficking victims usually know their traffickers prior to their being trafficked (boyfriend, friend, family member, etc.) What do you think?
Traffickers come from all walks of life and often know the victim
“The Massage Therapist” Houston Massage Therapist Charged In Child Sex-Trafficking Case July com/ /houston-massage- therapist-charged-in-child-sex- trafficking-case/
“The Businessman” Pimps guilty of trafficking teens to Kittery, Maine brothel Boston-based, multi-state trafficking | November e/ /News/
“The Gang Member” Bloods gang members went to Brooklyn schools to recruit underage girls as hookers New York City | June me/bloods-gang-members-brooklyn- schools-recruit-underage-girls-hookers- prosecutors-article
In Virginia Man plead guilty in Harrisonburg for trafficking young Honduran girls A notoriously violent pimp was convicted in Henrico County 21-year-old female convicted for trafficking a 13-year-old from North Carolina to Virginia
Traffickers exploit vulnerability and manipulate
The Polaris Project PowerControl-Wheel.jpg
True or False? According to the FBI, minor victims of trafficking usually are first trafficked between the ages of 15 and 17. What do you think?
Misconception The wounded victim
12 to 14… The average age at which girls first become victims of prostitution 11 to 13… The average age at which boys and transgender youth first become victims of prostitution
Victim Vulnerabilities Homelessness Economic vulnerability (poverty, lack of education, poor employment opportunities) Prior childhood abuse The lack of a caring, supportive adult LGBT History of systems involvement (child welfare, juvenile justice) Disabilities Age (inexperience, need to belong, self-esteem issues)
“The themes of trauma, abandonment, and disruption, begun in childhood, are central to the narratives of adolescent girls trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation. Girls describe having had a profound sense of being alone without resources.” humantrafficking/litrev/
The Impacts Physical injuries/health problems due to physical and sexual violence (broken bones, untreated wounds, STDs, reproductive health problems) Mental and emotional health problems due to psychological trauma (PTSD, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, despair and hopelessness) Changed relationships with self and others (profound sense of shame and guilt, inability to trust)
The Impacts Substance abuse forced on the victim by the trafficker or used by the victim as a coping mechanism for abuse Unhealthy bond with the perpetrator (a “trauma bond”)
Victim Needs Long-term support Safety – perceived and actual Medical care Trauma-based therapy Consistency without conditions Education Healthy social interactions Highly individualized care
Train school staff
Implement a protocol
Sample Protocol – Grossmont Union High School District, San Diego
Offer a prevention curriculum
National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) In the case of an immediate emergency, call your local police department or 911. In the absence of an established protocol, educators should contact the NHTRC at to seek guidance. School personnel should not attempt to confront a suspected trafficker or rescue a suspected victim.
Additional Resources See the Additional Resources section of NCHE’s Sex Trafficking of Minors brief at For technical assistance and training visit or For a school-based prevention curriculum, contact The Prevention Project (Richmond, VA) at ion-project/ ion-project/